Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 2452 2024-03-12 21:09:49 |
2 Headers were not added. Meta information modification 2452 2024-03-12 22:05:45 | |
3 I added a reference. Meta information modification 2452 2024-03-12 23:00:47 | |
4 format correct Meta information modification 2452 2024-03-13 01:35:54 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?


Are you sure to Delete?
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Sánchez-Nuño, Y.A.; Zermeño-Ruiz, M.; Vázquez-Paulino, O.D.; Nuño, K.; Villarruel-López, A. Health Benefits of Phenolic Compounds from Pigmented Corn. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 14 April 2024).
Sánchez-Nuño YA, Zermeño-Ruiz M, Vázquez-Paulino OD, Nuño K, Villarruel-López A. Health Benefits of Phenolic Compounds from Pigmented Corn. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed April 14, 2024.
Sánchez-Nuño, Yaír Adonaí, Martín Zermeño-Ruiz, Olga Deli Vázquez-Paulino, Karla Nuño, Angélica Villarruel-López. "Health Benefits of Phenolic Compounds from Pigmented Corn" Encyclopedia, (accessed April 14, 2024).
Sánchez-Nuño, Y.A., Zermeño-Ruiz, M., Vázquez-Paulino, O.D., Nuño, K., & Villarruel-López, A. (2024, March 12). Health Benefits of Phenolic Compounds from Pigmented Corn. In Encyclopedia.
Sánchez-Nuño, Yaír Adonaí, et al. "Health Benefits of Phenolic Compounds from Pigmented Corn." Encyclopedia. Web. 12 March, 2024.
Health Benefits of Phenolic Compounds from Pigmented Corn

Pigmented corn is a gramineae food of great biological, cultural and nutritional importance for many Latin American countries, with more than 250 breeds on the American continent. It confers a large number of health benefits due to its diverse and abundant bioactive compounds. Phenolic compounds, among which are anthocyanins are some of the most studied and representative compounds in these grasses, with a wide range of health properties, mainly the reduction of pro-oxidant molecules.

Pigmented corn Zea mays L. Fuctional foods Nutraceuticals Phytochemicals Antioxidants Phenolic compounds Anthocyanins

1. Introduction

Phenolic compounds or polyphenols are compounds resulting from the secondary metabolism of plants, with more than 8000 known molecules [1]. Although several classifications have been made, the most widely used divides polyphenols into two main families: flavonoids (e.g., chalcones, flavones, flavonols, flavandiols, anthocyanins, condensed tannins and aurones) and non-flavonoids (e.g., free phenols, phenolic acids, polyphenolic ketones, fumarins, chromones, benzofurans, lignans, xanthones, stilbenes and quinones) [2]. Phenolic acids are a class of secondary metabolites highly distributed in plants. According to their chemical structure, phenolic acids can be divided into benzoic and cinnamic acids. The main benzoic groups are gallic, pro-tocatechinic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids, mainly as conjugates. Cinnamic acids are widely distributed in plants, as esters or amides. The most representative are caffeic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids [3]. Phenolic compounds include anthocyanins and anthocyanidins of various types, ferulic acid and phlobaphenes [4].

2. Ferulic Acid

Cereals, including corn, are the most important source of ferulic acid, derived from cinnamic acid (intake ranges from 0.092 to 0.32 g) [5]. Ferulic acid ([E]-3-[4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl] propa-2-enoic acid) belongs to the phenolic acid group, commonly found in plant tissues [6]. Phenolic acids are secondary metabolites of variable chemical structures and biological properties. The antioxidant mechanism of action of ferulic acid is complex, based mainly on the inhibition of the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or nitrogen, but also on the neutralization of free radicals. In addition, this acid is responsible for chelating protonated metal ions, such as Cu(II) or Fe(II) [7]. Ferulic acid is not only a free radical scavenger, but also an inhibitor of enzymes that catalyze the generation of free radicals and an enhancer of the activity of scavenger enzymes. It is directly related to its chemical structure. It has also been shown to have lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity [8]. Ferulic acid has low toxicity and possesses many physiological functions, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer (e.g., lung, breast, colon and skin cancer), antiarrhythmic and antithrombotic activity. It also demonstrated anti-diabetic effects and immunostimulant properties, as well as reduced nerve cell damage, and may help repair damaged cells [9].
