Topic Review
Recent studies demonstrate that algorithmic music attracted global attention not only because of its amusement but also its considerable potential in the industry. Thus, the yield increased academic numbers spinning around on topics of algorithm music generation. The balance between mathematical logic and aesthetic value is important in music generation.
  • 34
  • 03 Oct 2022
Topic Review
The VOC Zuytdorp also Zuiddorp (meaning "South Village", after Zuiddorpe, a still existing village in the South of Zeeland, near the Belgian border) was an 18th-century trading ship of the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, commonly abbreviated VOC). On 1 August 1711 it was dispatched from the Netherlands to the trading port of Batavia (now Jakarta, Indonesia) bearing a load of freshly minted silver coins. Many trading ships of the time travelled a "fast route" using the strong Roaring Forties winds to carry them across the Indian Ocean to within sight of the west coast of Australia, (then called New Holland) whence they would make a turn north towards Batavia. The Zuytdorp never arrived at its destination. No search was undertaken, presumably because the VOC had no idea whether and where the ship had been wrecked or taken by pirates and possibly due to prior expensive but fruitless attempts to search for other missing ships, even when an approximate wreck location was known. As a result Zuytdorp and its entire complement were never heard from again. Their fate was unknown until the mid-20th century when the wreck site was identified on a remote part of the Western Australian coast between Kalbarri and Shark Bay, approximately 40 km north of the Murchison River. This rugged section of coastline was subsequently named the Zuytdorp Cliffs, was the preserve of the Indigenous inhabitants and one of the last great wildernesses until the advent of the sheep stations established there in the late 19th century. Something, perhaps a violent storm, occurred and the Zuytdorp was wrecked on a desolate section of the West Australian coast. Survivors scrambled ashore and camped near the wreck site. With no European settlements anywhere on the coast they built bonfires from the wreckage to signal fellow trading ships that would pass within sight of the coast. But fires seen in the vicinity tended to be dismissed as "native fires" as appears to have happened in the case of Vergulde Draeck in 1656. It has been speculated that survivors may have traded with or may have intermarried with the local Aboriginal communities between present-day Kalbarri and Shark Bay. It is also possible that intermarriage occurred in the case of a predecessor to the Zuytdorp, the infamous VOC Batavia, wrecked on the Houtman Abrolhos islands offshore. After a mutiny, atrocities, massacres and trials, two of the mutineers were marooned on the Australian mainland, near the Murchison River (for details about these two mutineers see castaway). News of an unidentified shipwreck on the shore surfaced in 1834 when Aborigines told a farmer near the recently colonised Perth about a wreck the colonists presumed it was a recent wreck and sent rescue parties who failed to find the wreck or any survivors. The details provided (90 days walk, and coins on the beach), tend to point to the Zuytdorp; however. In 1927, wreckage was seen by an Indigenous-European family group (comprising Ada and Ernest Drage, Tom and Lurleen Pepper and the women's father Charlie Mallard) on a clifftop near the border of Murchison house and Tamala Stations where they all worked. Tamala Station head stockman, Tom Pepper later reported the find to the authorities, their first expedition to the site occurring in 1941. In 1954 Pepper gave Phillip Playford directions and it was he who subsequently identified the relics as from Zuytdorp.
  • 13
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Yola (Language)
Yola, historically the Forth and Bargy dialect, is a revived Anglic language once spoken in the baronies of Forth and Bargy in County Wexford, Ireland. It is thought to have evolved from Middle English, which was brought to Ireland during the Norman invasion, beginning in 1169. As such, it was similar to the Fingallian dialect of the Fingal area. Both became functionally extinct in the 19th century, when they were replaced by modern Hiberno-English, although Yola was not officially extinct until the death of the last speaker, a local fisherman of Kilmore Quay named Jack Devereux in 1998. The name "Yola" means "old" in the language.
  • 9
  • 29 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Working Memory Models in Language and Bilingualism Research
Working memory (WM) generally refers to our ability to ‘mentally maintain information in an active and readily accessible state while concurrently and selectively processing new information’. WM, as the primary memory, plays a fundamental role in multiple facets of human cognitive life, including language learning and processing.
  • 93
  • 09 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Wind Tower Houses in Dubai
Due to the similar climate conditions and proximity of the United Arab Emirates to other neighboring countries such as Iran and India, who have been familiar with the use of wind towers as cooling devices for a long time, wind towers were readily adopted in traditional buildings in the UAE. The most concentrated number of wind towers can be found in the residential neighborhood of Dubai called Alfahidi Historic Area. The number reaches around 50 wind towers in less than 0.25 km2, with an average of one wind tower per house. This neighborhood was originally designed for merchants who immigrated from Bastak in Iran. Later, wind towers were applied to various different types of buildings, such as shops and stores, as well as other residential neighborhoods of Shindagah and Deira.
