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Khan, N.; Solvang, W.D.; Yu, H. IIoT and Other Industry 4.0 Technologies in O&G. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/55810 (accessed on 21 April 2024).
Khan N, Solvang WD, Yu H. IIoT and Other Industry 4.0 Technologies in O&G. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/55810. Accessed April 21, 2024.
Khan, Natalia, Wei Deng Solvang, Hao Yu. "IIoT and Other Industry 4.0 Technologies in O&G" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/55810 (accessed April 21, 2024).
Khan, N., Solvang, W.D., & Yu, H. (2024, March 04). IIoT and Other Industry 4.0 Technologies in O&G. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/55810
Khan, Natalia, et al. "IIoT and Other Industry 4.0 Technologies in O&G." Encyclopedia. Web. 04 March, 2024.
IIoT and Other Industry 4.0 Technologies in O&G
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Spare parts warehousing in the oil and gas industry is essential for offshore production. With the introduction of Industry 4.0 and its subsequent technological tools, new functions are enabled in industrial logistics activities. Efficiency, visibility, optimization, and productivity are often mentioned as benefits of successful Industry 4.0 technology implementation in logistics activities.

industrial internet of things (IIoT) industry 4.0 oil and gas industry warehouse spare parts

1. Benefits of Implementation of Internet of Things and Industrial Internet of Things and Other Industry 4.0 Technologies

The traceability feature of Internet of Things (IoT) enables benefits such as reliability, fast response time, efficiency, and accuracy [1]. In maintenance work, IoT or Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) has been used to feed data to digital twins where whole systems can be monitored [2]. Research has been conducted into using IoT in spare parts intralogistics in aviation, where it can be used to facilitate traceability and visibility through data analysis [3]. In farming, IoT is used to monitor the rice paddy environment and predict the plant’s water level, saving wasted water and energy in the process [4]. Across industries, Tannady et al. [5] state that IoT’s uses and benefits within logistics are limitless.
According to Jarašūniene et al. [6], IoT is the key technology in processing data in warehouse management with high efficiency. IoT’s use in warehouse management is stated to encompass monitoring, tracing goods, demand trend forecasting, inventory management, and other real-time warehouse operations. The results of successful IoT implementation in these activities are given to be improved financial performance, labor productivity, and customer satisfaction. Improvement in decision making through Industry 4.0 technologies has benefits along an industry’s value chain, including external suppliers and outsourcers [7]. In healthcare, IoT in combination with blockchain and cloud computing secures the storing of health records, whose benefits are transparency and decentralization [8]. In engineering, IoT is also used in combination with blockchain to maintain the benefits of IoT while simultaneously avoiding data leaking—which speaks to cyber security, an important aspect in today’s Industry 4.0 technology usage [9].
Talpur et al. [10] explain how IoT traceability systems normally use Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Wireless Sensor Network, and Near Field Communication. It is explained how product traceability first became a necessity in food and pharmaceutics. Experience from these industries served as an example of how product quality is dependent on quality and precision in previous steps, and that the final product’s quality is dependent on optimal traceability along the whole supply chain, including external collaborators and vendors.
Pasparakis et al. [11] expand on the importance of ensuring human involvement and human–technology collaboration to ensure a seamless transition from Industry 4.0 to Industry 5.0. This is to allow for flexibility and customization, which is easier to achieve when there is a certain level of human involvement. The benefit of Industry 4.0 technologies and humans together in a warehouse is the automation of time-consuming tasks and “outside-the-box” problem solving by humans. An indoor positioning system (IPS) is highly useful in combination with IIoT and would further assist humans in the warehouse with time expenditure [12]. Human factors in synchronization with technology are considered essential for operational success, particularly in warehouse order picking [13].
In spare parts inventories, IoT provides a unique opportunity for the prediction of future maintenance needs [14]. Here, IoT can give predictions on the state of installations or assets, which in turn can drive dynamic decision models that conduct maintenance and refilling actions in an efficient manner while reducing risk. With optimal planning for this type of system, maintenance-dependent industries can develop functioning frameworks for ideal IoT data utilization. In a warehouse setting, order picking is the costliest of all activities, partly due to the localization of relevant goods [15]. Order picking 4.0 entails using the technologies and interconnectivity principle of Industry 4.0, of which IoT is an important part. Appropriate utilization and implementation of technologies enable operational planning of warehouses, which is necessary for them to remain resilient and competitive in an increasingly complex industrial world.
Abdul Rehman et al. [16] state the benefits of IoT in logistics activities as facilitation of data exchange, communication between elements, and remote monitoring. Sahara et al. [17] explain that enhanced control, improved performance in the supply chain, and increased customer satisfaction are among the main benefits of IoT. Lastra et al. [18] claim that Industry 4.0 technologies add value to the entire product life cycle. Al Hanbali et al. [19] outline that technology such as IoT, with the ability to sense and communicate, leads to measurement accuracy and cost reduction in logistics activities related to spare parts supply.
Aside from the general benefits of IoT and related technologies in various industries, it is wise to examine the benefits related to spare parts management in particular. Table 1 shows the benefits of IoT and other Industry 4.0 technologies as stated in the literature related specifically to spare parts management.

