Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 2308 2024-01-26 09:17:35

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?


Are you sure to Delete?
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Editorial Office, E. Social Network. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 20 June 2024).
Editorial Office E. Social Network. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed June 20, 2024.
Editorial Office, Encyclopedia. "Social Network" Encyclopedia, (accessed June 20, 2024).
Editorial Office, E. (2024, January 26). Social Network. In Encyclopedia.
Editorial Office, Encyclopedia. "Social Network." Encyclopedia. Web. 26 January, 2024.
Social Network

A social network refers to a structure of social relationships and interactions among individuals, groups, or organizations. These relationships are characterized by connections, ties, or links that facilitate communication, exchange, and interaction within a network of interconnected nodes. Social networks can vary in size, complexity, and purpose, encompassing a wide range of interpersonal, professional, and community-based connections.

social network analysis social relationships communication interaction

1. Introduction

Social networks are the intricate webs of connections and interactions that define human relationships and shape our social lives. From personal friendships to professional collaborations, social networks play a fundamental role in facilitating communication, information exchange, and social support. Understanding the dynamics of social networks is essential for comprehending human behavior, decision-making processes, and the functioning of societies.

2. Theoretical Frameworks of Social Networks

2.1. Social Network Theory

Social network theory, rooted in sociology, focuses on the patterns of connections between individuals or entities within a social system. This theory views social relationships as fundamental units of analysis, emphasizing the importance of ties, connections, and interactions in shaping behavior and outcomes. Social network theory posits that the structure of a social network—characterized by properties such as density, centrality, and clustering—significantly influences individual behavior, information flow, and social influence processes.

Key concepts within social network theory include nodes (individuals or entities), ties (connections or relationships between nodes), and network properties (e.g., density, centrality). Nodes can represent various units of analysis, including individuals, groups, organizations, or even concepts or ideas. Ties may be based on various types of relationships, such as friendship, kinship, collaboration, or communication. Network properties provide insights into the overall structure and dynamics of the network, including the degree of interconnectedness, the importance of specific nodes, and the presence of subgroups or communities within the network.

Social network theory emphasizes the role of social ties in facilitating information diffusion, social support, and resource exchange within networks. By examining the patterns of connections and interactions between individuals or groups, researchers can uncover underlying structures and processes that shape social behavior and outcomes. Social network analysis (SNA), a methodological approach derived from social network theory, provides tools and techniques for studying social networks, including centrality measures, network visualization, and community detection algorithms.

2.2. Structural Balance Theory

Structural balance theory, developed by sociologist Fritz Heider and later elaborated by sociologist Charles Tilly and others, explores the formation and maintenance of relationships within social networks. This theory posits that individuals strive for balance in their social relationships, seeking to minimize cognitive dissonance and maintain psychological equilibrium. According to structural balance theory, relationships can be categorized into balanced or imbalanced configurations based on the distribution of positive and negative ties among individuals.

In balanced networks, individuals' relationships are characterized by consistent patterns of sentiment, with positive ties predominating and negative ties being rare or absent. Balanced networks promote stability, cohesion, and harmony among individuals, fostering positive social interactions and group cohesion. In contrast, imbalanced networks contain conflicting patterns of sentiment, with positive and negative ties coexisting among individuals. Imbalanced networks are characterized by tension, conflict, and instability, as individuals navigate the complexities of conflicting social relationships.

Structural balance theory highlights the importance of reciprocity, transitivity, and symmetry in shaping the dynamics of social relationships within networks. Reciprocity refers to the tendency for individuals to reciprocate positive or negative sentiments in their relationships, fostering mutual trust and cooperation. Transitivity involves the tendency for positive relationships to form triangles or cliques within networks, facilitating information flow and social cohesion. Symmetry reflects the balance or imbalance of sentiments within relationships, influencing the overall harmony or discord within social networks.

2.3. Social Capital Theory

Social capital theory, popularized by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu and political scientist Robert Putnam, focuses on the resources embedded within social networks, such as trust, reciprocity, and social support. This theory conceptualizes social relationships as valuable assets that individuals can leverage to access information, resources, and opportunities. Social capital encompasses both the structural dimension (the configuration of social ties within a network) and the relational dimension (the quality of social interactions and connections).

According to social capital theory, social networks provide individuals with access to diverse resources, including information, social support, and instrumental assistance. Strong ties, characterized by high levels of trust, reciprocity, and emotional closeness, offer immediate and reliable sources of support and assistance. Weak ties, characterized by more distant or occasional connections, provide access to novel information, resources, and opportunities outside of one's immediate social circle.