Ferulic acid has been shown to have an angiogenesis effect by affecting the activity of the main factors involved, i.e., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) [9]. In research with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, ferulic acid has been shown to enhance VEGF and PDGF expression and increase the amount of hypoxia-induced HIF-1, which generates responses to hypoxia [10]. Ferulic acid appears to be an effective substance that promotes the formation of new vessels, as demonstrated in in vivo and in vitro studies [11].
It is important to note that in corn, ferulic acid can be found bound to arabinoxylans, a class of carbohydrates consisting of arabinoses and xyloses, both five-carbon monosaccharides (pentoses) [7]. Several studies have shown that dietary supplementation with cereal-derived arabinoxylans improves the antioxidant capacity of intestinal epithelial cells due to the production of ferulic acid and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) from microbial fermentation. Ferulic acid may co-operate with SCFA to regulate intestinal integrity and host immune functions. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) may play an important role in the integration of ferulic acid and SCFA to regulate host health and metabolism [12]. In other studies, ferulic acid has been shown to combine with arabinose residues in cereal-derived arabinoxylans, but gut microbiota ferment arabinoxylan to release free ferulic acid, as well as SCFA production [13]. It has also shown that as one of the phenolic acids it has a strong antioxidant capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enhance anti-oxidant activity through the activation of the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Keap1-Nrf2) signaling pathway [14]. Therefore, the pericarp of pigmented corn, rich in ferulic acid, could be metabolized by the intestinal microbiota of humans, generating a release of ferulic acid bound and conjugated into free ferulic acid, in a manner similar to thermal, acidic and alkaline processes.

3. Phlobaphenes

Another phenolic compound found in some pigmented corn, specifically in the red breeds and varieties, is phlobafen. These are condensed tannins of a high molecular weight, coming from the union of several molecules of naringenin and eriodictyol joined by the central ring. They are oxidized, hardly soluble in water—probably due to the abundance of methoxyl groups in their structure—and present a reddish-brown color. There are also phlobaphenes composed of a mixture of polymeric procyanidins, dihydroquercetin, carbohydrate (glucosyl) and methoxyl moieties [15]. In the case of red corn, these accumulate in the pericarp of the seed and the glumes of the cob. A study showed that they are related to the thickness of the pericarp of red corn (the higher the amount of phlobafen, the thicker the pericarp) [16]. It is speculated that they could have beneficial effects on human health due to their high antioxidant capacity; however, up to this moment there are no clinical trials that confirm this effect. The biological effects of phlobafen are still unknown, so there is a great opportunity for future research to elucidate the effects of these phytochemicals and their biological activity in human physiology.

4. Anthocyanins

One of the most important flavonoids are anthocyanins. These are water-soluble pigments, abundant in nature, which can be found in vegetables, fruits, flowers and grains. Chemically, they are glycosides of anthocyanidins, i.e., they consist of an anthocyanidin molecule to which a sugar is attached by a β-glucosidic bond. Anthocyanins can be formed from two metabolic biosynthetic pathways: the shikimate pathway to produce the amino acid phenylalanine and the malonyl-CoA pathway (polyacetates or acetyl-CoA pathway) [17]. In purple corn kernels, as in wheat and barley, anthocyanins are found in the pericarp, while in blue varieties they are found in the aleurone layer [18]. In black and dark red grains, anthocyanins are found in both the aleurone and pericarp layers [19].
The daily intake of flavonoids and anthocyanins has been reported to be around 200–250 mg/day [20], while the Food and Drug Administration and NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of the United States) have set it at 12.5 mg/day/person [21].
Several in vitro assays, animal and human cell line studies, animal models and human clinical trials indicated that the consumption of anthocyanin-rich foods (among which are pigmented corn), beverages and supplements provides numerous health benefits. In fact, this is due to the easy ability of anthocyanins to scavenge and/or neutralize free radicals and reactive species, chelate metals, control signaling pathways, decrease pro-inflammatory markers and thus reduce the risk of cardiovascular pathologies, cancer and neurodegeneration [22].
