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Ruthenium Complexes against Lung Cancer
Lung cancer can be classified into central and peripheral lung cancer depending on the anatomical part affected, as well as into two main pathological entities: non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). NSCLC can be further subdivided into three histological subtypes: lung squamous cell carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. NSCLC, which accounts for about approximately 85% of lung cancer cases, has shown an increased mortality rate in recent years. Radical surgery is the most common treatment applied to early-stage NSCLC patients, while chemotherapy is mainly used for NSCLC patients in advanced or recurrent stages.
Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies with the highest mortality rate and the second-highest incidence rate after breast cancer, posing a serious threat to human health. The accidental discovery of the antitumor properties of cisplatin in the early 1960s aroused a growing interest in metal-based compounds for cancer treatment. However, the clinical application of cisplatin is limited by serious side effects and drug resistance. Therefore, other transition metal complexes have been developed for the treatment of different malignant cancers. Among them, Ru(II/III)-based complexes have emerged as promising anticancer drug candidates due to their potential anticancer properties and selective cytotoxic activity. In this review, we summarized the latest developments of Ru(II/III) complexes against lung cancer, focusing mainly on the mechanisms of their biological activities, including induction of apoptosis, necroptosis, autophagy, cell cycle arrest, inhibition of cell proliferation, and invasion and metastasis of lung cancer cells.
2. Primary Bronchogenic Carcinoma
The entry is from 10.3390/molecules26154389
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