Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 1542 2024-02-23 09:14:49

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Viotti, P.; Marzeddu, S.; Antonucci, A.; Décima, M.A.; Lovascio, P.; Tatti, F.; Boni, M.R. Biochar as Alternative Material for Heavy Metal Adsorption. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/55380 (accessed on 16 April 2024).
Viotti P, Marzeddu S, Antonucci A, Décima MA, Lovascio P, Tatti F, et al. Biochar as Alternative Material for Heavy Metal Adsorption. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/55380. Accessed April 16, 2024.
Viotti, Paolo, Simone Marzeddu, Angela Antonucci, María Alejandra Décima, Pietro Lovascio, Fabio Tatti, Maria Rosaria Boni. "Biochar as Alternative Material for Heavy Metal Adsorption" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/55380 (accessed April 16, 2024).
Viotti, P., Marzeddu, S., Antonucci, A., Décima, M.A., Lovascio, P., Tatti, F., & Boni, M.R. (2024, February 23). Biochar as Alternative Material for Heavy Metal Adsorption. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/55380
Viotti, Paolo, et al. "Biochar as Alternative Material for Heavy Metal Adsorption." Encyclopedia. Web. 23 February, 2024.
Biochar as Alternative Material for Heavy Metal Adsorption
Edit

Biochar is a specific carbon obtained by a pyrolysis process from different feedstocks, as an alternative material for heavy metal adsorption from groundwater. Many studies have been conducted regarding the application of innovative materials to water decontamination to develop a more sustainable approach to remediation processes. 

adsorption biochar heavy metals

1. Introduction

Activated carbon (AC) is one of the most used adsorbents for the removal of contaminants in water due to its properties. AC is primarily prepared from coal, coconut shells, lignite, and wood, and activated by physical and chemical methods. Due to its high specific surface area, chemical stability, durability, high capacity of adsorption, and not selective adsorption capacity, AC has been widely used to remove heavy metals from groundwater [1][2][3]. However, the regeneration costs of AC may limit its extensive use [4][5]; therefore, it is important to develop low-cost adsorbents with a high adsorption capacity for the removal of pollutants from aqueous systems [6].

Adsorption onto biochar (BC) is generally considered one of the most cost-efficient and effective treatment methods for removing heavy metals in water and soils [7], and it could represent an alternative low-cost and sustainable adsorbent for contaminant removal from water [4][8]. Biochar is a carbon-rich solid material produced by the thermal decomposition of organic material with a limited supply of oxygen (pyrolysis). It can be produced sustainably under controlled conditions and with clean technologies [9].
BC is produced from various types of wastes such as woody biomass, animal manure, waste paper, and sludges [8][10][11]; it is sometimes also considered a solid by-product, which causes problems in its final disposal. The specific properties of biochar, including its large specific surface area, porous structure, enriched surface functional groups, and mineral constituents, allow it to have a high adsorption capacity [12]. Moreover, BC is easier to prepare and less expensive than active AC or other adsorbing materials [13]. Biochar has a similar porous structure to activated carbon, which is the most widely used and efficient sorbent in the world for removing various pollutants from water. Compared to activated carbon, biochar appears to be a new potential low-cost and effective adsorbent because the cost of biochar is six times lower than activated carbon, due to its lower energy requirements and the fact that it can be used without chemicals or physical activations [14].

2. Biochar

Biochar, which has been known since olden times for its beneficial effects on soil, is produced using the thermal treatment of organic residues from different sources conducted under controlled conditions, i.e., without an oxidising agent [15][16][17][18][19]. Moreover, biochar is a type of specific charcoal that can be obtained by the pyrolysis processing of biomasses with a limited supply of oxygen [20][21][22] and with clean technology [9][23]. In fact, the International Biochar Initiative (IBI) defines biochar as a solid material produced by the thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited condition [24].
The specific properties of biochar, including its large specific surface area (SBET), porous structure, enriched surface functional groups, and mineral constituents, enable it to have a high adsorption capacity [12]. The density and size of its pores, which are generated by the volatilisation of organic substances, depends on the feedstock and on the temperature during pyrolysis [25]
The production of biochar is a process that allows for the valorisation of materials that are substantially considered waste. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) reports that one billion tons of food are wasted every year, of which 60% is solid food waste, such as fruit and vegetable scraps, including peels, seeds, and pips, posing a serious disposal problem [12]. To promote a zero-waste strategy, it is important to highlight the importance of biochar in the circular economy [26]. The transformation of waste into value-added products is one of the alternative solutions to minimise the problem of waste production [27]. In fact, the use of biochar as an environmental application can lead to a reduction in agricultural waste [28] and plant biomass used in the pyrolysis process [29].
Biochar is not only an effective material for environmental remediation but can also be used in other fields [30][31]. In environmental management, biochar can be used for several purposes, as shown in Figure 1, including the following: the improvement of soil quality [32][33], greenhouse emission reduction (mainly CO2), climate change mitigation [34][35], waste and heavy metals management [36][37][38][39][40][41], and as adsorbent material for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated water [42][43][44][45][46].
Figure 1. Biochar: origin, preparation, modification, and use.