2. Challenges in the Implementation of Internet of Things, Industrial Internet of Things and Other Industry 4.0 Technologies

In the comprehension and implementation of new concepts, technologies, and fundamentals, there are pitfalls present. Zoubek et al. [32] state that companies currently suffer from the following: a perception of Industry 4.0 as very complex, a lack of an understanding of what Industry 4.0 is, and a lack of ability to assess their capabilities in Industry 4.0. Such issues can prevent companies from adopting necessary measures for improved performance. Keh et al. [33] show that newly developed IoT-based systems often are complex for most users and only relevant for small-scale use, which can constitute challenges for large-scale production industries. Trstenjak et al. [34] describe how a lack of understanding of Industry 4.0 technologies can cause difficulties in developing the right transitional strategies for companies to move towards digitalized logistics processes, which can cause them to fall behind in technological advancement plans.
Challenges related to sustainable transition in industry often have a direct link to challenges with technology implementation. There is research suggesting that integration of Industry 4.0 technologies can be carried out rather seamlessly for internal use but is more difficult when combined with external actors and environments [35]. This has to do with IT system usage, digital maturity levels, and information sharing. In waste management, a solution proposal involving IoT suggested that electrical vehicle adoption included challenges like limited capacity, too much variation in operators, and battery power [36].
In finished goods logistics, some issues facing IIoT usage in tracking goods in a warehouse are the mixed distribution of functional zones and data fragmentation [37]. In IoT-based smart warehousing, developing countries face more issues pertaining to technology: labor skills, limited standardization, and restricted internet connectivity [38]. In intelligent warehousing, exact system development according to a warehouse’s needs can be a time-consuming challenge [39], in addition to obsolete infrastructures and exposition to cyber attacks [40].
Table 2 shows various challenges associated with IoT, IIoT, and other Industry 4.0 technologies and their implementation in industrial practice. While research emphasizes the benefits of IoT and IIoT, several researchers include potential issues and pitfalls of Industry 4.0 technology implementation to caution against failure.
Table 2. Challenges associated with IoT, IIoT, and other Industry 4.0 technologies and their implementation in industrial usage.
Table 2 highlights the fear of industrial managers: the potential benefits of technology implementation also constitute the challenges. In Table 1, reduced costs were cited as a benefit. In Table 2, the research is clear that wrongful implementation and lack of planning can result in increased costs. Another benefit in Table 1 is reduced time expenditure. In Table 2, increased time expenditure and unnecessary time expenditure in cases of fewer parts for consolidation are listed.
It is the case for almost all the benefits and challenges: they are opposing sides to the same coin. The coin flip is the implementation work that is carried out by managers in the industry, and the upturned side will be the consequent result of the implementation work conducted.
The duality of technology implementation observed here provides a picture of reality: the slowness of the oil and gas industry to adapt to Industry 4.0 technologies usage in logistics is largely due to the high risk of failure. The benefits of implementation are as likely to be challenged if the implementation is not thorough, well researched, and planned in detail. The oil and gas industry is vital on a global scale. The high dependency society has on its consistent operations means that just-in-case policies in logistics activities are the safest for production. The implementation of new technologies would disrupt operations, require temporary halts in production, and reorganization of personnel and resources.

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