Anthocyanins have demonstrated antioxidant potential in both in vitro [23] and in vivo studies [24] and the consumption of anthocyanin-rich foods has been linked to lower risks of chronic diseases [25]. There are several mechanisms of action through which anthocyanins could exert their biological effects on human health, among which is the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2 (Nrf2). It serves as a transcription factor for the expression, transcription and translation of the antioxidant response element (ARE), which encodes for several antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, catalase, etc., [26]. Another way in which anthocyanins exert their antioxidant power is by donating hydrogenions, thus reducing a large number of pro-oxidant molecules, as well as neutralizing various free radicals. This is due to the hydroxyl groups in anthocyanins, which usually contain between two and three of these. The last mechanism described by which they can exert an antioxidant and thus anti-inflammatory effect is through the chelation of metals and metalloids, mainly transition metals such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As), as well as their respective valence forms [27]. The anthocyanins identified in several varieties of peruvian pigmented corns are cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6″ malonylglucoside) and cyanidin-3-(3″,6″-dimalonylglucoside) [19].
Delphinidin, a type of anthocyanidin that can act as a precursor of many anthocyanins, shows the most considerable ability to scavenge superoxide species, followed by petunidin > malvidin = cyanidin > peonidin > pelargonidin, at 1 µM. Similar results were obtained for the ability of these compounds, at the same concentration, to scavenge peroxynitrite radicals [28]. In addition, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside at concentrations between 100 and 200 µM showed potential to protect human keratinocyte HaCaT cells against ultraviolet-A radiation, preventing DNA fragmentation and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) release [29]. In one study, 12 healthy participants who consumed one of two beverage options high in anthocyanins and anthocyanidins, composed of 165.9 mg/L and 303.8 mg/kg of anthocyanins, respectively, showed increases in their plasma antioxidant capacity by 3-fold and 2.3-fold, respectively [30].
Anthocyanins decrease plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL), leading to a reduction in their accumulation in the walls of medium and large arteries [31]. Thus, anthocyanins indirectly inhibit LDL-promoted endothelial cell activation/dysfunction. Endothelial damage affects the nitric oxide (NO) release which, together with the increased local degradation of NO by the increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreases NO availability. Anthocyanins can increase NO availability by several mechanisms. After activation, the endothelium begins to express cell adhesion molecules on its surface (ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) to recruit circulating monocytes to the site of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) accumulation. Anthocyanins downregulate the expression of these adhesion molecules [32]. On the luminal side, anthocyanins decrease chemokines (CK), which also results in decreased myeloid cell recruitment. Anthocyanins counteract ROS on both the luminal and intimal sides, reducing LDL oxidation in the vessel wall [33]. During the progression of atherogenesis, neutrophil-derived granular proteins stimulate macrophage activation to a proinflammatory state that can be inhibited by anthocyanins [34]. Both the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins decrease foam cell formation. Anthocyanins also lower cholesterol by reducing its accumulation in the lipid-rich necrotic core [24]. During the late stages of atherosclerosis, anthocyanins reduce the expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling in endothelial cells that regulate the neutrophil stimulation of stress and endothelial cell apoptosis [35]. Regarding anthocyanin-enriched fractions of natural products, extracts of blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, sweet cherries and red raspberries at 10 µM showed the potential to inhibit human LDL oxidation, having been twice as effective as an ascorbic acid control [36]. Blackberry and raspberry fruits also revealed lipid peroxidation inhibitory potential, showing IC50 values below 50 µg/mL [37].
