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Editorial Office, E. Scorpius. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/56294 (accessed on 16 April 2024).
Editorial Office E. Scorpius. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/56294. Accessed April 16, 2024.
Editorial Office, Encyclopedia. "Scorpius" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/56294 (accessed April 16, 2024).
Editorial Office, E. (2024, March 15). Scorpius. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/56294
Editorial Office, Encyclopedia. "Scorpius." Encyclopedia. Web. 15 March, 2024.
Scorpius
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Scorpius, known as "the Scorpion," is a striking constellation visible in the southern celestial hemisphere during the summer months. With its distinctive shape resembling a scorpion's curved tail, Scorpius is one of the most recognizable constellations in the night sky. 

astronomy constellation IAU zodiac nebula star

1. Introduction

Scorpius, often referred to as "the Scorpion," is a prominent constellation located in the southern celestial hemisphere. Known for its distinctive shape resembling a scorpion's curved tail, Scorpius is a fixture of the night sky during the summer months in the Northern Hemisphere and dominates the southern skies year-round. Characterized by its bright stars and rich mythological history, Scorpius captivates both astronomers and casual observers with its striking appearance and celestial wonders. Its celestial coordinates lie approximately between 210 and 240 degrees of right ascension and -40 to -10 degrees of declination, placing it in close proximity to the constellations of Sagittarius, Libra, and Ophiuchus (Figure 1).

Scorpius is notable for its bright, red giant star, Antares, which marks the heart of the scorpion. With a luminosity over 10,000 times that of the Sun, Antares shines as one of the brightest stars in the night sky and serves as a beacon in the constellation. Additionally, Scorpius is home to several other notable stars, including Beta Scorpii, Graffias, and Shaula, which contribute to the constellation's distinctive appearance and cultural significance. In addition to its prominent stars, Scorpius is also home to a wealth of deep-sky objects, including star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies. Among these are the stunning globular cluster Messier 4, the colorful emission nebulae NGC 6334 and NGC 6357, and the sprawling Scorpius-Centaurus Association, one of the nearest and most massive star-forming regions in the Milky Way galaxy.

Figure 1. IAU chart of Scorpius. Source: https://www.iau.org/static/archives/images/screen/sco.jpg. Credit: IAU and Sky & Telescope. Reproduced under CC BY 4.0 license.

2. Historical Background and Mythology

In ancient Mesopotamia, Scorpius was associated with various mythological figures and celestial omens. The constellation was often depicted as a scorpion or a creature with a stinger, symbolizing danger and malevolent forces. Babylonian astronomers recorded the movements of Scorpius in their celestial records, linking its appearance in the sky with seasonal changes and agricultural cycles. Similarly, in ancient Egypt, Scorpius held symbolic significance in religious and funerary rituals. The goddess Serket, depicted with a scorpion on her head or as a woman with a scorpion's body, was revered as a protector of the dead and a guardian against venomous creatures. Scorpius was also associated with the goddess Isis, who was believed to wield power over life and death.

In Greek mythology, Scorpius is associated with the story of Orion the Hunter, a legendary figure known for his strength and prowess in hunting. According to myth, Orion boasted that he could defeat any creature on Earth, leading to a challenge from the goddess Gaia to confront the mighty scorpion. In a fierce battle, Scorpius fatally stung Orion, leading to his demise. Zeus, the king of the gods, immortalized both Orion and Scorpius in the stars, placing them on opposite sides of the sky to prevent further conflict.

Another Greek myth involving Scorpius is the tale of the healer Asclepius, who possessed the ability to resurrect the dead. Asclepius's skills angered Hades, the god of the underworld, who complained to Zeus. In response, Zeus struck Asclepius down with a thunderbolt, placing him among the stars as the constellation Ophiuchus, the Serpent Bearer. Nearby, Scorpius was also immortalized in the sky, forever poised to oppose Ophiuchus.

Across various indigenous cultures, Scorpius held diverse meanings and significance. In Aboriginal Australian mythology, Scorpius is often depicted as a giant ancestral centipede or snake, representing creation and the Dreamtime. The constellation's appearance in the night sky signaled the arrival of the wet season, marking the beginning of new life and fertility. Similarly, in Maya mythology, Scorpius was associated with the god of death and rebirth, Kisin. The scorpion's appearance in the sky was seen as a harbinger of change and transformation, symbolizing the cyclical nature of existence and the journey of the soul through the underworld.

3. Notable Stars

3.1. Antares (Alpha Scorpii)

Antares, also known as Alpha Scorpii, is the brightest star in Scorpius and one of the brightest stars in the night sky. Its name, derived from the Greek term meaning "rival of Mars," reflects its striking red color, reminiscent of the planet Mars. Antares is a red supergiant star, with a diameter approximately 700 times that of the Sun, and lies approximately 550 light-years away from Earth. Its immense size and luminosity make it a prominent feature in the constellation, serving as the heart of the celestial scorpion.

