Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 2726 2024-02-06 12:17:33 |
2 format correct -210 word(s) 2516 2024-02-07 02:46:09 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Ahmed, M.T.; Rashel, M.R.; Islam, M.; Islam, A.K.M.K.; Tlemcani, M. Solar Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal System. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/54797 (accessed on 24 June 2024).
Ahmed MT, Rashel MR, Islam M, Islam AKMK, Tlemcani M. Solar Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal System. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/54797. Accessed June 24, 2024.
Ahmed, Md Tofael, Masud Rana Rashel, Mahmudul Islam, A. K. M. Kamrul Islam, Mouhaydine Tlemcani. "Solar Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal System" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/54797 (accessed June 24, 2024).
Ahmed, M.T., Rashel, M.R., Islam, M., Islam, A.K.M.K., & Tlemcani, M. (2024, February 06). Solar Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal System. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/54797
Ahmed, Md Tofael, et al. "Solar Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal System." Encyclopedia. Web. 06 February, 2024.
Solar Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal System
Edit

A Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) system is one of the most emerging and energy-efficient technologies in the area of solar energy engineering. Several cell technologies with spectrum analysis are discussed to understand the application’s ability and energy efficiency.

PVT system classification parametric analysis optimization efficiency

1. Introduction

A crucial fact today is that the whole world is gripped by the concern of dwindling energy stocks, leading to efforts to conserve fossil fuels through the exploration of new methods and resources. The drive for conservation is not solely due to the rapid depletion of resources but also stems from the harmful impact of certain resources on the ecosystem. In addition to these factors, the prices of fossil fuels exhibit high volatility, often experiencing significant inflation [1]. Many human activities driven by energy consumption and resulting pollution have contributed to swift alterations in weather conditions, including global warming, the thawing of polar ice caps, and the depletion of the ozone layer. In the future, the issues of environmental pollution and global warming could be mitigated by the adoption of renewable energy sources like solar power, particularly those using photovoltaic (PV) technology. Solar PV technology is utilized for the conversion of light energy into DC energy for electricity. The fundamental unit of PV technology is the solar cell, which can be arranged in series and parallel connections to create a PV module. Multiple PV modules can also be linked in series and parallel configurations to form larger PV arrays [2].
PV power plant shares have surged globally, with numerous countries now aiming to extend the utilization of alternative energy sources for generating electricity. The European Union has committed to creating a blueprint that raises the contribution of renewable energy sources in energy production to no less than 30% by 2030, with the final goal of achieving 100% by 2050 [3]. The economic and environmental advantages of PV technology have made it a highly sought-after solution for clean power generation, drawing immense interest from researchers, manufacturers, and decision-makers alike [4]. Numerous regions across the globe possess the potential to implement high-efficiency PV plants, owing to the high intensity of solar radiation in these areas. The high degree of flexibility exhibited by PV technology sets it apart from other solar applications, as it can be deployed in diverse geographical locations, ranging from deserts and plains to mountains and even marine environments. This adaptability allows it to function independently or connected to an electrical grid, thereby expediting its widespread global adoption, particularly following the decrease in manufacturing costs and the rise in electrical efficiency [5]. PV technology is increasingly favored due to its numerous promising benefits, including minimal maintenance requirements, low operating costs, a long lifespan, and a significant reduction in CO2 emissions, thereby promoting a cleaner environment for future generations.

