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Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Cancer
The emergence of immunotherapy has been an astounding breakthrough in cancer treatments. In particular, immune checkpoint inhibitors, targeting PD-1 and CTLA-4, have shown remarkable therapeutic outcomes. However, response rates from immunotherapy have been reported to be varied, with some having pronounced success and others with minimal to no clinical benefit. An important aspect associated with this discrepancy in patient response is the immune-suppressive effects elicited by the tumour microenvironment (TME). Immune suppression plays a pivotal role in regulating cancer progression, metastasis, and reducing immunotherapy success. Most notably, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells, have potent mechanisms to inhibit T-cell and NK-cell activity to promote tumour growth, development of the pre-metastatic niche, and contribute to resistance to immunotherapy. Accumulating research indicates that MDSC can be a therapeutic target to alleviate their pro-tumourigenic functions and immunosuppressive activities to bolster the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors.
2. Targeting MDSCs in Cancer
2.1. Depleting MDSC Populations
2.2. Blockade of MDSC Migration
2.3. Attenuating MDSC Immunosuppressive Functions
2.4. Inducing MDSC Differentiation
3. Combining MDSC-Targeted Treatments with Immunotherapy
3.1. Checkpoint Inhibitors Combined with MDSC Depletion
3.2. Immunotherapy Combined with Obstructing MDSC Trafficking Therapy
This entry is adapted from 10.3390/cells9030561
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