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Coagulation factor XI

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Entry Collection: MedlinePlus
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Update Time: 24 Dec 2020

1. Normal Function

The F11 gene provides instructions for making a protein called factor XI. This protein plays a role in the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that forms blood clots in response to injury. After an injury, clots seal off blood vessels to stop bleeding and trigger blood vessel repair.

Factor XI is made primarily by cells in the liver. The protein circulates in the bloodstream and is normally turned off (inactive) until the coagulation cascade is turned on (activated) by an injury that damages blood vessels. When factor XI is activated, it interacts with other coagulation factors, resulting in conversion of an important coagulation protein called prothrombin to its active form, thrombin. Thrombin then converts a protein called fibrinogen into fibrin, which is the material that forms blood clots.

2. Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

2.1 Factor XI Deficiency

About 250 mutations in the F11 gene have been found to cause a rare bleeding disorder called factor XI deficiency. This disorder, while usually mild, can cause nosebleeds, easy bruising, bleeding under the skin, bleeding of the gums, and prolonged or excessive bleeding following surgery, dental procedures, or trauma. The F11 gene mutations that cause factor XI deficiency reduce the amount of factor XI in the bloodstream or result in the production of a factor XI protein with impaired function. A deficiency of functional factor XI slows blood clotting, causing episodes of abnormal bleeding.

The amount of functional factor XI remaining varies depending on the particular mutation and whether one or both copies of the F11 gene in each cell have mutations. However, the severity of the bleeding problems in affected individuals does not necessarily correspond to the amount of factor XI in the bloodstream, and can vary even within the same family. Other genetic and environmental factors likely play a role in determining the severity of this condition.

3. Other Names for This Gene

  • coagulation factor XI preproprotein

  • FXI

  • plasma thromboplastin antecedent

  • PTA


  1. Duga S, Salomon O. Congenital factor XI deficiency: an update. Semin ThrombHemost. 2013 Sep;39(6):621-31. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1353420.Review.
  2. Duga S, Salomon O. Factor XI Deficiency. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2009Jun;35(4):416-25. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1225764.
  3. Emsley J, McEwan PA, Gailani D. Structure and function of factor XI. Blood.2010 Apr 1;115(13):2569-77. doi: 10.1182/blood-2009-09-199182.Review.
  4. Gomez K, Bolton-Maggs P. Factor XI deficiency. Haemophilia. 2008Nov;14(6):1183-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2516.2008.01667.x.Review.
  5. He R, Chen D, He S. Factor XI: hemostasis, thrombosis, and antithrombosis.Thromb Res. 2012 May;129(5):541-50. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2011.11.051.
  6. Peretz H, Salomon O, Mor-Cohen R, Usher S, Zucker M, Zivelin A, Seligsohn U.Type I mutation in the F11 gene is a third ancestral mutation which causes factorXI deficiency in Ashkenazi Jews. J Thromb Haemost. 2013 Apr;11(4):724-30. doi:10.1111/jth.12137.
  7. Puy C, Rigg RA, McCarty OJ. The hemostatic role of factor XI. Thromb Res. 2016May;141 Suppl 2:S8-S11. doi: 10.1016/S0049-3848(16)30354-1. Review.
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View Times: 68
Entry Collection: MedlinePlus
Revision: 1 time (View History)
Update Time: 24 Dec 2020
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    Li, V. F11 Gene. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 04 October 2022).
    Li V. F11 Gene. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed October 04, 2022.
    Li, Vivi. "F11 Gene," Encyclopedia, (accessed October 04, 2022).
    Li, V. (2020, December 24). F11 Gene. In Encyclopedia.
    Li, Vivi. ''F11 Gene.'' Encyclopedia. Web. 24 December, 2020.