2. Hybrid PVT System and Classifications

The utilization of solar power in renewable energy systems can be employed to produce electrical and thermal energy using solar PV panels and thermal panels [6][7]. In general, solar photovoltaic technology collects solar radiation and converts it into electrical energy [8][9]. On the other hand, irradiance is captured by the solar collector and converted to heat that can be used for a variety of purposes. In the middle of the 1970s, after various studies, the PVT system was discovered [10]. A liquid-type of solar collector of hybrid PVT was investigated in 1976 by observing the performance of the collector in a single-family home over the course of a full year [11]. The primary parameters of the “Hottel Whillier model” which is considered flat plate collector thermal modeling [12], are modified in [13], and the thermal performance of hybrid PVT, including electrical performance, is studied. PVT solar collectors are an idea that has been around for more than 40 years, although they have not yet reached full commercialization. Recently, different forms of research were conducted to enhance the PVT collector’s functionality and reduce its cost [14][15][16]. PV systems are now regarded as a desirable idea that reduces reliance on traditional energy sources and is harmless to the environment.
Heat and electricity are produced by using a PVT collector, which is designed and combined with a PV cell and thermal collector. It is also known as a PVT hybrid system, which mitigates the energy losses [17][18]. While the thermal collector transforms the captured energy into heat, solar photovoltaic transforms it into electrical energy. By making the most use of solar energy, a system similar to this proposed system is also efficient and may produce more energy in a given area than thermal systems or PV alone. To better understand the construction of a PVT system, a diagram is shown in the figure below:
Figure 1 above describes an overview of the PVT system’s construction, which considers mainly fluid flow mechanisms for extracting heat and cooling purposes. This system has mainly two parts: the upper and lower portions. The upper part produces electricity, and the lower part is responsible for producing thermal energy. Any type of fluid suitable for heat extraction can be used for heat extraction purposes in this type of system. The main parts of this type of system are the PV panel, heat exchanging mechanism part that could be established either by fluid or any other heat extraction medium, active/passive flow, extracted heat storage, output inlet, and so on. A developed and updated mechanism of the concept of the PVT solar system is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 1. A constructive diagram of Hybrid PVT system.
Figure 2. Hybrid PVT system concept.
One of the main purposes of using a hybrid PVT system is to create an efficient system and maximize solar energy extraction. Comparing PVT to traditional PV or thermal collectors, PVT uses less space. In other words, PVT can create greater power and heat in the same space than a normal PV panel or thermal collector can. This clarifies that PVT functions more effectively than when two systems are utilized independently. It is also suitable for places with a smaller surface area. Additionally, the PVT system integrates into one, which lowers the cost of installation and has a short payback period, and both technologies are combined [17].
PV modules usually appear in a variety of system architectures, including grid-connected, standalone, hybrid, and tracking systems. PV panel/module, battery, charge controller, maximum power point tracker (MPPT), and inverter are the typical elements of a PV system. PV has gained popularity over time and is now utilized in numerous applications. On the other hand, PVT systems are predicted to be a reliable and significant source of energy in the very near future, though there are existing plants that are not so efficient yet. Many research investigations indicate that high temperatures decrease a PV system’s open-circuit voltage, which lowers electrical efficiency [19][20]. The integration of cooling systems will help reduce the temperatures, increasing the PV system’s overall effectiveness. Additionally, it helps to recover the lost energy of the system. Air, water, and both air and water can be utilized in PVT systems for cooling purposes.
It is important to indicate the cost of the main system to identify the PV system’s low-cost properties. To calculate the electricity value in relation to the heat received from the collector, it is necessary to estimate the PVT system’s efficiency. The hybrid system’s overall efficiency surpasses that of any single PV system due to waste heat recovery [21]. PVT systems are still in the early stages of development, despite the fact that research into them began in the 1970s, and this system will be a productive and efficient substitute for individual photovoltaic systems because of their greater output power and possibly lower expenses. Considering the available spaces on the rooftops, R&D is concentrated on the integration of PV systems with buildings. The main objectives are to identify PVT systems that generate thermal energy and electricity at reasonable and cheap costs. This implies that the system’s overall cost will be as low as achievable. This objective can be achieved by employing an optimal system with an appropriate vision, design, and quantified production for cost reduction. In addition to all of this, the system needs to be made to fit in with the architectural style of the buildings, creating attractive geometric shapes [22]. The following are PVT systems main advantages [2]:
  • A distinct portion of the solar spectrum is used by both photovoltaic and thermal collectors.
  • The visible light portion is used by the solar cell, and infrared waves are used by the collectors.
  • Combining the two technologies in a tandem solar cell could lead to a more efficient use of the solar spectrum.
  • By employing this system, the installation costs will be split between both systems and lower the overall cost compared to the separate systems, which will reduce the total costs, and this is the most significant benefit. Additionally, it requires less space for installation.
  • The PVT system’s additional advantage is that it reduces the building temperature during the summer by improving surface shading and building isolation. Finally, the architecture of the buildings will be beautiful because of the use of PVT rather than two separate systems.
Based on the information provided above, PVT systems are important because they have the potential to produce higher electrical energy, including the compensation of thermal losses using other thermal applications.
The overall performance of the PVT system is determined by its total efficiency [23]:
 
Thermal efficiency by considering PVT as a flat plate solar collector is:
 