3. Heavy Metals

Heavy metals are defined as a group of metals and metalloids with a higher density than water [47][48] and a toxic or poisonous effect on humans or the environment at low concentrations [49]. Heavy metals include metals with a density at least five times greater than that of water (i.e., about 5.0 g/cm3), and some metalloids, such as arsenic [50].
The presence of heavy metal contamination in groundwater is well known due also to natural phenomena such as the erosion and weathering of parent rocks [51]. Natural events such as volcanic eruptions, soil erosion, the rock cycle, atmospheric influences, and tides contribute to the natural cycle of metals, so they reach several environmental compartments, including water, soil, and air [52]. At the same time, groundwater is often contaminated with heavy metals from anthropogenic sources like landfill leachate, sewage, excavation activities, and the uncontrolled disposal of industrial waste [53][54].
The toxicity, mobility, and reactivity of heavy metals depend on their oxidative states, which are influenced by pH, Eh, and temperature [53][55]. Several previous studies reported that the interaction of heavy metals with microorganisms reduced the expression of several enzymes [56][57][58][59]. Furthermore, some heavy metals, at high concentrations, become toxic because they interact with metal-sensitive enzymes, causing the death of some organisms [48].

4. Applications of Adsorption Process for Heavy Metal Removal

4.1. Adsorption Process

The treatment of groundwater contaminated by heavy metals is considered an international challenge [60][61][62][63][64][65]. To restore groundwater contaminated by heavy metals, several remediation technologies have been developed, such as chemical precipitations [66], ion exchange [67], electrokinetic technology, redox methods [68], membrane technologies [69], and permeable reactive barriers [70]; however, the use of these technologies has several contraindications [2][71][72][73]. Therefore, interest in environmentally friendly and economically acceptable treatment technologies for sustainable groundwater remediation [74][75] is growing.
Adsorption is a widely applied technique for removing heavy metals from groundwater [76]. Today, several new adsorbents, such as activated carbon [77], nanotubes [78][79], multi-material nanoparticles, and biochar are being studied as potential sorbents [80][81][82][83]. Adsorption is a chemical–physical phenomenon consisting of the accumulation of one or more fluid substances (liquid or gaseous) on the surface of a solid condensate. In the phenomenon of adsorption, a chemical–physical interaction occurs between chemical species (molecules, atoms, or ions) on the interface between two distinct phases.
The species subjected to adsorption is called the adsorbate, and the solid phase is called the adsorbent [84]. From a thermodynamic point of view, it can be stated that adsorption is a spontaneous process (ΔG < 0) and is characterised by a decrease in the entropy of the adsorbed substance incorporated into the solid (ΔS < 0). Adsorption is an exothermic phenomenon (ΔH < 0) and is therefore favoured by low-temperature values; the amount of heat generated by the process is a function of the type of bonds formed [85]. Depending on the nature of the interactions that occur between the adsorbate and the adsorbent, and thus on the extent of the energy of the bonds with which the particles are retained on the surface, adsorption can be defined as physical, also called physisorption, or chemisorption [86].
Physical adsorption is characterised by weak intermolecular bonds, such as electrostatic or van der Waals, due to the polarity of the adsorbed molecules and the presence of positive or negative ions on the adsorbent surface [87]. Chemical adsorption is, on the other hand, characterised by strong intramolecular bonds, a specific phenomenon that occurs at active sites capable of forming bonds with the molecules of the liquid [88].
The specific behaviour of both processes and the eventual modification in electron density are presented in [86][89][90][91][92].
Adsorption is a superficial process [93]. For this reason, adsorbent materials must have a high specific surface area, which refers not only to the size of the granules of which they are composed but also, and more importantly, to the internal porosity (p) of those granules [94]. The series of treatments by which adsorbents are prepared results in the formation of pores of different sizes [95].

4.2. Column Systems

Studies on adsorption processes at the lab scale can be carried out with two different types of reactors: batch (i.e., discontinuous mode) or column (i.e., continuous flow) [96]. Column systems with continuous flow, as shown in Figure 2, are generally used for this kind of experiment. The flow can be upflow or downflow and typically governed by pump systems.
Figure 2. Schemes of possible fixed-bed adsorption systems [97][98][99].
Flow conditions within the column are described by two hypotheses: complete mixing in the transverse direction and the lack of mixing in the longitudinal direction (laminar flow conditions) [100][101]. In both cases, the hydraulic residence time of the liquid in the device is chosen to achieve conditions sufficiently close to thermodynamic equilibrium [102], and steady-state conditions are also generally assumed.
Therefore, in continuous flow processes the adsorbent solid may be arranged as a fixed bed or as a moving bed in contact with the liquid, while the liquid flow may be descending or ascending [103][104][105][106]. Figure 3 below presents different configurations of the experimental apparatuses used for heavy metal removal through fixed-bed columns and biochar.
Figure 3. Examples of experimental setups in different studies [107][108][109][110].

