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    Topic review

    Bodybuilding and Myostatin

    Subjects: Sport Sciences
    View times: 2752
    Submitted by: Christopher Collins

    Definition

    MSTN is a gene that makes instructions for producing the protein myostatin, a protein that is part of the transforming growth factor beta family (TGFβ). The TGFβ family of proteins control the growth of tissues in the body, myostatin is found nearly exclusively in the skeletal muscles where it is active before and after birth. The protein actually controls skeletal growth by restraining it, preventing muscles becoming excessively large. Current research that surrounds myostatin is based around its potential treatment in muscle wasting disorders, animals that have mutations in the encoding gene MSTN show greater muscle mass, strength and in some circumstances reduced bodyfat, which can be known as myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy.

    This study aimed to see the prevalence of mutations in the male bodybuilder population (n = 92) and if having a mutation had any affect on their muscle size and/or muscle performance. The study which looked at mutation prevalence in rs1805086, arm circumference, pull-up max and push-up max.

    The results show that 17% (16) of the subject group had one mutation (AG), 83% (76) had the common outcome (AA) and 0% (0) had two mutations (GG). Those with the AG outcome had an average arm circumference of 46.37cmcompared with AA which had an average of 42.02cm. Those with the AG outcome had an average pull-up max score of 21 compared with AA with an average of 12. Those with the AG outcome had an average push-up max of 61 compared with AA with an average of 40.

    The study clearly shows that those with a mutation are rare, however the mutation does appear to give the subject a performance and size advantage over those with the common outcome.

    1. Introduction

    MSTN is a gene that makes instructions for producing the protein myostatin, a protein that is part of the transforming growth factor beta family (TGFβ). The TGFβ family of proteins control the growth of tissues in the body, myostatin is found nearly exclusively in the skeletal muscles where it is active before and after birth. The protein actually controls skeletal growth by restraining it, preventing muscles becoming excessively large. Current research that surrounds myostatin is based around its potential treatment in muscle wasting disorders, animals that have mutations in the encoding gene MSTN show greater muscle mass, strength and in some circumstances reduced bodyfat, which can be known as myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy. [1]

    This is a study based on the extracted data from an anonymised data bank of genetic and individual data, it is aimed at building a basis for research on the gene MSTN and how it interacts with athletes.

    2. Aim

    The study aims to discover if the gene MSTN, in particular mutations in the SNP rs1805086 have any impact on the male bodybuilding population (n = 92)  from a muscle hypertrophy and muscle performance standpoint.

    The secondary aim is to speculate if rare mutations are more prevalent in those who decide to choose a sport such as bodybuilding, as research indicates that mutations in MSTN can illicit larger muscle mass and a reduction in bodyfat.

    3. Methods

    Data is taken from an anonymised genetic and individual data bank (Muhdo Health ltd.), which gains consent for research purposes. Individuals that fall within the study criteria (M, 22-29y/o, training for bodybuilding for 3 years +), complete the following tests and record scores:

    Pull-up max – As many full pull-ups (palms pronated) as possible before having to cease (let go of the bar). No straps were permitted.

    Push-up max – As many push-ups within one-minute, full push-ups.

    Arm circumference – Measured arm circumference when arm is flexed.

    This data is added to already collected data and the genetic outcome for rs1805086.

    4. Results

    Table 1. Data set for study.

    Individual

    rs1805086 (MSTN) variant:

    Pull-Up Results (60s)

    Push-Up Results (60s)

    Sex

    Age

    Weight KG

    Height CMs

    Arm Circumfrence CMs flexed

    Sport (3 years +)

