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Boasiako, T.A.; Boateng, I.D.; Ekumah, J.; Johnson, N.A.N.; Appiagyei, J.; Murtaza, M.S.; Mubeen, B.; Ma, Y. Sustainable Innovations in Mulberry Vinegar Production. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/54950 (accessed on 17 June 2024).
Boasiako TA, Boateng ID, Ekumah J, Johnson NAN, Appiagyei J, Murtaza MS, et al. Sustainable Innovations in Mulberry Vinegar Production. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/54950. Accessed June 17, 2024.
Boasiako, Turkson Antwi, Isaac Duah Boateng, John-Nelson Ekumah, Nana Adwoa Nkuma Johnson, Jeffrey Appiagyei, Mian Shamas Murtaza, Bismillah Mubeen, Yongkun Ma. "Sustainable Innovations in Mulberry Vinegar Production" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/54950 (accessed June 17, 2024).
Boasiako, T.A., Boateng, I.D., Ekumah, J., Johnson, N.A.N., Appiagyei, J., Murtaza, M.S., Mubeen, B., & Ma, Y. (2024, February 09). Sustainable Innovations in Mulberry Vinegar Production. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/54950
Boasiako, Turkson Antwi, et al. "Sustainable Innovations in Mulberry Vinegar Production." Encyclopedia. Web. 09 February, 2024.
Sustainable Innovations in Mulberry Vinegar Production
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Mulberry is renowned for its medicinal properties and bioactive compounds, yet its high moisture content renders it highly perishable and challenging to transport over long distances. This inherent limitation to its shelf life poses sustainability challenges due to potential food waste and the increased carbon footprint associated with transportation. To address this issue sustainably, mulberry vinegar emerges as a biotechnological solution. Utilizing a fermented mixture of crushed mulberries, sugar, and mixed acid, transforms the highly perishable raw material into a more stable product. However, conventional methods of mulberry vinegar production often involve heat-intensive processing, which poses environmental concerns and energy inefficiencies.

sustainable mulberry vinegar non-thermal technologies ultrasonication ultra-high-pressure homogenization pulsed light treatment membrane filtration

1. Introduction

The mulberry fruit (Figure 1a), abundantly distributed in Asia, Europe, America, India, and Africa, belongs to the Moraceae family [1][2]. Noteworthy species include Morus alba, Morus nigra, and Morus rubra, which are known for their medicinal properties [3][4][5]. China leads in regard to cultivation, boasting the largest area and production volumes globally [6]. The geographical hotspots for mulberry cultivation in China include Guangdong, Zhenjiang, Shanghai, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Beijing, and other areas [7]. Globally, the primary use of mulberries revolves around their significance in silkworm production [8], as these insects exclusively consume mulberry leaves. China has led in terms of mulberry cultivation [7], boasting the largest area and production volumes of ~700,000 ha and 1.82 × 107 tons, respectively [9], followed by India (~280,000 ha). While other countries, such as Thailand [10] and Brazil, maintain some mulberry production, their scales are considerably smaller, for instance, 35,000 ha and 848.6 kg/acre/year [11], respectively.
Figure 1. (a) Mulberry fruit and (b) the final product as mulberry vinegar.
Mulberry, a fast-growing, deciduous, or medium-sized, woody perennial tree, adapts well to diverse climates [12], soils (pH: 6.2–6.8), and altitudes of up to 4000 m above sea level [3][11]. Ideal growth conditions include temperatures of 24–28 °C, humidity of 65–80%, and annual rainfall between 600 and 2500 mm. The plant features lobed leaves, yellowish-green blooms, and clusters of small drupes encased in perianth [4]. The nutritional profile is rich in sugar (9–20%) [2], acidity (0.47–2.5%), pectin (0.94%), and mineral materials (0.9%), and mulberries ripen in spring, offering juicy, sweet fruits. Primary products derived from mulberries include juice, beverages, wine, seeds, paste, and anthocyanins [3][12][13]. Anthocyanins contribute to the vivid coloration of mulberries and are associated with potential health benefits. Modern research highlights the bioactive compounds in mulberry fruit, including vitamins, minerals, fiber, amino acids, polysaccharides, polyphenols, flavonols, phenolic acids, and anthocyanins [4][14]. The pharmacological health benefits include anticarcinogenic, anti-cardiovascular, neuroprotective, antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects [3][15][16][17].
Despite its numerous nutritional and pharmacological benefits, the biotechnological potential of this fruit remains largely untapped because of its high moisture content, which leads to a short shelf life and increased perishability. Transporting highly perishable goods over long distances requires rapid and often energy-intensive means of transportation, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and the environmental impact [18]. To address mulberries’ limited storage duration and susceptibility to spoilage, vinegar production from the fruit has been explored [18][19]. The focus on mulberry vinegar (Figure 1b) as a biotechnological solution becomes not only a method for stabilizing the product, but also a means to reduce the environmental burden associated with transportation. Mulberry vinegar, with its high acidity, is resistant to spoilage and represents an innovative avenue for utilizing this medicinal fruit. Additionally, overripe mulberries can be transformed into mulberry wine [20], creating a potential gap in mulberry vinegar production. Repurposing overripe mulberries into wine offers an alternative product and highlights mulberries’ versatility in different biotechnological applications. This dual approach addresses the challenge of the fruits’ limited shelf life and opens up new avenues for utilizing mulberries, showcasing their adaptability and potential in various industries.