Social capital theory emphasizes the role of bridging and bonding social capital in facilitating social integration and collective action within communities. Bridging social capital involves connections between individuals from diverse backgrounds or social groups, fostering cross-cutting ties and bridging social divides. Bonding social capital, on the other hand, involves connections within homogeneous groups or communities, strengthening social cohesion and identity. Both forms of social capital contribute to the resilience, cohesion, and well-being of individuals and communities within social networks.

3. Structure of Social Networks

Social networks consist of nodes (individuals or entities) and ties (connections or relationships) between them. The structure of a social network is characterized by properties such as density (the proportion of actual connections to possible connections), centrality (the importance of a node within the network), and clustering coefficient (the degree of interconnectedness among a node's neighbors). Different types of social networks exist, including personal networks (e.g., friendships, family ties), organizational networks (e.g., professional contacts, collaborations), and online social networks (e.g., Facebook, Twitter).

3.1. Nodes and Ties

At the core of social network structure are nodes and ties. Nodes represent the individual units within a network, such as people, organizations, or concepts, while ties represent the connections or relationships between nodes. Ties can take various forms, including friendships, family relationships, professional collaborations, communication channels, and interactions on online platforms. The strength and nature of ties may vary depending on factors such as frequency of interaction, emotional closeness, and shared interests or goals.

3.2. Network Properties

Social network structure is characterized by various properties that provide insights into the organization and dynamics of the network. These properties include:

  1. Density: Density refers to the proportion of actual connections to possible connections within a network. A dense network has many connections between nodes, while a sparse network has few connections. Density influences the level of interconnectedness and cohesion within a network, with higher density networks facilitating faster information diffusion and stronger social cohesion.

  2. Centrality: Centrality measures the importance or prominence of a node within a network. Nodes with higher centrality are more central to the network and have greater influence or access to resources. Different measures of centrality include degree centrality (the number of connections a node has), betweenness centrality (the extent to which a node lies on the shortest paths between other nodes), and closeness centrality (the average distance of a node to all other nodes in the network).

  3. Clustering Coefficient: The clustering coefficient measures the degree of interconnectedness or clustering among a node's neighbors within a network. A high clustering coefficient indicates that nodes within a network are densely interconnected, forming tightly-knit clusters or communities. Clustering facilitates information sharing, social support, and cooperation within local neighborhoods or groups within the larger network.

3.3. Types of Social Networks

Social networks can take various forms, depending on the nature of the relationships and the context in which they occur. Some common types of social networks include:

  1. Personal Networks: Personal networks consist of individuals' social relationships, including friendships, family ties, and acquaintanceships. These networks play a crucial role in providing emotional support, companionship, and social validation to individuals, contributing to their overall well-being and resilience.

  2. Organizational Networks: Organizational networks encompass the relationships and interactions between individuals or departments within an organization or workplace. These networks facilitate collaboration, communication, and coordination of tasks and activities, helping organizations achieve their goals and objectives more effectively.

  3. Online Social Networks: Online social networks, such as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn, have emerged as prominent platforms for social interaction, communication, and information sharing. These networks enable individuals to connect with others, share content, and participate in virtual communities based on shared interests, hobbies, or identities. Online social networks have transformed the way people communicate, interact, and form relationships, bridging geographical distances and expanding social networks beyond traditional boundaries.

3.4. Implications of Social Network Structure

The structure of social networks has significant implications for individual behavior, group dynamics, and societal outcomes. Dense networks with high levels of connectivity facilitate rapid information diffusion, opinion formation, and social influence processes. Central nodes within networks have greater access to resources, information, and opportunities, influencing decision-making processes and outcomes. Clustering within networks promotes social cohesion, identity formation, and collective action, strengthening group bonds and solidarity.

4. Dynamics of Social Networks

Social networks are dynamic entities that evolve over time through processes of tie formation, maintenance, and dissolution. New ties may form through shared interests, experiences, or mutual acquaintances, while existing ties may strengthen or weaken depending on changes in circumstances or interactions. Factors influencing network dynamics include social influence (the impact of others' behavior on one's own behavior), homophily (the tendency to associate with similar others), and network closure (the degree to which connections within a network are interconnected).