References

  1. Liu, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhang, G.; Ma, T.; Du, T.; Yang, Y.; Lu, S.; Wang, W. Adsorptive removal of sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole from aqueous solution by hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide modified activated carbon. Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 2019, 564, 131–141.
  2. Gupta, V.K. Suhas Application of low-cost adsorbents for dye removal—A review. J. Environ. Manag. 2009, 90, 2313–2342.
  3. Baresel, C.; Harding, M.; Fång, J. Ultrafiltration/Granulated Active Carbon-Biofilter: Efficient Removal of a Broad Range of Micropollutants. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 710.
  4. Nham, N.T.; Tahtamouni, T.M.A.; Nguyen, T.D.; Huong, P.T.; Jitae, K.; Viet, N.M.; Van Noi, N.; Phuong, N.M.; Anh, N.T.H. Synthesis of iron modified rice straw biochar toward arsenic from groundwater. Mater. Res. Express 2019, 6, 115528.
  5. Liu, X.; Ao, H.; Xiong, X.; Xiao, J.; Liu, J. Arsenic removal from water by iron-modified bamboo charcoal. Water. Air. Soil Pollut. 2012, 223, 1033–1044.
  6. Tolkou, A.K.; Trikkaliotis, D.G.; Kyzas, G.Z.; Katsoyiannis, I.A.; Deliyanni, E.A. Simultaneous Removal of As(III) and Fluoride Ions from Water Using Manganese Oxide Supported on Graphene Nanostructures (GO-MnO2). Sustainability 2023, 15, 1179.
  7. Shan, R.; Shi, Y.; Gu, J.; Wang, Y.; Yuan, H. Single and competitive adsorption affinity of heavy metals toward peanut shell-derived biochar and its mechanisms in aqueous systems. Chin. J. Chem. Eng. 2020, 28, 1375–1383.
  8. Safaei Khorram, M.; Zhang, Q.; Lin, D.; Zheng, Y.; Fang, H.; Yu, Y. Biochar: A review of its impact on pesticide behavior in soil environments and its potential applications. J. Environ. Sci. 2016, 44, 269–279.
  9. Ahmad, M.; Lee, S.S.; Dou, X.; Mohan, D.; Sung, J.K.; Yang, J.E.; Ok, Y.S. Effects of pyrolysis temperature on soybean stover- and peanut shell-derived biochar properties and TCE adsorption in water. Bioresour. Technol. 2012, 118, 536–544.
  10. Ho, S.-H.; Chen, Y.; Yang, Z.; Nagarajan, D.; Chang, J.-S.; Ren, N. High-efficiency removal of lead from wastewater by biochar derived from anaerobic digestion sludge. Bioresour. Technol. 2017, 246, 142–149.
  11. Tripathi, M.; Sahu, J.N.; Ganesan, P. Effect of process parameters on production of biochar from biomass waste through pyrolysis: A review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2016, 55, 467–481.
  12. Hussin, F.; Aroua, M.K.; Szlachta, M. Biochar derived from fruit by-products using pyrolysis process for the elimination of Pb(II) ion: An updated review. Chemosphere 2022, 287, 132250.
  13. Xie, T.; Reddy, K.R.; Wang, C.; Yargicoglu, E.; Spokas, K. Characteristics and applications of biochar for environmental remediation: A review. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015, 45, 939–969.
  14. Tan, X.; Liu, Y.; Zeng, G.; Wang, X.; Hu, X.; Gu, Y.; Yang, Z. Application of biochar for the removal of pollutants from aqueous solutions. Chemosphere 2015, 125, 70–85.
  15. Lehmann, J.; Joseph, S. Biochar for Environmental Management: Science, Technology and Implementation, 2nd ed.; Earthscan Publications Ltd.: London, UK; Routledge: Oxfordshire, UK, 2015; ISBN 978-0-415-70415-1.
  16. Glaser, B.; Lehmann, J.; Zech, W. Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal—A review. Biol. Fertil. Soils 2002, 35, 219–230.
  17. Manasa, M.R.K.; Katukuri, N.R.; Darveekaran Nair, S.S.; Haojie, Y.; Yang, Z.; Guo, R.B. Role of biochar and organic substrates in enhancing the functional characteristics and microbial community in a saline soil. J. Environ. Manag. 2020, 269, 110737.
  18. Chen, W.; Meng, J.; Han, X.; Lan, Y.; Zhang, W. Past, present, and future of biochar. Biochar 2019, 1, 75–87.
  19. Basinas, P.; Rusín, J.; Chamrádová, K.; Kaldis, S.P. Pyrolysis of the anaerobic digestion solid by-product: Characterization of digestate decomposition and screening of the biochar use as soil amendment and as additive in anaerobic digestion. Energy Convers. Manag. 2023, 277, 116658.