2. Mulberry Vinegar Production: An Overview

The mulberry vinegar production process involves the preparation of a solution using ripe mulberries, with sugar content ranging from 16 to 18 °Brix [21]. This solution undergoes various steps, including the addition of sugar for adjustment, mixed acid for pH regulation, pectinase for fiber breakdown [14], sulfite for bacterial removal [22], and the preparation of an acetic acid culture solution. The fermented mixture is created by combining 33.0 to 45.0% by weight of the prepared solution with crushed mulberries, sugar, purified water, pectinase, and mixed acid. The resulting mulberry liquid has a specific sugar content and acidity [23]. Following this, a yeast inoculation step involves dissolving the yeast in purified water and evenly adding it to the prepared solution. Subsequently, an alcoholic fermentation step occurs in a sealed fermentation vessel at 25 °C for 6 to 10 days, until the specific gravity reaches 1.02 [21]. The wine produced undergoes filtration and dilution to achieve 5–6% alcohol by volume (ABV). The acetic acid fermentation step involves the addition of an acetic acid culture solution [7] and fermentation for 25–35 days at 25–30 °C [21]. The supernatant is then subjected to low-temperature ripening for 3–5 months at 5–10 °C. Sterilization is performed at 120 °C for 20–25 min, followed by bottling and packaging in unit doses. The mulberry vinegar produced by this process has a composition of 58.69% crushed mulberry, 29.34% purified water, 5.87% sugar, 5.87% oligosaccharide, and 0.23% citric acid [21]. This mixture, with a sugar content of 15–16 °Brix and an acidity of pH 3.7 to 3.8, undergoes heat treatment, juicing, and filtering to obtain mulberry juice [21]. A functional beverage is prepared by adding 10–15% vinegar, prepared using the process above, to 85–90% mulberry juice [21]. The sugar content is adjusted to 14–15 °Brix and the acidity to pH 3.6–3.7, followed by sterilization at 80 °C for 10–15 min [21].