3.2. Beta Scorpii (Graffias)

Beta Scorpii, named Graffias, is a binary star system located in the central region of Scorpius. It consists of two blue-white main-sequence stars, Beta Scorpii A and Beta Scorpii B, orbiting each other in a close binary system. The primary star, Beta Scorpii A, is a spectroscopic binary, meaning that its components are too close together to be resolved individually. Graffias derives its name from the Arabic phrase meaning "claws," reflecting its position at the tip of Scorpius's tail.

3.3. Delta Scorpii (Dschubba)

Delta Scorpii, known as Dschubba, is a multiple star system located in the head of Scorpius. It consists of at least three stars, with the primary component being a blue-white giant star. Dschubba is notable for its variability in brightness, with fluctuations observed over time due to its complex stellar interactions. The name Dschubba is derived from the Arabic word meaning "forehead," highlighting its position at the forefront of the scorpion's celestial form.

3.4. Lambda Scorpii (Shaula)

Lambda Scorpii, also known as Shaula, is a blue-white giant star situated at the tip of the scorpion's tail. It is one of the brightest stars in Scorpius, with a visual magnitude of approximately 1.62. Shaula derives its name from the Arabic word meaning "the raised tail," reflecting its prominent position in the constellation. It is approximately 703 light-years away from Earth and is known for its rapid rotation, causing it to be slightly oblate in shape.

3.5. Theta Scorpii (Sargas)

Theta Scorpii, also known as Sargas, is another notable star in Scorpius, located in the scorpion's body. It is a blue-white giant star with a visual magnitude of approximately 1.86, making it one of the brighter stars in the constellation. Sargas is approximately 272 light-years away from Earth and shines with a luminosity around 1,400 times that of the Sun. Its name, Sargas, is derived from the Sumerian word meaning "the ruler" or "the prince," highlighting its prominence in the celestial landscape. 

4. Deep-Sky Objects

4.1. Messier 4 (M4)

Messier 4 is a globular cluster located in the constellation Scorpius, situated approximately 7,200 light-years away from Earth. It is one of the closest globular clusters to our solar system, containing hundreds of thousands of stars densely packed within a spherical region of space. M4 is estimated to be around 12 billion years old, making it one of the oldest known globular clusters in the Milky Way galaxy. Its dense core and halo of stars make it an attractive target for astronomers studying stellar populations and galactic structure.

4.2. NGC 6334 (The Cat's Paw Nebula)

NGC 6334, also known as the Cat's Paw Nebula, is a vast emission nebula located in the constellation Scorpius, approximately 5,500 light-years away from Earth. Its distinctive appearance earned it the nickname "Cat's Paw" due to its resemblance to a feline's paw print. The nebula is a site of active star formation, with hot, young stars ionizing the surrounding gas clouds and causing them to emit colorful radiation. NGC 6334 is a popular target for astrophotographers and observers seeking to capture the beauty of stellar birth and evolution.

4.3. NGC 6357 (The Lobster Nebula)

NGC 6357, also known as the Lobster Nebula, is another emission nebula situated in Scorpius, located approximately 8,000 light-years away from Earth. Like its celestial counterpart, the Cat's Paw Nebula, NGC 6357 is a region of intense star formation, characterized by its intricate structure and vibrant colors. The nebula's name, "Lobster," derives from its appearance, which resembles the claws of a crustacean. NGC 6357 is a target of interest for astronomers studying the processes of star formation and the dynamics of interstellar gas and dust.

4.4. IC 4592 (The Blue Horsehead Nebula)

IC 4592, also known as the Blue Horsehead Nebula, is a reflection nebula located near the star Rho Scorpii in the constellation Scorpius. It is a striking example of a dark nebula illuminated by nearby stars, giving it a distinctive blue hue. The nebula's shape resembles that of the more famous Horsehead Nebula in the constellation Orion, leading to its nickname. IC 4592 is a favorite target for astrophotographers seeking to capture its ethereal beauty and delicate structure against the backdrop of the night sky.

4.5. NGC 6231 (The Northern Jewel Box Cluster)

NGC 6231, also known as the Northern Jewel Box Cluster, is an open star cluster located in the tail of the celestial scorpion. It is a relatively young cluster, with an estimated age of around 3.2 million years, and contains several hundred stars of varying ages and spectral types. NGC 6231 is notable for its compact arrangement of stars, resembling a jewel box when viewed through a telescope. The cluster's proximity to the galactic plane makes it a rich area for studying stellar evolution and the dynamics of star clusters.

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