  20. Marzeddu, S.; Décima, M.A.; Camilli, L.; Bracciale, M.P.; Genova, V.; Paglia, L.; Marra, F.; Damizia, M.; Stoller, M.; Chiavola, A.; et al. Physical-Chemical Characterization of Different Carbon-Based Sorbents for Environmental Applications. Materials 2022, 15, 7162.
  21. Kurniawan, T.A.; Othman, M.H.D.; Liang, X.; Goh, H.H.; Gikas, P.; Chong, K.-K.; Chew, K.W. Challenges and opportunities for biochar to promote circular economy and carbon neutrality. J. Environ. Manag. 2023, 332, 117429.
  22. Marzeddu, S.; Cappelli, A.; Paoli, R.; Ambrosio, A.; Decima, M.A.; Boni, M.R.; Romagnoli, F. LCA Sensitivity Analysis of an Energy-Biochar Chain from an Italian Gasification Plant: Environmental Trade-offs Assessment. CONECT. Int. Sci. Conf. Environ. Clim. Technol. 2023, 63.
  23. Shrestha, P.; Chun, D.D.; Kang, K.; Simson, A.E.; Klinghoffer, N.B. Role of Metals in Biochar Production and Utilization in Catalytic Applications: A Review. Waste Biomass Valorization 2022, 13, 797–822.
  24. International Biochar Initiative List of Frequently Asked Questions. Available online: https://biochar-international.org/about-biochar/faqs/ (accessed on 20 April 2023).
  25. Shaaban, M.; Van Zwieten, L.; Bashir, S.; Younas, A.; Núñez-Delgado, A.; Chhajro, M.A.; Kubar, K.A.; Ali, U.; Rana, M.S.; Mehmood, M.A.; et al. A concise review of biochar application to agricultural soils to improve soil conditions and fight pollution. J. Environ. Manag. 2018, 228, 429–440.
  26. Terrón-Sánchez, J.; Martín-Franco, C.; Vicente, L.A.; Fernández-Rodríguez, D.; Albarrán, Á.; Rato Nunes, J.M.; Peña, D.; López-Piñeiro, A. Combined use of biochar and alternative management systems for imazamox induced pollution control in rice growing environments. J. Environ. Manag. 2023, 334, 117430.
  27. Viotti, P.; Tatti, F.; Rossi, A.; Luciano, A.; Marzeddu, S.; Mancini, G.; Boni, M.R. An Eco-Balanced and Integrated Approach for a More-Sustainable MSW Management. Waste and Biomass Valorization 2020, 11, 5139–5150.
  28. Matsagar, B.M.; Wu, K.C.-W. Agricultural waste-derived biochar for environmental management. In Biochar in Agriculture for Achieving Sustainable Development Goals; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2022; pp. 3–13.
  29. Wijitkosum, S. Biochar derived from agricultural wastes and wood residues for sustainable agricultural and environmental applications. Int. Soil Water Conserv. Res. 2022, 10, 335–341.
  30. Gong, X.; Zou, L.; Wang, L.; Zhang, B.; Jiang, J. Biochar improves compost humification, maturity and mitigates nitrogen loss during the vermicomposting of cattle manure-maize straw. J. Environ. Manag. 2023, 325, 116432.
  31. Kumari, K.; Kumar, R.; Bordoloi, N.; Minkina, T.; Keswani, C.; Bauddh, K. Unravelling the Recent Developments in the Production Technology and Efficient Applications of Biochar for Agro-Ecosystems. Agriculture 2023, 13, 512.
  32. Ding, Y.; Liu, Y.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Tan, X.; Huang, X.; Zeng, G.; Zhou, L.; Zheng, B. Biochar to improve soil fertility. A review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 2016, 36, 36.
  33. Ippolito, J.A.; Laird, D.A.; Busscher, W.J. Environmental Benefits of Biochar. J. Environ. Qual. 2012, 41, 967–972.
  34. He, Y.; Zhou, X.; Jiang, L.; Li, M.; Du, Z.; Zhou, G.; Shao, J.; Wang, X.; Xu, Z.; Hosseini Bai, S.; et al. Effects of biochar application on soil greenhouse gas fluxes: A meta-analysis. GCB Bioenergy 2017, 9, 743–755.
  35. Tan, X.-f.; Liu, S.-b.; Liu, Y.-g.; Gu, Y.-l.; Zeng, G.-m.; Hu, X.-j.; Wang, X.; Liu, S.-h.; Jiang, L.-h. Biochar as potential sustainable precursors for activated carbon production: Multiple applications in environmental protection and energy storage. Bioresour. Technol. 2017, 227, 359–372.
  36. Uchimiya, M.; Lima, I.M.; Thomas Klasson, K.; Chang, S.; Wartelle, L.H.; Rodgers, J.E. Immobilization of heavy metal ions (CuII, CdII, NiII, and PbII) by broiler litter-derived biochars in water and soil. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2010, 58, 5538–5544.