3. Current Thermal Procedures in Mulberry Vinegar Production

Thermal processes have sustained food preservation studies over the past few decades; however, modern interventions [24] have proven to have significant or minimal effects on food quality, such as a reduction in nutritional value, color change, reduced flavor, textural changes to products, and undesirable by-products [25]. Nevertheless, pasteurization or heat treatment may be applied in commercial or industrial-scale vinegar manufacturing to achieve the dual objectives of sterilization and prolonged shelf life. Throughout the process, meticulous steps are taken to ensure safety, quality, and bioactivity, resulting in a high-quality product with flavorful and nutritionally enriched results. Various thermal technologies have been used to process mulberry juice, including ohmic heating, microwave heating, and osmotic distillation [22][24][25][26][27][28]. Ohmic heating is an emerging sterilization method, based on the high-temperature–short-time (HTST) principle. Darvishi et al. [26] assessed the impact of the ohmic heating method (OHM) on various parameters associated with the concentration process for black mulberry juice and compared their results with those of conventional heating methods (CHM). The total phenolic content (TPC) in the OHM-treated samples was 3–4.5-fold higher than in the CHM-treated samples. Applying a higher voltage gradient to the OHM resulted in modest pH and TPC alterations. Notably, the energy consumption by the OHM (3.33–3.82 MJ/kg water) was 4.6–5.3 times lower than that observed in CHM (17.50 MJ/kg water). The OHM concentration efficiency surpassed that of CHM, by 38–46%. Additionally, the electrical conductivity exhibited a positive correlation with the concentration ratio of the sample, modeled as a function of the process variables, including phase heating, water content, sample temperature, and voltage gradient. Darvishi et al. [26] indicated that the application of the OHM yielded superior quality and substantially reduced the engineering parameters compared to CHM during the concentration process for black mulberry juice, while reducing the energy consumption. These results are consistent with the general concerns of Hardinasinta et al. [27] regarding ohmic heating as a feasible pasteurization technique for mulberry juice, demonstrating that enhanced electrical conductivity and heating rates correlated with the temperature. Moreover, it presents promising outcomes regarding sterilization efficacy and favorable rheological characteristics. This study revealed that the electrical conductivities of fruit juices ranged from 0.128 to 0.430 S.m−1, increasing linearly with temperature. The heating rates were 0.57–0.66 °Cs−1, and the system performance coefficients varied from 0.64 to 0.81. Overall, ohmic heating was suitable for sterilizing these fruit juices because of the short heating times and high coefficients of performance. However, the designed ohmic heating system appeared more suitable for jambolana juice than mulberry and bignay juice.
Microwave heating has demonstrated superior efficacy compared to conventional methods for preserving the phytochemicals and quality attributes in mulberry juice. This encompasses the retention of color, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activity [28][29]. They focused on the concentration of black mulberry juice using various heating methods (conventional and microwave heating), across different operational pressures (7.3, 38.5, and 100 kPa). This study investigated the effects of each heating method on the evaporation rate and quality attributes of concentrated juice. A rotary evaporator obtained a final juice concentration of 42° Brix for 140, 120, and 95 min at 100, 38.5, and 7.3 kPa, respectively [30]. The microwave energy application, notably, reduced the processing time to 115, 95, and 60 min, respectively. This study explored the changes in color, anthocyanin content, antioxidant properties, phenolic content, turbidity, pH, and acidity, during the concentration process. Notably, anthocyanin degradation was more pronounced with the rotary evaporation method than with microwave heating, even though both methods had a degradative effect on the anthocyanin content. The rate constants for the thermal degradation of anthocyanins during microwave heating at 7.3, 38.5, and 100 kPa were 0.034, 0.144, and 0.191 h−1, respectively. In contrast, under conventional heating, the rate constants increased to 0.066, 0.173, and 0.348 h−1 [30]. Additionally, higher phenolic concentrations resulted in lower EC50 values, indicating elevated antioxidant activity in the mulberry extract. This study provides comprehensive insights into the effect of heating methods on the quality and concentration dynamics of black mulberry juice. Furthermore, Fazaeli et al. [31] extended their investigation to assess the concentration of black mulberry juice using conventional and microwave heating under varying operational pressures (7.3, 12, 38.5, and 100 kPa). This study focused on assessing the impact of each heating method on the phytochemical changes, specifically the total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity. The concentration process was conducted using a rotary evaporator, resulting in a final juice concentration of 42 °Brix for black mulberry, and the attainment of a 42 °Brix concentration was accomplished within 140, 120, and 95 min under vacuum pressures of 100, 38.5, and 7.3 kPa, respectively. The application of microwave energy proved to be an effective expedient, reducing the processing time required for black mulberry juice to 115 min, 95 min, and 60 min. Notably, microwave heating significantly reduces the overall processing duration, thereby enhancing the efficiency of the concentration process. Although the concentration process achieved a final juice concentration of 42 °Brix for black mulberry using a rotary evaporator and microwave energy, it is crucial to acknowledge the inherent drawbacks associated with thermal technologies in regard to anthocyanin degradation and the subsequent reduction in antioxidant activity using the rotary evaporation method and microwave heating [31].
Osmotic distillation is advantageous for preserving the heat-sensitive constituents of black mulberry juice, resulting in increased anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity [32], as opposed to conventional thermal evaporation. In this study, extended storage duration and elevated storage temperatures led to a decline in the concentrates’ anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity. An increase in the polymeric color ratio and turbidity accompanied this decline. Although this effect was not immediately prominent after production, it eventually resulted in the loss of juice flavor and color, nutrient reduction, and formation of mutagens, such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). According to Chottamom et al. [33], whether untreated or osmotically treated with sucrose, sorbitol, or maltose, mulberries were dried in a tray dryer at 60 °C, with an air velocity of 1 ms−1. The drying kinetics of the mulberries were explained using the Page model, with R2 values ranging from 0.985 to 0.993 and Es values ranging from 0.031 to 0.091. During air drying, the anthocyanins and phenolics were degraded, following a zero-order reaction, with R2 values ranging from 0.866 to 0.996. However, osmotic distillation is more advantageous than conventional thermal evaporation methods. It effectively maintained the dried mulberries’ phenolic and anthocyanin content, especially when maltose was used as the osmotic solution [33]. During the concentration of fruit juices, osmotic distillation utilizing potassium pyrophosphate as the stripping solution was observed to have minimal impact on the physicochemical characteristics of the final juice [34]. The permeation ranged between 0.56 and 1.45 kg/m2h; however, this was dependent on the feed temperature, with no notable impact on the degradation of ascorbic acid or the loss of volatile compounds. The procedure maintained the physicochemical characteristics of the juice, including the color and acidity.
The limitations of using thermal technologies in mulberry juice production include the degradation of heat-sensitive nutrients, potential alterations in flavor and color, significant energy consumption, incomplete microbial control, loss of volatile compounds, challenges in achieving uniform heating, and the formation of undesirable by-products [20][22][25][31][34]. These limitations highlight the need for careful process design, consideration of alternative methods, and implementation of quality control measures to mitigate potential impacts on the nutritional content, sensory qualities, and overall quality of mulberry juice before vinegar production. Alternative non-thermal processes are being utilized to mitigate the adverse effects on food products associated with traditional thermal procedures [30][33][35].