The system useful heat is evaluated as:
 
where 𝑚˙ is the used fluid’s mass flow rate, 𝐶𝑝 is fluid’s specific heat, Δ𝑇 is inlet and outlet temperature difference. In conventional form, the electrical output efficiency is computed as follows:
 
where, voltage V, current is I, 𝐼𝑠 is the intensity of solar irradiation, 𝐴𝐶𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 is the area of PV panel. Further, the produced thermal energy in the PV module may be utilized, the varied electrical efficiency based on panel temperature is shown as:
 
where, 𝛽 is the coefficient of temperature, 𝑇𝑃𝑉 is the module temperature, 𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑓 is the reference temperature, 𝜂𝑟𝑒𝑓 is reference efficiency. These equations are used to calculate the efficiencies of the thermal and electrical of the panel. These equations became more complex with the advancement of mathematical and numerical modeling which includes more variables.

3. Parameters and Optimization Analysis

Parameter analysis and optimization of hybrid PVT systems are inherent to performance evaluation. Many of the research papers on hybrid PVT systems discuss parametric and optimization systems to obtain better performance. A parametric study provides a deep understanding of the various parameters related to the performance of hybrid PVT [24]. Parameters associated with channel size, mass flow rates, and heat exchange resistance to both ambient and channel air flow are discussed in [25]. The performance of a PVT system based on various regimes of flow is discussed in [26]. The performance analysis of the PVT system includes the examination of a substantial paper from reputable publishers. An overview of the analyzed articles is shown in the figure below:
The above Figure 3 shows the yearly view of the selected articles for the analysis. It reflects that most of the paper is selected from the year 2023, which is eight, then 2019, and so on. Table 1 shows the summary of the performance analysis obtained after an extensive review of the above-mentioned research papers.
Figure 3. No. of studied articles by year.
Table 1. Parametric and Optimization analysis of Hybrid PVT system.
Table 1 shows the parameters and optimization properties mentioned in the recent literature. 
Figure 4 shows the classification of summarized topics described in the studied research papers. From this figure, it can be seen that most of the authors chose to depend on parametric analysis to evaluate the efficiency of hybrid PVT systems; on the other hand, many of them chose to evaluate parameters with the optimization method. Parametric analysis also varies from author to author. For example, many authors focused on only climatic parameters; others focused on design parameters [26] or meteorological parameters [28], and a few of them described both climatic and geometric parameters. Fluid flow with air velocities, including its shape, is studied in [29]. The author of [30] focused on temperature and the different fin shapes of the system.
Figure 4. Classification of obtained analysis.
The author [32] focused on specific parameters for the evaluation purpose. Optimization based on geometric parameters is considered in [33]. In addition to climatic parameters, it is considered the position of the PVT system for the performance analysis [34]. Parametric analysis with design parameters and weather conditions is discussed in [37]. Incidence angle and electrical losses with climatic parameters are studied in [38]. Air temperature is another important parameter in the analysis of hybrid PVT system performance, which is discussed in [39]. For that purpose, many authors [1][40] considered active or passive colling for the efficiency increase. Design parameter optimization is given importance for the performance evaluation purpose in [44][45][46].
A photovoltaic thermal system has both electrical and thermal output, where thermal output is obtained using a heat transfer mechanism. In the parametric analysis case, heat transfer and thermal capacity are considered in [51]. The authors of [49] simply studied electrical and thermal parameters related to the PVT system. Phase change material (PCM) is used for heat extraction purposes, which are discussed in [55]. The packing factor and mass flow rate [56] of the heat extraction fluid are also important for the efficiency calculation. Design parameters [59][61][62] are analyzed in many papers, which shows an impact on the performance of the hybrid PVT system.

