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Nanoremediation technologies involve the use of reactive NPs for the conversion and detoxification of contaminants. The main mechanisms for remediation by NPs are catalysis and chemical reduction. In addition, adsorption is another removal mechanism facilitated by the NPs since NPs have high surface-area-to-mass ratios and different distribution of active sites, increasing the adsorption ability.
2. Relationship between Soil and Groundwater: Contaminants and Remediation
Soil and groundwater are susceptible to pollution by a wide array of pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbon, chlorinated solvents, and heavy metals. . Selecting a proper remediation technology for a contaminated environment usually depends on contaminant characteristics and contaminated site characteristics such as physical, chemical, and biological properties. All these factors should be considered during the remediation process, design, and implication. Moreover, the time/cost constraints, the regulatory requirements, and the remediation mechanisms should be considered in the selection process.
3. Combined Nanoremediation with Other Remediation Technology
Figure 1. Step of the injection procedure. Reprinted with permission from  (2020, Elsevier).
Figure 2. Soil washing assisted nZVI nanoremediation. Reprinted with permission from  (2018, Elsevier).
Qu et al.  studied the implication of an activated carbon fiber (ACF)-supported nZVI (ACF-nZVI) composite for Cr(VI) remediation from groundwater . In addition, they examined the effect of the operation condition such as nZVI amount on activated carbon fiber, initial Cr(VI) concentration, and pH value on the Cr(VI) removal by conducting a batch experiment. The results indicated that the aggregation of nZVI could be inhabited by ACF, which increases the nZVI reactivity and Cr(VI) removal efficiency. The removal efficiency of Cr(VI) decreased with increasing Cr(VI) initial concentration, whereas, in an acidic environment, complete removal (100%) of Cr(VI) was observed in 1 h reaction time. The proposed removal mechanism consisted of two steps: the first step was the physical adsorption of Cr(VI) on the ACF-nZVI surface area or inner layer, where the second step was a reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by nZVI . In another study, Huang et al.  studied the activation of persulfate (PS) by using a zeolite-supported nZVI composites (PS-Z/nZVI) system and examined its efficiency for TCE degradation. The results indicated that Z/nZVI showed high ability towards PS activation (1.5 mM), and high removal efficiency (98.8%) of TCE was observed at pH 7 within 2 h. Moreover, the PS-Z/nZVI system showed high efficiency in terms of TCE for a wide range of pH (4–7) .
The entry is from 10.3390/w13162186
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