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Fischer, G.S. Far and Near Field Communication. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/55589 (accessed on 19 April 2024).
Fischer GS. Far and Near Field Communication. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/55589. Accessed April 19, 2024.
Fischer, Gabriel Souto. "Far and Near Field Communication" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/55589 (accessed April 19, 2024).
Fischer, G.S. (2024, February 28). Far and Near Field Communication. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/55589
Fischer, Gabriel Souto. "Far and Near Field Communication." Encyclopedia. Web. 28 February, 2024.
Far and Near Field Communication

In an RFID system, for communication to exist between a reader and a tag, energy and information must be transferred between them. There are two ways to transfer energy and information in passive tags. The first mode is Near Field, which involves coupling the tag inductively to an approximately circular magnetic field around the reader. And the second mode is Far Field, which uses a reflection technique called backscatter.

NFC Far Field Near Field

## 1. Near Field and Far Field

According to Neiva[1], the concept of Near Field is based on the principle of electromagnetic induction proposed by Faraday, which consists of the circulation of electric current in a conductor wire creating a magnetic field capable of producing, through induction, electric current in another circuit placed under the effect of the created magnetic field. In basic electricity, we can take as an example a transformer from 220 volts to 110 volts, where basically, we have two coils, in which the 220 volt energy received from the input is applied to the first and by induction it generates 110 volts in the second coil, from where the energy for the output is extracted.

Bringing the concept of electromagnetic induction to RFID, we have a reader that has a coil in which an alternating electric current circulates, generating an approximately circular electromagnetic field around it. So the tags also have a small coil, in this case their antenna. When they are close enough to the reader, they end up being within the magnetic field generated by it, so that current is induced in them. As the name suggests, the technique can only be used over small distances due to the nature of electromagnetic induction. The voltage created in the tag is then used to power its internal circuit after being rectified, that is, the alternating current converted into direct current. The energy that circulates in the tag's coil ends up producing its own electromagnetic field that opposes the reader's field, making it able to detect it through the increase in the current produced in its circuit, which is proportional to the charge applied to the tag. tag coil. As the variation in the resistance of this load is controlled by data transmission, it can be transmitted from the tag to the reader. This type of transfer is called Load Modulation. The Near Field technique is normally used in systems that operate at Low Frequency or High Frequency, and is generally used on NFC cards, but is not limited to them.

## 2. Near Field Communication

For many years, pervasive computing research has explored the benefits of creating connections between the virtual world and the physical world where we live. Near Field Communication Technology, commonly known as Near Field Communication or simply NFC, is a standard for wireless communication that is enabling this ubiquitous vision to become a reality. The NFC Concept is generally close and linked to the Internet of Things concept, as by connecting the physical and the virtual, any object, person or place can be automatically associated with some document or online content[2].

According to Alves et al[3], NFC is a technology that allows interactive communication between smart devices. The interaction occurs through a communication protocol compatible with wireless technology, based on the ISO/IEC 14443 standard[4]. The great advantage of the technology is the fact that instead of other approaches in which it is necessary to insert codes or data to carry out an interaction, in NFC just bringing the devices together is enough to carry out an interaction between them. Based on these advantages, several sectors and industries use the technology, such as Sony, Samsung, Google, Microsoft and IBM, and also in banking entities such as Visa, Mastercard, Citibank and the like. Table 1 summarize the characteristics of the ISO/IED 14443 Standard used for NFC.

Table 1. Summary of Technical Characteristics and Security Mechanisms of the RFID/NFC Standard.

### ISO/IEC 14443

Band

HF

Distance

between 7 and 15 cm

Traffic Analysis

Analysis of traffic between tags and readers

Data

Type A: 32-, 56-, or 80-bit identifier

Type B: 32-bit identifier

### References

1. NEIVA, J. P. B. Localização e Orientação Indoor com recurso à Tecnologia RFID. 2012.78 p. Master Thesis (Mestrado Integrado em Engenharia Electrotecnica e de Computadores) —Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade de Porto, Portugal, 2012.
2. WANT, R. An introduction to RFID technology. IEEE Pervasive Computing, New York, NY,USA, v. 5, n. 1, p. 25–33, Jan 2006.
3. ALVES, T. M.; COSTA, C. A. da; ROSA RIGHI, R. da; BARBOSA, J. L. V. Exploring thesocial Internet of Things concept in a univeristy campus using NFC. In: LATIN AMERICANCOMPUTING CONFERENCE (CLEI), 2015., 2015. Anais. . . IEEE, 2015. p. 1–12.
4. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STARDARTIZATION (ISO);INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION (IEC). ISO/IEC 14443-1:Preview Identification cards. Contactless integrated circuit cards. Proximity cards. Part 1:Physical characteristics. 2016. Available in: https://www.iso.org/standard/70170.html
5. NASSAR, V.; VIEIRA, M. L. H. A Internet das Coisas com as Tecnologias RFID e NFC.Blucher Design Proceedings, São Paulo, Brasil, v. 1, n. 4, p. 3238–3250, 2014.
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