References

  1. Al-Waeli, A.H.A.; Kazem, H.A.; Chaichan, M.T.; Sopian, K. A review of photovoltaic thermal systems: Achievements and applications. Int. J. Energy Res. 2020, 45, 1269–1308.
  2. Al-Waeli, A.H.A.; Sopian, K. Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) systems: Status and future prospects. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2017, 77, 109–130.
  3. Zervos, A.; Lins, C.; Muth, J. RE-Thinking 2050: A 100% Renewable Energy Vision for the European Union; EREC: Brussels, Belgium, 2010.
  4. Qureshi, U.; Baredar, P.; Kumar, A. Effect of weather conditions on the hybrid solar PV/T collector in variation of voltage and current. Int. J. Res. 2014, 1, 872–879.
  5. Chaichan, M.T.; Kazem, H.A. Generating Electricity Using Photovoltaic Solar Plants in Iraq; Springer International Publishing AG: Cham, Switzerland, 2018.
  6. Naves, A.X.; Barreneche, C.; Fernández, A.I.; Cabeza, L.F.; Haddad, A.N.; Boer, D. Life cycle costing as a bottom line for the life cycle sustainability assessment in the solar energy sector: A review. Sol. Energy 2019, 192, 238–262.
  7. Molaei, M.J. The optical properties and solar energy conversion applications of carbon quantum dots: A review. Sol. Energy 2020, 196, 549–566.
  8. Yang, K.Y.; Lee, W.; Jeon, J.Y.; Ha, T.J.; Kim, Y.H. Controlling the visibility of embedded silicon solar cells in building-integrated photovoltaic windows using surface structure modification and metal-oxide back coating. Sol. Energy 2020, 197, 99–104.
  9. Trindade, A.; Cordeiro, L. Automated formal verification of stand-alone solar photovoltaic systems. Sol. Energy 2019, 193, 684–691.
  10. Joshi, S.; Dhoble, A.S. Photovoltaic—Thermal systems (PVT): Technology review and future trends. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2018, 92, 848–882.
  11. Wolf, M. Performance analyses of combined heating and photovoltaic power systems for residences. Energy Convers. 1976, 16, 79–90.
  12. Ahmed, M.T.; Rashel, M.R.; Ahmed, M.T. Tlemçani. A Study of Thermal Regulations and Efficiency Analysis in Hybrid PVT Panel. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Numerical and Symbolic Computation Developments and Applications, Evora, Portugal, 30–31 March 2023.
  13. Florschuetz, L.W. Extension of the hottel-whillier model to the analysis of combined photovoltaic/thermal flat plate collectors. Sol. Energy 1979, 22, 361–366.
  14. Fine, J.P.; Dworkin, S.B.; Friedman, J. A methodology for predicting hybrid solar panel performance in different operating modes. Renew. Energy 2019, 130, 1198–1206.
  15. Khelifa, A.; Touafek, K.; Moussa, H.B.; Ismail, T. Analysis of a hybrid solar collector photovoltaic thermal (PVT). Energy Procedia 2015, 74, 835–843.
  16. Magrassi, F.; Rocco, E.; Barberis, S.; Gallo, M.; Del, B.A. Hybrid solar power system versus photovoltaic plant: A comparative analysis through a life cycle approach. Renew. Energy 2019, 130, 290–304.
  17. Herez, A.; El-Hage, H.H.; Lemenand, T.; Ramadan, M.; Khaled, M. Review on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar collectors: Classifications, applications and new systems. Sol. Energy 2020, 207, 1321–1347.
  18. Abdelrazik, A.S.; Al-Sulaiman, F.A.; Saidur, R.; Ben-Mansour, R. A review on recent development for the design and packaging of hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) solar systems Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2018, 95, 110–129.
  19. Al-Sabounchi, A.M.; Yalyali, S.A.; Al-Thani, H.A. Design and performance evaluation of a PV grid-connected system in hot weather conditions. Renew. Energy 2013, 53, 71–78.
  20. Gasparin, F.P.; Buhler, A.J.; Rampinelli, G.A.; Krenzinger, A. Statistical analysis of I–V curve parameters from PV modules. Sol. Energy 2016, 131, 30–38.
  21. Chow, T.T.; He, W.; Chan, A.L.S.; Fong, K.F.; Lin, Z.; Ji, J. Computer modeling and experimental validation of a building-integrated PV and water heating system. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2008, 28, 1356–1364.
  22. Bazilian, M.D.; Leerders, F.; Van Der Ree, B.G.C.; Prasad, D.P.V. Cogeneration in the built environment. Sol. Energy 2001, 71, 57–69.