  • 340
  • 19 Apr 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
William II of Hauteville (1171-1189)
William II of Hauteville King of Sicily (1171–1189). William II of Hauteville was the third king of the Norman dynasty on the throne of Sicily. He ruled independently from 1171 (from 1166 to 1171 he was under the regency of his mother) to 1189. From an iconographic point of view, he is particularly interesting because he was the first king of Sicily who made use of monumental images of himself. In particular, we have five official (namely, commissioned directly by him or his entourage) representations of him: the royal bull, the royal seal, and three images from the Cathedral of Monreale (near Palermo): two mosaic panels and one carved capital.
  • 457
  • 18 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Wild Animal Suffering
Wild animal suffering is the suffering experienced by nonhuman animals living outside of direct human control, due to harms such as disease, injury, parasitism, starvation and malnutrition, dehydration, weather conditions, natural disasters, and killings by other animals, as well as psychological stress. Some estimates indicate that the vast majority of individual animals in existence live in the wild. A vast amount of natural suffering has been described as an unavoidable consequence of Darwinian evolution and the pervasiveness of reproductive strategies which favor producing large numbers of offspring, with a low amount of parental care and of which only a small number survive to adulthood, the rest dying in painful ways, has led some to argue that suffering dominates happiness in nature. The topic has historically been discussed in the context of the philosophy of religion as an instance of the problem of evil. More recently, starting in the 19th-century, a number of writers have considered the suspected scope of the problem from a secular standpoint as a general moral issue, one that humans might be able to take actions toward preventing. There is considerable disagreement around this latter point as many believe that human interventions in nature, for this reason, should not take place because of practicality, valuing ecological preservation over the well-being and interests of individual animals, considering any obligation to reduce wild animal suffering implied by animal rights to be absurd, or viewing nature as an idyllic place where happiness is widespread. Some have argued that such interventions would be an example of human hubris, or playing God and use examples of how human interventions, for other reasons, have unintentionally caused harm. Others, including animal rights writers, have defended variants of a laissez-faire position, which argues that humans should not harm wild animals, but that humans should not intervene to reduce natural harms that they experience. Advocates of such interventions argue that animal rights and welfare positions imply an obligation to help animals suffering in the wild due to natural processes. Some have asserted that refusing to help animals in situations where humans would consider it wrong not to help humans is an example of speciesism. Others argue that humans intervene in nature constantly—sometimes in very substantial ways—for their own interests and to further environmentalist goals. Human responsibility for enhancing existing natural harms has also been cited as a reason for intervention. Some advocates argue that humans already successfully help animals in the wild, such as vaccinating and healing injured and sick animals, rescuing animals in fires and other natural disasters, feeding hungry animals, providing thirsty animals with water, and caring for orphaned animals. nThey also assert that although wide-scale interventions may not be possible with our current level of understanding, they could become feasible in the future with improved knowledge and technologies. For these reasons, they claim it is important to raise awareness about the issue of wild animal suffering, spread the idea that humans should help animals suffering in these situations and encourage research into effective measures which can be taken in the future to reduce the suffering of these individuals, without causing greater harms.
  • 50
  • 29 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Why Is Airline Food Dreadful?
       Food waste generated on flights is emerging as an issue in the aviation industry. Passengers are pivotal actors in airline food consumption and responsible for their unsustainable actions towards the in-flight catering process. This research investigated factors affecting passengers’ food wasting behaviour by conducting an in-depth survey.
  • 427
  • 02 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Who Killed Captain Alex?
Who Killed Captain Alex? is a 2010 Ugandan action-comedy film written, produced, and directed by Nabwana IGG, in Wakaliwood, an ultra low-budget studio in Kampala, Uganda. It has gained viral notoriety for being a no-budget action film, produced on a reported budget of under $200. A trailer for the film was uploaded to YouTube in January 2010, and has been viewed over 2.2 million times as of May 2018. The original version of the film was lost due to power outages and "strained conditions", while the surviving version of Who Killed Captain Alex? released online includes an English "Video Joker" commentary that adds in running gags about the characters.
  • 31
  • 02 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Water-Driven Music
Water-driven music technology has been one of the primary sources of human leisure from prehistoric times up until the present. Water powered, along with air pressure organs, have been used throughout history. One of them was an organ of fountains located inside a formal garden. 
  • 315
  • 22 Feb 2021
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