  37. Uchimiya, M.; Klasson, K.T.; Wartelle, L.H.; Lima, I.M. Influence of soil properties on heavy metal sequestration by biochar amendment: 1. Copper sorption isotherms and the release of cations. Chemosphere 2011, 82, 1431–1437.
  38. Beesley, L.; Marmiroli, M. The immobilisation and retention of soluble arsenic, cadmium and zinc by biochar. Environ. Pollut. 2011, 159, 474–480.
  39. Beesley, L.; Moreno-Jiménez, E.; Gomez-Eyles, J.L. Effects of biochar and greenwaste compost amendments on mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of inorganic and organic contaminants in a multi-element polluted soil. Environ. Pollut. 2010, 158, 2282–2287.
  40. Chiavola, A.; Marzeddu, S.; Boni, M.R. Remediation of Water Contaminated by Pb(II) Using Virgin Coniferous Wood Biochar as Adsorbent. In Frontiers in Water-Energy-Nexus—Nature-Based Solutions, Advanced Technologies and Best Practices for Environmental Sustainability. Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation (IEREK Interdisciplinary Series for Sustainable Development); Naddeo, V., Balakrishnan, M., Choo, K.-H., Eds.; Springer: Salerno, Italy, 2020; pp. 363–366. ISBN 978-3-030-13067-1.
  41. Cao, Q.; Wang, C.; Tang, D.; Zhang, X.; Wu, P.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, H.; Zheng, Z. Enhanced elemental mercury removal in coal-fired flue gas by modified algal waste-derived biochar: Performance and mechanism. J. Environ. Manag. 2023, 325, 116427.
  42. Lyu, H.; Tang, J.; Cui, M.; Gao, B.; Shen, B. Biochar/iron (BC/Fe) composites for soil and groundwater remediation: Synthesis, applications, and mechanisms. Chemosphere 2020, 246, 125609.
  43. Liu, X.; Dong, X.; Chang, S.; Xu, X.; Li, J.; Pu, H. Remediation of lead-contaminated groundwater by oyster shell powder–peanut shell biochar mixture. Environ. Geochem. Health 2023, 45, 9599–9619.
  44. Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Zhu, H.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, D.; Cheng, Y.; Zhang, J.; Feng, R.; Yang, S. Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater by biochar-based immobilized bacteria. Biochem. Eng. J. 2023, 197, 108987.
  45. Zhang, J.B.; Dai, C.; Wang, Z.; You, X.; Duan, Y.; Lai, X.; Fu, R.; Zhang, Y.; Maimaitijiang, M.; Leong, K.H.; et al. Resource utilization of rice straw to prepare biochar as peroxymonosulfate activator for naphthalene removal: Performances, mechanisms, environmental impact and applicability in groundwater. Water Res. 2023, 244, 120555.
  46. Nguyen, T.M.; Chen, H.H.; Chang, Y.C.; Ning, T.C.; Chen, K.F. Remediation of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) using a long-lasting persulfate/biochar barrier. Chemosphere 2023, 333, 138954.
  47. Tchounwou, P.B.; Yedjou, C.G.; Patlolla, A.K.; Sutton, D.J. Molecular, Clinical and Environmental Toxicology; Luch, A., Ed.; Experientia Supplementum; Springer: Basel, Switzerland, 2012; Volume 101, ISBN 978-3-7643-8339-8.
  48. Nagajyoti, P.C.; Lee, K.D.; Sreekanth, T.V.M. Heavy metals, occurrence and toxicity for plants: A review. Environ. Chem. Lett. 2010, 8, 199–216.
  49. Singh, R.; Gautam, N.; Mishra, A.; Gupta, R. Heavy metals and living systems: An overview. Indian J. Pharmacol. 2011, 43, 246–253.
  50. Duffus, J.H. “Heavy metals” a meaningless term? (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl. Chem. 2002, 74, 793–807.
  51. Abdallah, M.M.; Ahmad, M.N.; Walker, G.; Leahy, J.J.; Kwapinski, W. Batch and Continuous Systems for Zn, Cu, and Pb Metal Ions Adsorption on Spent Mushroom Compost Biochar. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2019, 58, 7296–7307.
  52. Bradl, H.B. Heavy Metals in the Environment: Origin, Interaction and Remediation; Elsevier, Ed.; Elsevier Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2005; ISBN 0-12-088381-3.
  53. Oyeku, O.T.; Eludoyin, A.O. Heavy metal contamination of groundwater resources in a Nigerian urban settlement. Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010, 4, 201–214.
  54. Lutts, S.; Lefèvre, I. How can we take advantage of halophyte properties to cope with heavy metal toxicity in salt-affected areas? Ann. Bot. 2015, 115, 509–528.