  23. Ahmed, M.T.; Rashel, M.R.; Tlemçani, M. Parametric Study and Efficiency Analysis Hybrid PVT System. In Proceedings of the AMPSECA, Marrakech, Morocco, 25–26 May 2023.
  24. Ahliouati, M.; Rabie, E.O.; Kandoussi, K.; Boutaous, M.; Amal, L.; Louzazni, M.; Daya, A. Energetic and parametric studies of a basic hybrid collector (PV/T-Air) and a photovoltaic (PV) module for building applications: Performance analysis under El Jadida weather conditions. Mater. Sci. Energy Technol. 2023, 6, 267–281.
  25. Pathak, P.K.; Ghoshroy, D.; Yadav, A.K.; Padmanaban, S.; Blaabjerg, F.; Khan, B. A State-of-the-Art Review on Heat Extraction Methodologies of Photovoltaic/Thermal System. IEEE Access 2023, 11, 49738–49759.
  26. Azad, A.K.; Parvin, S. Photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) performance analysis for different flow regimes: A comparative numerical study. Int. J. Thermofluids 2023, 18, 1000319.
  27. Herrando, M.; Wang, K.; Huang, G.; Otanicar, T.; Mousa, O.B.; Agathokleous, R.A.; Ding, Y.; Kalogirou, S.; Ekins-Daukes, N.; Taylor, R.A.; et al. A Review of Solar Hybrid Photovoltaic-Thermal (PV-T) Collectors and Systems. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 2023, 97, 101072.
  28. Barbu, M.; Siroux, M.; Darie, G. Performance Analysis and Comparison of an Experimental Hybrid PV, PVT and Solar Thermal System Installed in a Preschool in Bucharest, Romania. Energies 2023, 16, 5321.
  29. Herez, A.; Jabe, H.; El-hage, H.H.; Lemenand, T.; Chahine, K.; Ramadan, M.; Khaled, M. Parabolic trough photovoltaic thermoelectric hybrid system: Simulation model, parametric analysis, and practical recommendations. Int. J. Thermofluids 2023, 17, 100309.
  30. Ajel, M.G.; Gedik, E.; Wahhab, H.A.A.; Shallal, B.A. Performance Analysis of an Open-Flow Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) Solar Collector with Using a Different Fins Shapes. Sustainability 2023, 15, 3877.
  31. Farjad, M.; Soloveva, T.A. Performance Analysis of Solar Water Heating (SWH) and Photovoltaic-Thermal (PVT) Systems in Vladivostok, Russia. JP J. Heat Mass Transf. 2023, 32, 15–29.
  32. Madas, S.R.; Narayanan, R.; Gudimetla, P. A systematic review on furtherance of photovoltaic thermal panel technology. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Energy and Power (ICEP2021), Chiang Mai, Thailand, 18–20 November 2021.
  33. Nascimento, V.F.; Yahyaoui, I.; Fiorotti, R.; Amorim, A.E.A.; Belisario, I.C.; Abreu, C.E.S.; Rocha, H.R.O.; Tadeo, F. Dimensioning and efficiency evaluation of a hybrid photovoltaic thermal system in a tropical climate region. Sustain. Energy Grids Netw. 2022, 32, 100954.
  34. Yousif, J.H. Prediction and evaluation of photovoltaic-thermal energy systems production using artificial neural network and experimental dataset. Therm. Eng. 2021, 27, 101297.
  35. Bandaru, S.H.; Becerra, V.; Khanna, S.; Radulovic, J.; Hutchinson, D.; Khusainov, R. A Review of Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) Technology for Residential Applications: Performance Indicators, Progress, and Opportunities. Energies 2021, 14, 3853.
  36. Amal, H.; Hicham, E.H.; Hierry, L.; Mohamad, R.; Mahmoud, K. Parabolic trough photovoltaic/thermal hybrid system: Thermal modeling and parametric analysis. Renew. Energy Elsevier 2021, 165, 224–236.
  37. Rajoria, C.S.; Kumar, R.; Sharma, A.; Singh, D.; Suhag, S. Development of flat-plate building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) system: A review. Mater. Today Proc. 2020, 46, 5342–5352.
  38. Ventura, C.; Tina, G.M.; Gagliano, A.; Aneli, S. Enhanced models for the evaluation of electrical efficiency of PV/T modules. Sol. Energy 2021, 224, 531–544.
  39. Hossain, R.; Ahmed, A.J.; Islam, S.M.K.N.; Saha, N.; Debnath, P.; Kouzani, A.Z.; Mahmud, M.A.P. New Design of Solar Photovoltaic and Thermal Hybrid System for Performance Improvement of Solar Photovoltaic. Int. J. Photoenergy 2020, 2020, 8825489.
  40. Diwania, S.; Agrawal, S.; Siddiqui, A.S.; Singh, S. Photovoltaic–thermal (PV/T) technology: A comprehensive review on applications and its advancement. Int. J. Energy Environ. Eng. 2020, 11, 33–54.
  41. Dwivedi, P.; Sudhakar, K.; Soni, A.; Solomin, E.; Kirpichinikova, I. Advanced cooling techniques of P.V. modules: A state of art. Case Stud. Therm. Eng. 2020, 21, 100674.