Anthocyanins are also involved in the regulation of the inflammatory status and activation of endogenous antioxidant defenses, as well as in the regulation of the immune system through MAPK-, NF-κB- and JAK-STAT-related signaling pathways [32]. The effects of anthocyanins on inflammatory markers are promising and may have the potential to exert anti-inflammatory biological action in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, translating these research findings into clinical practice would effectively contribute to the prolonged maintenance of a healthy state. A review study summarized the results of clinical studies from the last five years in the context of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant role of anthocyanins in a health state as preventive agents and concluded that there is evidence indicating that anthocyanin supplementation in the regulation of proinflammatory markers among the healthy population is highly functional, although inconsistencies between the outcome of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses were also noted. Regarding the effects of anthocyanins on inflammatory markers, there is a need for long-term clinical trials with large cohorts that allow the quantifiable progression of inflammation [38]. In another study, different anthocyanin dilutions (concentrations of 100, 150 and 200 µg/mL) showed the ability to reduce the expression levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL 1β and IL -6 and to suppress AP-1 signaling and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) pathways [39]. It was also verified that, at concentrations of 10, 25 and 50 µg/mL, they can decrease the phosphorylation of IKK, IkBa, p65 and JNK, prevent the nuclear translocation of p65 in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells stimulated with LPS/IFN-γ and inhibit lipoxygenase activity [40]. These biological activities demonstrate the direct and indirect antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory endothelial vasodilator enhancement and modulation of inflammasome activation, as well as other signal transduction pathways related to the immune response.
In another study, the phenolic profile and associated antioxidant properties of corn samples with different pigmentations were characterized using spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques and the stability of anthocyanins during gastrointestinal digestion was evaluated. Pigmented varieties showed a significantly higher anthocyanin content compared to common yellow varieties and, as a consequence, higher antioxidant activity. However, although corn is among the cereals mostly used in gluten-free products, it can produce an inflammatory response in some people with gluten intolerance. Therefore, after chemical characterization, the safety of pigmented varieties for patients with gluten intolerance was confirmed by different in vitro models (a cell agglutination test and measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance). Although in vivo studies are necessary, the data collected in the aforementioned study underline that pigmented corn could play a role in reducing oxidative stress at the intestinal level [41]. Cellular assays applied in another study confirmed the absence of alterations by pigmented strains in the permeability of the cell monolayer, a key step in the mucosal inflammatory cascade in various intestinal disorders [42]. Considering the daily consumption of corn and the high content of anthocyanins in pigmented corn, these varieties could contribute antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ingredients to the diet of the general population, but in particular, of people with gastroenteric disorders since corn represents one of the most important ingredients among the cereals used in the formulation of gluten-free products [43].
Another trial described some red and blue pigmented maize in terms of their secondary metabolite content and antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. High concentrations of ferulic acid were found for both red and blue corn, while the cyanidin-3-O-glucoside content was prominent for blue corn. Likewise, blue corn samples proved to be good sources of antioxidant and antimutagenic compounds, mainly those belonging to anthocyanins. These pigmented maize can be considered for scaling up production to obtain natural dyes, bioactive extracts for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications and maize-based products that contribute to human health [44][45]. There is some evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies supporting the beneficial effect of cereal-based anthocyanins on a variety of health outcomes such as obesity, diabetes, aging, cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, more research is needed to determine the true effects of anthocyanins in humans. In addition, most studies used purified extracts to the test health effects. However, this is an unrealistic means of consuming cereal-based anthocyanins. More trials are needed to elucidate the effect of anthocyanin consumption within a matrix of processed cereals, including those made from pigmented corn [27].


  1. J Pérez-Jiménez; V Neveu; F Vos; A Scalbert; Identification of the 100 richest dietary sources of polyphenols: an application of the Phenol-Explorer database. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr.. 2010, 64, S112-S120.
  2. Rosa Pérez-Gregorio; Susana Soares; Nuno Mateus; Victor de Freitas; Bioactive Peptides and Dietary Polyphenols: Two Sides of the Same Coin. Mol.. 2020, 25, 3443.
  3. Chiara Di Lorenzo; Francesca Colombo; Simone Biella; Creina Stockley; Patrizia Restani; Polyphenols and Human Health: The Role of Bioavailability. Nutr.. 2021, 13, 273.
  4. Yaír Adonaí Sánchez-Nuño; Martín Zermeño-Ruiz; Olga Deli Vázquez-Paulino; Karla Nuño; Angélica Villarruel-López; Bioactive Compounds from Pigmented Corn (Zea mays L.) and Their Effect on Health. Biomol.. 2024, 14, 338.
