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PRRS Immune Control Strategies
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) affects farmed pigs worldwide and still causes heavy direct and indirect losses. The syndrome emerged in the late 1980s, in USA, and later on in Europe, and it eventually became enzootic in most countries among farmed pigs. Late-term reproductive failure in sows with transplacental transmission of the virus, preweaning mortality of piglets, respiratory distress, anorexia, and possible cutaneous hyperemia in weaners and growers are common clinical signs of PRRS.
The control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is still a major issue worldwide in the pig farming sector. Despite extensive research efforts and the practical experience gained so far, the syndrome still severely affects farmed pigs worldwide and challenges established beliefs in veterinary virology and immunology. The clinical and economic repercussions of PRRS are based on concomitant, additive features of the virus pathogenicity, host susceptibility, and the influence of environmental, microbial, and non-microbial stressors. This makes a case for integrated, multi-disciplinary research efforts, in which the three types of contributing factors are critically evaluated toward the development of successful disease control strategies. These efforts could be significantly eased by the definition of reliable markers of disease risk and virus pathogenicity. As for the host’s susceptibility to PRRSV infection and disease onset, the roles of both the innate and adaptive immune responses are still ill-defined. In particular, the overt discrepancy between passive and active immunity and the uncertain role of adaptive immunity vis-à-vis established PRRSV infection should prompt the scientific community to develop novel research schemes, in which apparently divergent and contradictory findings could be reconciled and eventually brought into a satisfactory conceptual framework.
2. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome
3. Biosecurity: the Foundation of Successful Disease Control Strategies
4. Acclimatization as the Second Pillar of Successful Disease Control on the Farm
5. Which Elements Underlie Successful Disease Control?
The entry is from 10.3390/pathogens10091073
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