    AOX1

    AA

    11

    48

    M

    26

    77

    178

    42.2

    Bodybuilding

    AOX2

    AA

    14

    50

    M

    25

    73

    179

    41

    Bodybuilding

    AOX3

    AA

    12

    38

    M

    28

    82

    181

    43

    Bodybuilding

    AOX4

    AA

    9

    37

    M

    27

    85

    180

    41

    Bodybuilding

    AOX5

    AA

    14

    34

    M

    23

    87

    178

    42

    Bodybuilding

    AOX6

    AA

    16

    39

    M

    28

    82

    182

    43

    Bodybuilding

    AOX7

    AG

    18

    62

    M

    24

    91

    181

    46

    Bodybuilding

    AOX8

    AA

    15

    58

    M

    26

    85

    182

    43

    Bodybuilding

    AOX9

    AA

    10

    50

    M

    28

    81

    173

    42

    Bodybuilding

    AOX10

    AG

    19

    59

    M

    23

    90

    183

    45

    Bodybuilding

    AOX11

    AA

    10

    34

    M

    22

    81

    168

    40

    Bodybuilding

    AOX12

    AA

    9

    41

    M

    25

    78

    175

    41

    Bodybuilding

    AOX13

    AA

    12

    43

    M

    27

    82

    177

    42

    Bodybuilding

    AOX14

    AA

    11

    46

    M

    23

    84

    173

    43

    Bodybuilding

    AOX15

    AA

    15

    32

    M

    23

    88

    181

    44

    Bodybuilding

    AOX16

    AA

    13

    34

    M

    28

    87

    181

    43

    Bodybuilding

    AOX17

    AA

    16

    38

    M

    27

    86

    180

    44

    Bodybuilding

    AOX18

    AA

    12

    39

    M

    26

    82

    184

    42

    Bodybuilding

    AOX19

    AA

    11

    41

    M

    24

    81

    182

    41

    Bodybuilding

    AOX20

    AA

    8

    30

    M

    25

    79

    173

    42

    Bodybuilding

    AOX21

    AA

    9

    26

    M

    28

    78

    165

    45

    Bodybuilding

    AOX22

    AA

    10

    38

    M

    23

    72

    181

    40

    Bodybuilding

    AOX23

    AG

    21

    63

    M

    22

    89

    180

    44

    Bodybuilding

    AOX24

    AA

    17

    42

    M

    29

    76

    172

    43

    Bodybuilding

    AOX25

    AA

    13

    47

    M

    23

    86

    180

    42

    Bodybuilding

    AOX26

    AA

    16

    49

    M

    24

    73

    171

    40

    Bodybuilding

    AOX27

    AA

    18

    51

    M

    25

    77

    179

    40

    Bodybuilding

    AOX28

    AA

    15

    38

    M

    28

    79

    176

    42

    Bodybuilding

    AOX29

    AA

    17

    42

    M

    29

    81

    180

    43

    Bodybuilding

    AOX30

    AA

    11

    39

    M

    25

    82

    181

    44

    Bodybuilding

    AOX31

    AA

    9

    33

    M

    25

    86

    185

    42

    Bodybuilding

    AOX32

    AG

    19

    57

    M

    26

    93

    183

    48

    Bodybuilding

    AOX33

    AA

    10

    38

    M

    28

    81

    180

    42

    Bodybuilding

    AOX34

    AA

    11

    29

    M

    23

    72

    176

    41

    Bodybuilding

    AOX35

    AA

    15

    49

    M

    23

    80

    177

    40

    Bodybuilding

    AOX36

    AA

    13

    55

    M

    26

    71

    175

    44

    Bodybuilding

    AOX37

    AA

    11

    51

    M

    27

    66

    170

    43

    Bodybuilding

    AOX38

    AA

    9

    32

    M

    28

    91

    184

    42

    Bodybuilding

    AOX39

    AA

    10

    42

    M

    25

    83

    180

    40

    Bodybuilding

    AOX40

    AA

    12

    51

    M

    24

    88

    182

    41

    Bodybuilding

    AOX41

    AA

    11

    43

    M

    23

    80

    173

    40

    Bodybuilding

    AOX42

    AA

    6

    28

    M

    28

    72

    178

    40

    Bodybuilding

    AOX43

    AA

    8

    33

    M

    23

    75

    167

    41

    Bodybuilding

    AOX44

    AG

    20

    62

    M

    26

    94

    190

    47

    Bodybuilding

    AOX45

    AG

    25

    65

    M

    25

    92

    183

    45

    Bodybuilding

    AOX46

    AG

    21

    66

    M

    26

    98

    180

    45

    Bodybuilding

    AOX47

    AA

    11

    57

    M