  5. Wai Mun Loke; Jonathan M Hodgson; Julie M Proudfoot; Allan J McKinley; Ian B Puddey; Kevin D Croft; Pure dietary flavonoids quercetin and (−)-epicatechin augment nitric oxide products and reduce endothelin-1 acutely in healthy men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.. 2008, 88, 1018-1025.
  6. Ashraful Alam; Anti-hypertensive Effect of Cereal Antioxidant Ferulic Acid and Its Mechanism of Action. Front. Nutr.. 2019, 6, 121.
  7. Lei Ye; Pan Hu; Li-Ping Feng; Li-Lu Huang; Yi Wang; Xin Yan; Jing Xiong; Hou-Lin Xia; Protective Effects of Ferulic Acid on Metabolic Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review. Mol.. 2022, 28, 281.
  8. Xu Li; Jingxian Wu; Fanxing Xu; Chun Chu; Xiang Li; Xinyi Shi; Wen Zheng; Zhenzhong Wang; Ying Jia; Wei Xiao; Use of Ferulic Acid in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications. Mol.. 2022, 27, 6010.
  9. Kamila Zduńska; Agnieszka Dana; Anna Kolodziejczak; Helena Rotsztejn; Antioxidant Properties of Ferulic Acid and Its Possible Application. Ski. Pharmacol. Physiol.. 2018, 31, 332-336.
  10. Chiu-Mei Lin; Jen-Hwey Chiu; I-Hsing Wu; Bao-Wei Wang; Chun-Ming Pan; Yen-Hsu Chen; Ferulic acid augments angiogenesis via VEGF, PDGF and HIF-1α. J. Nutr. Biochem.. 2010, 21, 627-633.
  11. Guang-Wei Yang; Jin-Song Jiang; Wei-Qin Lu; Ferulic Acid Exerts Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Tumor Activity by Targeting Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1-Mediated Angiogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci.. 2015, 16, 24011-24031.
  12. Zeyu Zhang; Pan Yang; Jinbiao Zhao; Ferulic acid mediates prebiotic responses of cereal-derived arabinoxylans on host health. Anim. Nutr.. 2021, 9, 31-38.
  13. Pham Van Hung; Phenolic Compounds of Cereals and Their Antioxidant Capacity. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr.. 2014, 56, 25-35.
  14. Ayman M. Mahmoud; Omnia E. Hussein; Walaa G. Hozayen; May Bin-Jumah; Sanaa M. Abd El-Twab; Ferulic acid prevents oxidative stress, inflammation, and liver injury via upregulation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling in methotrexate-induced rats. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res.. 2019, 27, 7910-7921.
  15. L. Yeap Foo; Joseph J. Karchesy. Chemical Nature of Phlobaphenes; Springer Science and Business Media LLC: Dordrecht, GX, Netherlands, 1989; pp. 109-118.
  16. Michela Landoni; Daniel Puglisi; Elena Cassani; Giulia Borlini; Gloria Brunoldi; Camilla Comaschi; Roberto Pilu; Phlobaphenes modify pericarp thickness in maize and accumulation of the fumonisin mycotoxins. Sci. Rep.. 2020, 10, 1-9.
  17. Ying Liu; Yury Tikunov; Rob E. Schouten; Leo F. M. Marcelis; Richard G. F. Visser; Arnaud Bovy; Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Degradation Mechanisms in Solanaceous Vegetables: A Review. Front. Chem.. 2018, 6, 52.
  18. Michael Paulsmeyer; Laura Chatham; Talon Becker; Megan West; Leslie West; John Juvik; Survey of Anthocyanin Composition and Concentration in Diverse Maize Germplasms. J. Agric. Food Chem.. 2017, 65, 4341-4350.
  19. Yolanda Salinas Moreno; Griselda Salas Sánchez; David Rubio Hernández; Nancy Ramos Lobato; Characterization of Anthocyanin Extracts from Maize Kernels. J. Chromatogr. Sci.. 2005, 43, 483-487.