  55. Hashim, M.A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Sahu, J.N.; Sengupta, B. Remediation technologies for heavy metal contaminated groundwater. J. Environ. Manag. 2011, 92, 2355–2388.
  56. Rahman, Z.; Singh, V.P. The relative impact of toxic heavy metals (THMs) (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr)(VI), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb)) on the total environment: An overview. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2019, 191, 419.
  57. Roane, T.M.; Pepper, I.L.; Gentry, T.J. Microorganisms and Metal Pollutants. In Environmental Microbiology; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2015; pp. 415–439. ISBN 9780123946263.
  58. Gadd, G. Metals and microorganisms: A problem of definition. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 1992, 100, 197–203.
  59. Manikandan, S.K.; Pallavi, P.; Shetty, K.; Bhattacharjee, D.; Giannakoudakis, D.A.; Katsoyiannis, I.A.; Nair, V. Effective Usage of Biochar and Microorganisms for the Removal of Heavy Metal Ions and Pesticides. Molecules 2023, 28, 719.
  60. Tiller, K.G. Heavy Metals in Soils and Their Environmental Significance. In Advances in Soil Science; Stewart, B.A., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, USA, 1989; Volume 9, pp. 113–142. ISBN 978-1-4612-3532-3.
  61. Masindi, V.; Muedi, K.L. Environmental Contamination by Heavy Metals. In Heavy Metals; Saleh, H.E.-D.M., Aglan, R.F., Eds.; IntechOpen: London, UK, 2018; pp. 115–134. ISBN 978-1-78923-361-2.
  62. Tolkou, A.K.; Katsoyiannis, I.A.; Zouboulis, A.I. Removal of Arsenic, Chromium and Uranium from Water Sources by Novel Nanostructured Materials Including Graphene-Based Modified Adsorbents: A Mini Review of Recent Developments. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 3241.
  63. Menció, A.; Mas-Pla, J.; Otero, N.; Regàs, O.; Boy-Roura, M.; Puig, R.; Bach, J.; Domènech, C.; Zamorano, M.; Brusi, D.; et al. Nitrate pollution of groundwater; all right…, but nothing else? Sci. Total Environ. 2016, 539, 241–251.
  64. Tabelin, C.B.; Igarashi, T.; Villacorte-Tabelin, M.; Park, I.; Opiso, E.M.; Ito, M.; Hiroyoshi, N. Arsenic, selenium, boron, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in naturally contaminated rocks: A review of their sources, modes of enrichment, mechanisms of release, and mitigation strategies. Sci. Total Environ. 2018, 645, 1522–1553.
  65. Burri, N.M.; Weatherl, R.; Moeck, C.; Schirmer, M. A review of threats to groundwater quality in the anthropocene. Sci. Total Environ. 2019, 684, 136–154.
  66. Grimshaw, P.; Calo, J.M.; Hradil, G. Cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the removal of heavy metal mixtures from aqueous solutions. Chem. Eng. J. 2011, 175, 103–109.
  67. Levchuk, I.; Rueda Márquez, J.J.; Sillanpää, M. Removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from water by ion exchange—A review. Chemosphere 2018, 192, 90–104.
  68. Zou, Y.; Wang, X.; Khan, A.; Wang, P.; Liu, Y.; Alsaedi, A.; Hayat, T.; Wang, X. Environmental Remediation and Application of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron and Its Composites for the Removal of Heavy Metal Ions: A Review. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2016, 50, 7290–7304.
  69. Figoli, A.; Cassano, A.; Criscuoli, A.; Mozumder, M.S.I.; Uddin, M.T.; Islam, M.A.; Drioli, E. Influence of operating parameters on the arsenic removal by nanofiltration. Water Res. 2010, 44, 97–104.
  70. Ye, J.; Chen, X.; Chen, C.; Bate, B. Emerging sustainable technologies for remediation of soils and groundwater in a municipal solid waste landfill site—A review. Chemosphere 2019, 227, 681–702.
  71. Dialynas, E.; Diamadopoulos, E. Integration of a membrane bioreactor coupled with reverse osmosis for advanced treatment of municipal wastewater. Desalination 2009, 238, 302–311.
  72. Gavrilescu, M. Removal of Heavy Metals from the Environment by Biosorption. Eng. Life Sci. 2004, 4, 219–232.
  73. Otero, M.; Rozada, F.; Morán, A.; Calvo, L.F.; García, A.I. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by sewage sludge based sorbents: Competitive effects. Desalination 2009, 239, 46–57.