  42. Khordehgah, N.; Zabnienska-Gora, A.; Jouhara, H. Energy Performance Analysis of a PV/T System Coupled with Domestic Hot Water System. ChemEngineering 2020, 4, 22.
  43. Abdul-Ganiyu, S.; Quansah, D.A.; Ramde, W.W.; Seidu, R.; Adaramola, M.S. Investigation of Solar Photovoltaic-Thermal (PVT) and Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Performance: A Case Study in Ghana. Energies 2020, 13, 2701.
  44. Abdullah, A.L.; Misha, S.; Tamaldin, N.; Rosli MA, M.; Sachit, F.A. Technology Progress on Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) Systems with Flat-Plate Water Collector Designs: A Review. J. Adv. Res. Fluid Mech. Therm. Sci. 2019, 59, 107–141.
  45. Sachit, F.A.; Tamaldin, N.; Rosli, M.A.M.; Misha, S.; Abdullah, A.L. Current progress on flat-plate water collector design in photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) systems: A review. J. Adv. Res. Dyn. Control Syst. 2018, 10, 680–689.
  46. Yuting, J.; Guruprasad, A.; Guiyin, F. Development and applications of photovoltaic–thermal systems: A review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2019, 102, 249–265.
  47. Barbu, M.; Darie, G.; Siroux, M. Analysis of a Residential Photovoltaic-Thermal (PVT) System in Two Similar Climate Conditions. Energies 2019, 12, 3595.
  48. Antony, A.; Wang, Y.D.; Roskilly, A.P. A detailed optimisation of solar photovoltaic/thermal systems and its application. Energy Procedia 2019, 158, 1141–1148.
  49. Abdullah, A.L.; Misha, S.; Tamaldin, N.; Rosli, M.A.M.; Sachit, F.A. Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal PVT Solar Systems Simulation via Simulink/Matlab. CFD Lett. 2019, 4, 64–78.
  50. Fuentes, M.; Vivar, M.; Casa, J.D.L.; Aguilera, J. An experimental comparison between commercial hybrid PV-T and simple PV systems intended for BIPV. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2018, 93, 110–120.
  51. Nasir, F.H.M.; Husaini, Y. MATLAB Simulation of Photovoltaic and Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems Performance. IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2018, 341, 012019.
  52. Sathe, T.M.; Dhoble, A.S. A review on recent advancements in photovoltaic thermal techniques. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2017, 76, 645–672.
  53. Babu, C. The role of thermoelectric generators in the hybrid PV/T systems: A review. Energy Convers. Manag. 2017, 151, 368–385.
  54. Hasanuzzaman, M.; Malek, A.B.M.A.; Islam, M.M.; Pandey, A.K.; Rahim, N.A. Global advancement of cooling technologies for PV systems: A review. Sol. Energy 2016, 137, 25–45.
  55. Sargunanathan, S.; Elango, A.; Mohideen, S.T. Performance enhancement of solar photovoltaic cells using effective cooling methods: A review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2016, 64, 382–393.
  56. Oussama, R.; Houcine, D.; Abdelmajid, J. A numerical investigation of a photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector. Renew. Energy 2015, 77, 43–50.
  57. Khelifa, A.; Touafek, K.; Moussa, H.B.; Tabet, I. A numerical modeling of hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector. Sol. Energy 2016, 135, 169–176.
  58. Moradia, M.; Ebadian, M.A.; Lin, C.-X. A review of PV/T technologies: Effects of control parameters. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 2013, 64, 483–500.
  59. Bahaidarah, H.; Subhan, A.; Gandhidasan, P.; Rehman, S. Performance evaluation of a PV (photovoltaic) module by back surface water cooling for hot climatic conditions. Energy 2013, 59, 445–453.
  60. Hasan, M.A.; Sumathy, K. Photovoltaic thermal module concepts and their performance analysis: A review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2010, 14, 1845–1859.
  61. Chow, T.T. A review on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology. Appl. Energy 2010, 87, 365–379.
  62. Tiwari, A.; Sodha, M.S. Performance evaluation of hybrid PV/thermal water/air heating system: A parametric study. Renew. Energy 2006, 31, 2460–2474.
More
Information
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register : , , , ,
View Times: 253
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 07 Feb 2024
1000/1000
Video Production Service