  20. Xianli Wu; Gary R. Beecher; Joanne M. Holden; David B. Haytowitz; Susan E. Gebhardt; Ronald L. Prior; Concentrations of Anthocyanins in Common Foods in the United States and Estimation of Normal Consumption. J. Agric. Food Chem.. 2006, 54, 4069-4075.
  21. Taylor C Wallace; Jeffrey B Blumberg; Elizabeth J Johnson; Andrew Shao; Dietary Bioactives: Establishing a Scientific Framework for Recommended Intakes. Adv. Nutr. Int. Rev. J.. 2015, 6, 1-4.
  22. Ana C. Gonçalves; Ana R. Nunes; Amílcar Falcão; Gilberto Alves; Luís R. Silva; Dietary Effects of Anthocyanins in Human Health: A Comprehensive Review. Pharm.. 2021, 14, 690.
  23. Arshad Mehmood; Lei Zhao; Yong Wang; Fei Pan; Shuai Hao; Huimin Zhang; Asra Iftikhar; Muhammad Usman; Dietary anthocyanins as potential natural modulators for the prevention and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A comprehensive review. Food Res. Int.. 2021, 142, 110180.
  24. Hanyue Zhang; Zhongliang Xu; Huiwen Zhao; Xu Wang; Juan Pang; Qing Li; Yan Yang; Wenhua Ling; Anthocyanin supplementation improves anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacity in a dose–response manner in subjects with dyslipidemia. Redox Biol.. 2020, 32, 101474.
  25. Bahare Salehi; Javad Sharifi-Rad; Francesca Cappellini; Željko Reiner; Debora Zorzan; Muhammad Imran; Bilge Sener; Mehtap Kilic; Mohamed El-Shazly; Nouran M. Fahmy; Eman Al-Sayed; Miquel Martorell; Chiara Tonelli; Katia Petroni; Anca Oana Docea; Daniela Calina; Alfred Maroyi; The Therapeutic Potential of Anthocyanins: Current Approaches Based on Their Molecular Mechanism of Action. Front. Pharmacol.. 2020, 11, 1300.
  26. Halina Cichoż-Lach; Oxidative stress as a crucial factor in liver diseases. World J. Gastroenterol.. 2014, 20, 8082-91.
  27. Alyssa Francavilla; Iris J. Joye; Anthocyanins in Whole Grain Cereals and Their Potential Effect on Health. Nutr.. 2020, 12, 2922.
  28. Byung Il Yoon; Woong Jin Bae; Yong Sun Choi; Su Jin Kim; U. Syn Ha; Sung-Hoo Hong; Dong Wan Sohn; Sae Woong Kim; Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Anthocyanin Extracted from Black Soybean on Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis Rat Model. Chin. J. Integr. Med.. 2013, 24, 621-626.
  29. Andrea Tarozzi; Alessandra Marchesi; Silvana Hrelia; Cristina Angeloni; Vincenza Andrisano; Jessica Fiori; Giorgio Cantelli-Forti; Patrizia Hrelia; Protective Effects of Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside Against UVA-induced Oxidative Stress in Human Keratinocytes¶. Photochem. Photobiol.. 2005, 81, 623.
  30. Susanne U. Mertens-Talcott; Jolian Rios; Petra Jilma-Stohlawetz; Lisbeth A. Pacheco-Palencia; Bernd Meibohm; Stephen T. Talcott; Hartmut Derendorf; Pharmacokinetics of Anthocyanins and Antioxidant Effects after the Consumption of Anthocyanin-Rich Açai Juice and Pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) in Human Healthy Volunteers. J. Agric. Food Chem.. 2008, 56, 7796-7802.
  31. LiPing Yang; WenHua Ling; ZhiCheng Du; YuMing Chen; Dan Li; ShiZhou Deng; ZhaoMin Liu; LiLi Yang; Effects of Anthocyanins on Cardiometabolic Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Adv. Nutr. Int. Rev. J.. 2017, 8, 684-693.