    28

    83

    171

    41

    Bodybuilding

    AOX48

    AA

    9

    47

    M

    27

    81

    180

    43

    Bodybuilding

    AOX49

    AA

    13

    39

    M

    26

    82

    181

    40

    Bodybuilding

    AOX50

    AA

    18

    51

    M

    25

    80

    179

    41

    Bodybuilding

    AOX51

    AA

    14

    52

    M

    25

    84

    180

    43

    Bodybuilding

    AOX52

    AA

    12

    42

    M

    23

    85

    181

    43

    Bodybuilding

    AOX53

    AA

    16

    45

    M

    29

    84

    189

    41

    Bodybuilding

    AOX54

    AG

    18

    59

    M

    24

    92

    183

    45

    Bodybuilding

    AOX55

    AG

    21

    58

    M

    23

    91

    180

    44

    Bodybuilding

    AOX56

    AG

    28

    61

    M

    23

    88

    181

    45

    Bodybuilding

    AOX57

    AG

    17

    60

    M

    27

    94

    182

    43

    Bodybuilding

    AOX58

    AG

    24

    58

    M

    28

    101

    192

    49

    Bodybuilding

    AOX59

    AA

    9

    43

    M

    29

    74

    182

    45

    Bodybuilding

    AOX60

    AA

    12

    37

    M

    25

    73

    183

    44

    Bodybuilding

    AOX61

    AA

    17

    44

    M

    24

    85

    175

    43

    Bodybuilding

    AOX62

    AA

    14

    45

    M

    25

    87

    182

    42

    Bodybuilding

    AOX63

    AA

    16

    48

    M

    29

    88

    181

    41

    Bodybuilding

    AOX64

    AA

    12

    32

    M

    22

    81

    180

    43

    Bodybuilding

    AOX65

    AA

    11

    31

    M

    23

    83

    179

    42

    Bodybuilding

    AOX66

    AA

    9

    28

    M

    24

    85

    174

    41

    Bodybuilding

    AOX67

    AA

    13

    34

    M

    29

    86

    180

    43

    Bodybuilding

    AOX68

    AA

    10

    38

    M

    25

    90

    181

    45

    Bodybuilding

    AOX69

    AA

    9

    27

    M

    25

    82

    180

    42

    Bodybuilding

    AOX70

    AA

    16

    53

    M

    27

    85

    178

    41

    Bodybuilding

    AOX71

    AA

    14

    42

    M

    27

    84

    181

    44

    Bodybuilding

    AOX72

    AA

    12

    48

    M

    26

    81

    183

    45

    Bodybuilding

    AOX73

    AG

    20

    61

    M

    25

    91

    180

    44

    Bodybuilding

    AOX74

    AG

    18

    69

    M

    23

    89

    184

    46

    Bodybuilding

    AOX75

    AA

    13

    38

    M

    24

    81

    181

    41

    Bodybuilding

    AOX76

    AA

    17

    41

    M

    29

    73

    180

    40

    Bodybuilding

    AOX77

    AA

    13

    38

    M

    25

    77

    179

    41

    Bodybuilding

    AOX78

    AA

    18

    49

    M

    22

    84

    183

    42

    Bodybuilding

    AOX79

    AA

    16

    41

    M

    24

    89

    177

    43

    Bodybuilding

    AOX80

    AA

    17

    37

    M

    28

    90

    172

    41

    Bodybuilding

    AOX81

    AG

    28

    61

    M

    27

    103

    188

    51

    Bodybuilding

    AOX82

    AA

    15

    38

    M

    24

    77

    183

    42

    Bodybuilding

    AOX83

    AA

    17

    36

    M

    26

    79

    181

    42

    Bodybuilding

    AOX84

    AA

    16

    38

    M

    25

    81

    182

    41

    Bodybuilding

    AOX85

    AA

    15

    41

    M

    25

    83

    181

    40

    Bodybuilding

    AOX86

    AA

    12

    23

    M

    25

    71

    179

    42

    Bodybuilding

    AOX87

    AA

    11

    33

    M

    24

    70

    180

    43

    Bodybuilding

    AOX88

    AA

    18

    54

    M

    23

    69

    168

    44

    Bodybuilding

    AOX89

    AG

    30

    58

    M

    24

    96

    181

    45

    Bodybuilding

    AOX90

    AA

    19

    43

    M

    23

    86

    179

    41

    Bodybuilding

    AOX91

    AA

    9

    44

    M

    29

    84

    177

    43

    Bodybuilding

    AOX92

    AA

    8

    46

    M

    25

    88

    181

    41

    Bodybuilding

    Population data

    The population data for the group showed:

    76 had the AA genotype

    16 had the AG genotype

    0 had the GG genotype

    Pull-up max data

    The Pull-up max average data showed:

    21 (rounded down) Pull-ups completed in the AG group

    12 (rounded down) Pull-ups completed in the AA group

     Push-up max data

    The Push-up max average data showed:

    61 (rounded down) Push-ups completed in one minute in the AG group

    40 (rounded down) Push-ups completed in one minute in the AA group

    Average results for AA and AG groups

    Figure 1. Average results for push-ups and pull-ups in the AA and AG group. 

    Arm circumference data

    The arm circumference average data showed:

    46.375cm arm circumference in the AG group

    42.028cm arm circumference in the AA group

    5. Discussion.

    The primary finding in this study is that carriers of one G variant are uncommon with no participants being homozygous for GG in rs1805086. Heterozygotes had significantly increased average arm size (46.375cm in AG vs 42.028cm in AA) and improved physical test outcomes. Although more research is required and that physical ability is likely polygenic, MSTN is a good candidate gene to be analysed in any polygenic physical attribute analysis.  We analysed physical strength stamina through two common tests the pull-up and push-up tests, both common exercises utilised in bodybuilding programmes[2][3]. Bodybuilding requires hypertrophy of muscle tissue, this involves the increase of muscle size through either increasing myofibril size or/and sarcoplasmic storage (mainly glycogen and myoglobin) [4][5]. The most effective approach to building muscle remains a hotly debated topic, however it is considered that resistance training with adequate protein intake is the most applicable method [6]. As myostatin helps control muscle growth and the level of MSTN is altered by the MSTN gene those born with certain mutations can be expected to have increased strength and muscle mass, in 2004 a German boy was diagnosed with a mutation in both copies of the MSTN gene which we failed to replicate in this study, however this mutation gave him significantly stronger muscles then his peers [7].  Due to the potential of myostatin inhibition causing greater athletic ability, muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy there is worry that drugs that can alter the MSTN gene or affect myostatin levels will be abused by athletes, hence they are banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)[8]

    6. Conclusion and Follow-Up

    This look into specific collated data has shown that the mutations in the gene MSTN may illicit advantages for those in bodybuilding and sports in general due to an increased muscle performance and apparent muscle size. A deeper look into a greater number of subjects will offer a greater insight into how much impact this one gene may play in sports and the general populous.

    References

    1. Myostatin Related Hypertrophy . U.S. National Library of Medicine . Retrieved 2019-1-14
    2. How (And Why!) To Do Push-ups . www.bodybuilding.com. Retrieved 2020-11-2
    3. The benefits of pullups . www.powerbody.co.uk. Retrieved 2020-11-2
    4. Michael D. Roberts; Cody T. Haun; Christopher G. Vann; Shelby C. Osburn; Kaelin C. Young; Sarcoplasmic Hypertrophy in Skeletal Muscle: A Scientific “Unicorn” or Resistance Training Adaptation?. Frontiers in Physiology 2020, 11, 816, 10.3389/fphys.2020.00816.
    5. Cody T. Haun; Christopher G. Vann; Shelby C. Osburn; Petey W. Mumford; Paul A. Roberson; Matthew A. Romero; Carlton D. Fox; Christopher A. Johnson; Hailey A. Parry; Andreas N. Kavazis; et al. Muscle fiber hypertrophy in response to 6 weeks of high-volume resistance training in trained young men is largely attributed to sarcoplasmic hypertrophy. PLOS ONE 2019, 14, e0215267, 10.1371/journal.pone.0215267.
    6. Michal Krzysztofik; Michal Wilk; Grzegorz Wojdala; Artur Golas; Maximizing Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review of Advanced Resistance Training Techniques and Methods. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2019, 16, 4897, 10.3390/ijerph16244897.
    7. Genetic mutation turns tot into superboy . www.nbcnews.com. Retrieved 2020-11-2
    8. PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES . www.wada-ama.org. Retrieved 2020-11-2
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