  74. González-González, A.; Cuadros, F.; Ruiz-Celma, A.; López-Rodríguez, F. Influence of heavy metals in the biomethanation of slaughterhouse waste. J. Clean. Prod. 2014, 65, 473–478.
  75. Shahid, M.J.; Arslan, M.; Ali, S.; Siddique, M.; Afzal, M. Floating Wetlands: A Sustainable Tool for Wastewater Treatment. CLEAN-Soil, Air, Water 2018, 46, 1800120.
  76. Chong, M.N.; Jin, B.; Chow, C.W.K.; Saint, C. Recent developments in photocatalytic water treatment technology: A review. Water Res. 2010, 44, 2997–3027.
  77. Jusoh, A.; Su Shiung, L.; Ali, N.; Noor, M.J.M.M. A simulation study of the removal efficiency of granular activated carbon on cadmium and lead. Desalination 2007, 206, 9–16.
  78. Taghavi, M.; Zazouli, M.A.; Yousefi, Z.; Akbari-adergani, B. Kinetic and isotherm modeling of Cd (II) adsorption by l-cysteine functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2015, 187, 682.
  79. Zazouli, M.A.; Yousefi, Z.; Taghavi, M.; Akbari-Adergani, B.; Cherati, J.Y. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions using L-cysteine Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. J. Maz. Univ. Med. Sci. 2013, 22, 37–47.
  80. Cheng, Q.; Huang, Q.; Khan, S.; Liu, Y.; Liao, Z.; Li, G.; Ok, Y.S. Adsorption of Cd by peanut husks and peanut husk biochar from aqueous solutions. Ecol. Eng. 2016, 87, 240–245.
  81. Godlewska, P.; Schmidt, H.P.; Ok, Y.S.; Oleszczuk, P. Biochar for composting improvement and contaminants reduction. A review. Bioresour. Technol. 2017, 246, 193–202.
  82. Petrella, A.; Notarnicola, M. Recycled Materials in Civil and Environmental Engineering. Materials 2022, 15, 3955.
  83. Petrella, A.; Petruzzelli, V.; Ranieri, E.; Catalucci, V.; Petruzzelli, D. Sorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) From Single- and Multimetal Solutions by Recycled Waste Porous Glass. Chem. Eng. Commun. 2016, 203, 940–947.
  84. Bernal, V.; Giraldo, L.; Moreno-Piraján, J. Physicochemical Properties of Activated Carbon: Their Effect on the Adsorption of Pharmaceutical Compounds and Adsorbate–Adsorbent Interactions. C 2018, 4, 62.
  85. Tran, H.N.; Thanh Trung, N.P.; Lima, E.C.; Bollinger, J.; Dat, N.D.; Chao, H.; Juang, R. Revisiting the calculation of thermodynamic parameters of adsorption processes from the modified equilibrium constant of the Redlich–Peterson model. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 2023, 98, 462–472.
  86. Zhang, A.; Li, X.; Xing, J.; Xu, G. Adsorption of potentially toxic elements in water by modified biochar: A review. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 2020, 8, 104196.
  87. He, E.; Liu, N.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, Z.; Lu, X.; Yu, L. Adsorption properties and mechanism of zinc acrylic carbon nanosphere aggregates for perfluorooctanoic acid from aqueous solution. Environ. Pollut. 2023, 316, 120540.
  88. Feng, C.; Huang, M.; Huang, C. Specific chemical adsorption of selected divalent heavy metal ions onto hydrous γ-Fe2O3-biochar from dilute aqueous solutions with pH as a master variable. Chem. Eng. J. 2023, 451, 138921.
  89. Burakov, A.E.; Galunin, E.V.; Burakova, I.V.; Kucherova, A.E.; Agarwal, S.; Tkachev, A.G.; Gupta, V.K. Adsorption of heavy metals on conventional and nanostructured materials for wastewater treatment purposes: A review. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2018, 148, 702–712.
  90. Fu, S.; Tan, B.; Cheng, G.; Wang, H.; Fang, X.; Li, Z.; Guo, M.; Zan, X. Molecular model construction of Chifeng lignite and analysis of adsorption mechanism of O2 at low temperature. J. Mol. Struct. 2023, 1276, 134613.
  91. Nguyen, T.-B.; Nguyen, T.-K.-T.; Chen, W.-H.; Chen, C.-W.; Bui, X.-T.; Patel, A.K.; Dong, C.-D. Hydrothermal and pyrolytic conversion of sunflower seed husk into novel porous biochar for efficient adsorption of tetracycline. Bioresour. Technol. 2023, 373, 128711.
  92. Gouvêa, D.; Ushakov, S.V.; Navrotsky, A. Energetics of CO2 and H2O adsorption on zinc oxide. Langmuir 2014, 30, 9091–9097.
  93. Patra, J.M.; Panda, S.S.; Dhal, N.K. Biochar as a low-cost adsorbent for heavy metal removal: A review. Int. J. Res. Biosci. 2017, 6, 105081.