  32. Gladys Maribel Hidalgo-Lozada; Angelica Villarruel-López; Karla Nuño; Abel García-García; Yaír Adonaí Sánchez-Nuño; César Octavio Ramos-García; Clinically Effective Molecules of Natural Origin for Obesity Prevention or Treatment. Int. J. Mol. Sci.. 2024, 25, 2671.
  33. Kailin Yang; Junpeng Chen; Tianqing Zhang; Xiao Yuan; Anqi Ge; Shanshan Wang; Hao Xu; Liuting Zeng; Jinwen Ge; Efficacy and safety of dietary polyphenol supplementation in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Front. Immunol.. 2022, 13, 949746.
  34. Seyedeh Parisa Moosavian; Maryam Maharat; Mahla Chambari; Fateme Moradi; Mehran Rahimlou; Effects of tart cherry juice consumption on cardio-metabolic risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials. Complement. Ther. Med.. 2022, 71, 102883.
  35. Roberto Mattioli; Antonio Francioso; Luciana Mosca; Paula Silva; Anthocyanins: A Comprehensive Review of Their Chemical Properties and Health Effects on Cardiovascular and Neurodegenerative Diseases. Mol.. 2020, 25, 3809.
  36. I. Marina Heinonen; Anne S. Meyer; Edwin N. Frankel; Antioxidant Activity of Berry Phenolics on Human Low-Density Lipoprotein and Liposome Oxidation. J. Agric. Food Chem.. 1998, 46, 4107-4112.
  37. Camille S. Bowen-Forbes; Yanjun Zhang; Muraleedharan G. Nair; Anthocyanin content, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties of blackberry and raspberry fruits. J. Food Compos. Anal.. 2009, 23, 554-560.
  38. Aleksandra Kozłowska; Tomasz Dzierżanowski; Targeting Inflammation by Anthocyanins as the Novel Therapeutic Potential for Chronic Diseases: An Update. Mol.. 2021, 26, 4380.
  39. Urszula Szymanowska; Barbara Baraniak; Antioxidant and Potentially Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Anthocyanin Fractions from Pomace Obtained from Enzymatically Treated Raspberries. Antioxidants. 2019, 8, 299.
  40. Li Li; Liyan Wang; Zhiqin Wu; Lijun Yao; Yonghou Wu; Lian Huang; Kan Liu; Xiang Zhou; Deming Gou; Anthocyanin-rich fractions from red raspberries attenuate inflammation in both RAW264.7 macrophages and a mouse model of colitis. Sci. Rep.. 2014, 4, srep06234.
  41. Francesca Colombo; Chiara Di Lorenzo; Katia Petroni; Marco Silano; Roberto Pilu; Ermelinda Falletta; Simone Biella; Patrizia Restani; Pigmented Corn Varieties as Functional Ingredients for Gluten-Free Products. Foods. 2021, 10, 1770.
  42. Thaísa Agrizzi Verediano; Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino; Maria Cristina Dias Paes; Elad Tako; Effects of Anthocyanin on Intestinal Health: A Systematic Review. Nutr.. 2021, 13, 1331.
  43. Thalli Satyanarayana Deepak Thalli Satyanarayana Deepak; Padmanabhan Appukuttan Jayadeep Padmanabhan Appukuttan Jayadeep; Prospects of Maize (Corn) Wet Milling By-Products as a Source of Functional Food Ingredients and Nutraceuticals. Food Technol. Biotechnol.. 2021, 60, 109-120.
  44. Guadalupe Loarca-Piña; Manuel Neri; Juan de Dios Figueroa; Eduardo Castaño-Tostado; Minerva Ramos-Gómez; Rosalia Reynoso; Sandra Mendoza; Chemical characterization, antioxidant and antimutagenic evaluations of pigmented corn. J. Food Sci. Technol.. 2019, 56, 3177-3184.
  45. Yaír Adonaí Sánchez-Nuño; Martín Zermeño-Ruiz; Olga Deli Vázquez-Paulino; Karla Nuño; Angélica Villarruel-López; Bioactive Compounds from Pigmented Corn (Zea mays L.) and Their Effect on Health. Biomol.. 2024, 14, 338.
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to : , , , ,
View Times: 793
Revisions: 4 times (View History)
Update Date: 13 Mar 2024