  1. Social Influence: Social influence refers to the tendency for individuals to adopt the attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs of others within their social networks. Through processes of social influence, such as conformity, persuasion, and imitation, individuals shape and are shaped by the norms, values, and expectations of their social environment. Social influence can spread rapidly within networks, leading to the emergence of collective behaviors, opinions, and trends.

  2. Homophily: Homophily is the tendency for individuals to associate with others who are similar to themselves in terms of demographics, interests, attitudes, or behaviors. Homophilous relationships are more likely to form and endure within social networks, as individuals feel a sense of familiarity, comfort, and validation in interacting with similar others. Homophily contributes to the formation of cohesive subgroups or communities within larger networks, fostering shared identities and collective solidarity.

  3. Network Closure: Network closure refers to the degree to which connections within a network are interconnected or closed off from external influences. Closed networks exhibit high levels of interconnectedness and cohesion among members, fostering trust, reciprocity, and social support within the group. In contrast, open networks have more permeable boundaries and connections with external actors, allowing for greater diversity of perspectives, information, and resources. Network closure can influence the diffusion of information, the spread of norms, and the formation of social capital within networks.

5. Functions of Social Networks

Social networks serve various functions, including information diffusion, social support, and resource exchange. Information spreads through social networks via interpersonal communication, influencing attitudes, behaviors, and decisions. Social networks also provide emotional and instrumental support to individuals during times of need, fostering resilience and well-being. Additionally, social networks facilitate the exchange of resources, such as knowledge, skills, and opportunities, enhancing individuals' access to social capital and economic opportunities.

  1. Information Diffusion: Social networks facilitate the spread of information, ideas, and knowledge through interpersonal communication and interaction. Information diffuses within networks through processes such as word-of-mouth communication, social sharing, and peer influence. Social networks serve as channels for accessing and disseminating information on diverse topics, ranging from news and current events to personal experiences and opinions.

  2. Social Support: Social networks provide emotional, instrumental, and informational support to individuals during times of need, stress, or crisis. Social support networks offer companionship, empathy, and reassurance to individuals facing challenges or adversity, buffering against the negative effects of stress and enhancing resilience. Supportive relationships within networks contribute to individuals' mental health, well-being, and sense of belonging.

  3. Resource Exchange: Social networks facilitate the exchange of resources, such as information, skills, and material assistance, among individuals and groups. Resource exchange networks enable individuals to access opportunities, resources, and social capital that may not be available to them individually. Reciprocal relationships within networks foster cooperation, collaboration, and mutual aid, strengthening social ties and collective efficacy.

  4. Social Influence: Social networks shape individual attitudes, behaviors, and decisions through processes of social influence, such as conformity, persuasion, and peer pressure. Socially influential individuals within networks can exert considerable power and influence over others, shaping collective behaviors, opinions, and norms. Social influence processes contribute to the formation of cultural norms, social movements, and collective action within societies.

6. Online Social Networks

The rise of online social networks has transformed the landscape of social interaction and communication. Platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn provide virtual spaces for individuals to connect, communicate, and share information with others. Online social networks offer benefits such as increased access to diverse perspectives, enhanced connectivity with geographically distant others, and opportunities for self-expression and identity formation. However, they also present challenges related to privacy, identity management, and digital inequality, as not everyone has equal access to online resources and opportunities.

7. Social Network Analysis

Social network analysis (SNA) is a methodological approach for studying social networks, examining patterns of connections, and analyzing network properties and dynamics. SNA employs techniques such as centrality measures (e.g., degree centrality, betweenness centrality), network visualization (e.g., sociograms, network maps), and community detection algorithms to uncover underlying structures and relationships within social networks. SNA has applications in various fields, including sociology, psychology, anthropology, and organizational studies, providing insights into social phenomena such as information diffusion, opinion formation, and organizational behavior.

8. Applications of Social Network Research

Social network research has practical applications in diverse domains, informing interventions, policies, and strategies to address social issues and promote positive outcomes. In public health, SNA is used to understand the spread of infectious diseases, identify influential individuals or groups for health promotion interventions, and enhance the effectiveness of health communication campaigns. In business and management, SNA helps to analyze organizational networks, improve team collaboration, and identify key stakeholders for strategic partnerships. In sociology and psychology, SNA sheds light on social dynamics, group behavior, and the formation of social norms and attitudes.

Subjects: Sociology
Contributor MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to :
View Times: 315
Entry Collection: Sociological Concepts
Revision: 1 time (View History)
Update Date: 26 Jan 2024
Video Production Service