4. Non-Thermal Pre-Processing Techniques in Mulberry Vinegar Production

Non-thermal technologies (NTTs) represent innovative food processing and preservation approaches that diverge from conventional heat-based methods, such as pasteurization or sterilization [24]. These techniques, including high-pressure processing, pulsed electric fields, and ultrasound, are employed to deactivate microbes and extend the shelf life of food products [36]. Recognized for its ability to maintain nutritional quality, flavor, and overall sensory attributes, NTTs offer an energy efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to traditional thermal methods [33][35].
Contemporary exploration of non-thermal processes, such as ultrasonication, high-pressure processing, pulsed light (PL) treatments, and cold atmospheric conditions, is a burgeoning field. This approach aims to mitigate the adverse effects associated with traditional methods and thermal procedures on food products [30][36][37][38][39][40][41].
In mulberry vinegar production, NTTs would eliminate the need for heat application during pasteurization or sterilization [24]. The application of technologies, such as ultrasound, in mulberry juice production can be optimized individually or in combination to assess their impact on the technological value of mulberry products (powder, wine, or vinegar) [3][42][43][44][45][46]. Whether using NTTs in isolation or combination, these techniques are expected to contribute to our understanding of mulberry vinegar production, enhancing the elucidation and utilization of bioactive compounds. In turn, this has the potential to create superior mulberry vinegar, with enhanced sensory attributes.

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