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Medical Implantable Antenna Technology
Implantable antennas are mandatory to transfer data from implants to the external world wirelessly. Smart implants can be used to monitor and diagnose the medical conditions of the patient. The dispersion of the dielectric constant of the tissues and variability of organ structures of the human body absorb most of the antenna radiation.
1. Different Antenna Design Techniques
1.1. Miniaturization of Antenna Dimension
1.2. Spiral Shape Radiating Patch
1.3. Insertion of Shorting Pin-In Wireless Technology
1.4. Gain and Efficiency Enlargement Technique
Insulating Layers: A theoretical calculation has been made in , where a multilayered insulation model considering fat and dry skin was taken as standard. Notably, the insulation with zirconia and 4 mm thickness around the implant antenna gave the lowest attenuation of 34.5 dB than the other insulation materials (e.g., alumina, polyamide, peek, polypropylene). This theoretical calculation agreed with the experimental results reported in . Besides, several materials-based insulation models were investigated in  and the results showed that insulation for biocompatibility reduces the attenuation, while increasing gain and radiation efficiency.
Complimentary Split Ring Resonators (CSRRs) Antenna Model: The CSRR antenna model is an effective solution to enhance radiation efficiency and gain. This CSRR model compensates inductivity and electric field coupling with the near field due to the antenna’s negative permittivity . The SAR is also reduced, which improves the radiation efficiency and gain. The CSRR implant antenna model for multiband (MICS, ISM, and 2.4 GHz) applications was designed and simulated in . The simulation results showed that the electric field was at 403 MHz It can be noted that electric field absorption is reduced for the CSRR model compared to the non-CSRR model. Hence, radiation efficiency and gain are increased for all operational frequencies.
1.5. Bandwidth Enhancement Technique
1.6. Tuning Permanency Technique
2. Implant Antennas for Different Bio-Telemetry Applications
2.1. Implant Antenna for Monitoring of the Healing of Bone Fracture
2.2. Implant Antenna for Glucose Level Monitoring in Blood
2.3. Implant Antenna for Diagnosing Brain Diseases
2.4. Implant Antenna for Blood Pressure Measurement
The entry is from 10.3390/s21093163
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