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Anthocyanin is a natural soluble pigment in the flavonoid group. Approximately 635 or more structures have been found in nature and more than 30 types of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins have been identified based on the number and position of the hydroxyl group. The common aglycones are pelargonidin (Pg), cyanidin (Cy), peonidin (Pn), delphinidin (Dp), petunidin (Pt), and malvidin (Mv), but Cy-3-glucoside was widely distributed. Anthocyanins are mostly absorbed through the gastric wall with absorption rates of 10–22%, depending on chemical structure, and the bioavailability is approximately 0.26–1.8%. Anthocyanins produce antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects and play a role in the prevention and treatment of numerous chronic conditions, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), eye diseases, and in suppressing cancer cell growth.
The prevalence of obesity among adult South Koreans in 2018 was 35.7% . With the development of several anti-obesity foods, different attempts have been made to verify the antioxidant, insulin-sensitivity, and anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins . However, there is a considerable lack of research on obesity effects . Although the effect on antioxidation, reduction of lipids, and CVD biomarkers could be found, the body composition of obesity biomarkers (body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC)) might not change.  However, in many reports, juçara berry juice (131.2 mg/day for 6 weeks) had reduced the risk of metabolic diseases, and dried purple carrots (118.5 mg/day for 4 weeks) reduced lipids, body composition, and inflammation in obese adults . We also found that anthocyanins (31.45 mg/day for 8 weeks) had an effect on overweight/obese adults (n = 63) . After 8 weeks, a black bean test group, compared to a placebo group, showed reduced arteriosclerosis indicators (total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDLc), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/HDLc (LDLc/HDLc)), as well as significantly lowered BW, BMI, and WC. Although we determined the positive effects of anthocyanins concerning body composition, lipid profile, and inflammation, the effects depended on the types of anthocyanin, period of use, and subject.
2. Effects of Anthocyanin Supplementation on Reduction of Obesity Criteria
The entry is from 10.3390/nu13062121
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