  94. McNaught, A.D.; Ilkinson, A. IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology. In Gold Book; Blackwell Scientific Publications: Oxford, UK, 1997; ISBN 0-9678550-9-8.
  95. Yaashikaa, P.R.; Kumar, P.S.; Varjani, S.; Saravanan, A. A critical review on the biochar production techniques, characterization, stability and applications for circular bioeconomy. Biotechnol. Rep. 2020, 28, e00570.
  96. Petrella, A.; Spasiano, D.; Rizzi, V.; Cosma, P.; Race, M.; De Vietro, N. Thermodynamic and kinetic investigation of heavy metals sorption in packed bed columns by recycled lignocellulosic materials from olive oil production. Chem. Eng. Commun. 2019, 206, 1715–1730.
  97. Kumkum, P.; Kumar, S. Evaluation of Lead (Pb(II)) Removal Potential of Biochar in a Fixed-bed Continuous Flow Adsorption System. J. Health Pollut. 2020, 10, 201210.
  98. Shabalala, A.N.; Ekolu, S.O.; Diop, S. Permeable reactive barriers for acid mine drainage treatment: A review. Constr. Mater. Struct. 2014, 1416–1426.
  99. Powell, R.M.; Puls, R.W.; Blowes, D.W.; Vogan, J.L.; Gillham, R.W.; Powell, P.D.; Schultz, D.; Landis, R.; Sivavec, T. Permeable Reactive Barrier Technologies for Contaminant Remediation; EPA/600/R-98/125 (NTIS 99-105702); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Washington, DC, USA, 1998.
  100. Mutharasu, L.C.; Kalaga, D.V.; Sathe, M.; Turney, D.E.; Griffin, D.; Li, X.; Kawaji, M.; Nandakumar, K.; Joshi, J.B. Experimental study and CFD simulation of the multiphase flow conditions encountered in a Novel Down-flow bubble column. Chem. Eng. J. 2018, 350, 507–522.
  101. Bouissonnié, A.; Daval, D.; Marinoni, M.; Ackerer, P. From mixed flow reactor to column experiments and modeling: Upscaling of calcite dissolution rate. Chem. Geol. 2018, 487, 63–75.
  102. Sirini, P. Ingegneria Sanitaria-Ambientale: Principi, Teoria e Metodi di Rappresentazione, 1st ed.; McGraw-Hill Education: Milano, Italy, 2011; ISBN 88-386-0897-0.
  103. YEO, K.F.H.; Dong, Y.; Xue, T.; Yang, Y.; Chen, Z.; Han, L.; Zhang, N.; Mawignon, F.J.; Kolani, K.; Wang, W. Fixed-bed column method for removing arsenate from groundwater using aluminium-modified kapok fibres. J. Porous Mater. 2023, 1, 1221–1232.
  104. Cao, R.; Liu, S.; Yang, X.; Wang, C.; Wang, Y.; Wang, W.; Pi, Y. Enhanced remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater by coupling electrokinetics with ZVI/Fe3O4/AC-based permeable reactive barrier. J. Environ. Sci. 2022, 112, 280–290.
  105. Wawrzkiewicz, M.; Kebir, M.; Tahraoui, H.; Chabani, M.; Trari, M.; Noureddine, N.; Assadi, A.A.; Amrane, A.; Hamadi, N.B.; Khezami, L.; et al. Water Cleaning by a Continuous Fixed-Bed Column for Cr(VI) Eco-Adsorption with Green Adsorbent-Based Biomass: An Experimental Modeling Study. Processes 2023, 11, 363.
  106. Fila, D.; Kołodyńska, D. Fixed-Bed Column Adsorption Studies: Comparison of Alginate-Based Adsorbents for La(III) Ions Recovery. Materials 2023, 16, 1058.
  107. Tabassum, R.A.; Shahid, M.; Niazi, N.K.; Dumat, C.; Zhang, Y.; Imran, M.; Bakhat, H.F.; Hussain, I.; Khalid, S. Arsenic removal from aqueous solutions and groundwater using agricultural biowastes-derived biosorbents and biochar: A column-scale investigation. Int. J. Phytoremediat. 2019, 21, 509–518.
  108. Chao, H.P.; Chang, C.C.; Nieva, A. Biosorption of heavy metals on Citrus maxima peel, passion fruit shell, and sugarcane bagasse in a fixed-bed column. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 2014, 20, 3408–3414.
  109. Jellali, S.; Diamantopoulos, E.; Haddad, K.; Anane, M.; Durner, W.; Mlayah, A. Lead removal from aqueous solutions by raw sawdust and magnesium pretreated biochar: Experimental investigations and numerical modelling. J. Environ. Manag. 2016, 180, 439–449.
  110. Cuong, D.V.; Wu, P.C.; Liou, S.Y.H.; Hou, C.H. An integrated active biochar filter and capacitive deionization system for high-performance removal of arsenic from groundwater. J. Hazard. Mater. 2022, 423, 127084.
More
Information
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register : , , , , , ,
View Times: 141
Revision: 1 time (View History)
Update Date: 23 Feb 2024
1000/1000