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Automation System to Autonomous System
Autonomy is the core capability of future systems, and architecture design is one of the critical issues in system development and implementation. To discuss the architecture of autonomous systems in the future, this paper reviews the developing progress of architectures from automation systems to autonomous systems. Firstly, the autonomy and autonomous systems in different fields are summarized. The article classifies and summarizes the architecture of typical automated systems and infer three suggestions for building an autonomous system architecture: extensibility, evolvability, and collaborability. Accordingly, this paper builds an autonomous waterborne transportation system, and the architecture is composed of the object layer, cyberspace layer, cognition layer, and application layer, the proposed suggestions made in the construction of the architecture are reflected in the inter-relationships at all layers. Through the cooperation of four layers, the autonomous waterborne transportation system can autonomously complete the system functions, such as system control and transportation service. In the end, the characteristics of autonomous systems are concluded, from which the future primary research directions and the challenges of autonomous systems are provided.
2. Autonomy and Autonomous System
|Field||Definition of Autonomy|
|Philosophy ||Autonomy is the main characteristic of itself, which is influenced by environment and restricted by intrinsic factors.|
|Sociology ||The characteristics is that a kind of system from internal spontaneous to external promotion, its action does not need to be promoted rely on external forces, and can deal with the situation according to own will.|
|Control theory ||Autonomy is the granting of decision-making power to an object, so that the object has the right to act within a specified scope, that is, autonomy is a decision made independently without outside intervention.|
|Robotics ||Autonomy is the ability of robot system to perceive, to observe, to analyze, to plan, to make decisions, and to take actions automatically.|
3. Architecture of Automation System and Autonomous System
3.1. Composition of Architecture
3.2. Representative Architecture of Automation System
|Knowledge-based||The order of each functional modules is clear, that is conducive to design and easy to implement.||Concatenate structure: lack of reliability and the real-time performance of action.|
|Behavior-based||Parallel structure, which is high- response, robust, and flexible.||It is difficult to design, and it is not easy to coordinate between modules.|
|Hybrid||Not only ensuring the real-time and task diversity, but also having a relatively simple structure and easy to implement.||The design of system is very difficult, which is only feasible for simple individuals. Moreover, transition redundancy, system simplicity is not high.|
|Cloud robot||The complex computing tasks are unloaded to the cloud to improve the ability of information sharing and task execution among individuals.||The cost of information sharing is high, and it is highly dependent on network quality.|
3.3. Transformation of Architecture from Automation System to Autonomous System
The entry is from 10.3390/jmse9060645
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