Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 2082 2023-11-27 10:45:53 |
2 layout Meta information modification 2082 2023-11-28 02:27:36 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Kuziboev, B.; Ibadullaev, E.; Saidmamatov, O.; Rajabov, A.; Marty, P.; Ruzmetov, S.; Sherov, A. Renewable Energy and Human Capital in Environmental Sustainability. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/52087 (accessed on 14 June 2024).
Kuziboev B, Ibadullaev E, Saidmamatov O, Rajabov A, Marty P, Ruzmetov S, et al. Renewable Energy and Human Capital in Environmental Sustainability. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/52087. Accessed June 14, 2024.
Kuziboev, Bekhzod, Ergash Ibadullaev, Olimjon Saidmamatov, Alibek Rajabov, Peter Marty, Sherzodbek Ruzmetov, Alisher Sherov. "Renewable Energy and Human Capital in Environmental Sustainability" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/52087 (accessed June 14, 2024).
Kuziboev, B., Ibadullaev, E., Saidmamatov, O., Rajabov, A., Marty, P., Ruzmetov, S., & Sherov, A. (2023, November 27). Renewable Energy and Human Capital in Environmental Sustainability. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/52087
Kuziboev, Bekhzod, et al. "Renewable Energy and Human Capital in Environmental Sustainability." Encyclopedia. Web. 27 November, 2023.
Renewable Energy and Human Capital in Environmental Sustainability
Edit

Environmental sustainability concerns are growing worldwide. Reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is crucial to combating global warming and reaching sustainable global economic development.

renewable energy human capital government effectiveness economic development

1. Introduction

Due to human activities, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has reached dangerous levels [1]; consequently, this increase contributes to the frequency and intensity of extreme events [2]. The Paris Agreement, a legally binding international agreement [3] on climate change adopted in 2016 by 196 countries to limit global warming to well below 2 °C or 1.5 °C, has been a key mitigation strategy [1][4]. In order to achieve this goal, it is important to focus on reducing environmental degradation, in particular reducing carbon emissions [2][3]. In the literature, economic growth, trade openness, industrialization, foreign direct investment, and emission taxes have mainly been studied as factors impacting on reducing environmental degradation [4][5][6]. However, despite its significance, little is understood about how environmental sustainability is attained and how human capital development helps to lessen environmental damage. Human development is relevant in the context of environmental sustainability, since any kind of mitigation measures need human comprehension of the environment, climate change, and its effects [7]. It is known that human development and a healthy lifestyle depends on education, which increases people’s responsibility for environmental sustainability and teaches them how to protect their surroundings [8]. People with higher levels of education and skill are more likely to follow environmental legislation [9].
In the new millennium, the biggest threat to every nation on the planet is climate change. In order to truly address the global environmental challenge posed by the need to reduce global CO2 output, there must be a global response; otherwise, the ongoing upward trend in CO2 emissions will only worsen [10]. There are many different causes of excessive carbon emissions. According to research by the World Health Organization, aggravating outdoor air pollution results in around 4.2 million premature deaths year [11]. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), worldwide CO2 emissions from energy sources have stabilized at approximately 33 billion tons in 2019, nearly unchanged from the previous year [12], following a two-year rise. A one-year CO2 emission freeze, however, does not signify that global emissions have peaked, given that the global GDP decreased during the COVID-19 epidemic shutdowns that impacted numerous economies. But it is an indication that the economies of the world can trust that reducing global warming would increase the likelihood that future economic output and human well-being will not reach catastrophic levels [13]. The rise in the use of green fuel sources for the production of electricity has contributed to a reduction in the global expansion of emissions. For instance, the IEA discovered that, compared to 2018, there was an approximately 200 Mt decrease in global CO2 emissions due to a decrease in the use of coal to generate power globally in 2019.
Natural resources, economic growth, and their impact on Central Asia’s environmental quality are all available in the literature. Few of them, nevertheless, looked at how human capital affected the Eurasian territory from the nexus viewpoint. Environmental degradation has already become a global problem in the world both in developing and developed countries. There are several factors that have a relationship with CO2, such as economic development, renewable and no-renewable energy, government effectiveness, human capital, and others. A few examples of the things that are at risk from climate change are the health of people and animals, the security of food and water, and the stability of the economy. Renewable energy has emerged as a crucial weapon in the fight against this global issue and is starting to take center stage in the transformation of energy systems. The need for energy consumption in all its forms has been seen as a necessary complement to other factor inputs, like labor and capital, in the economies’ production processes [14]. According to the International Energy Report, if decisive actions are not implemented, energy-related CO2 emissions would quadruple by 2050, and rising trends in oil demand will exacerbate the problems with energy security and postpone one of the most important SDGs (Sustainable Development Goal 13) [12]. It is significant to note that, despite the sector’s remarkable growth, notably for solar and wind power, the share of REC in total energy consumption has increased very slightly in recent years. With a relative contribution of 54% for hydroelectricity and 26% for wind energy, respectively, the renewable portion of global power generation is anticipated to rise from 18% in 2007 to 23% in 2035, and it means that renewable energy consumption is believed to be one of the main factors of decreasing carbon dioxide emissions [15].
As the world is becoming more concerned about environmental sustainability, CO2 emissions indicators have been the subject of numerous recent studies, but the connection with human capital has received less attention. The link between human capital and CO2 emissions has been found to be negative at the microlevel through a number of routes. The innovative technologies and emission-reducing approaches in the manufacturing industry are introduced by more qualified and educated people [16]. As human capital and environmental degradation are more likely to be long-term oriented, more human capital-rich firms are better suited to promote sustainable development [17]. As a result, industrial firms typically have more stringent pollution controls and larger human capital reserves. Additionally, it is less probable that they will disregard outside environmental regulations. The contribution of human capital to environmental deterioration is substantial since education modifies people’s attitudes towards the environment and enables them to make positive changes to it; highly educated households appreciate the environment significantly more than less educated or illiterate households [18]. Furthermore, households with higher levels of education are more likely to prefer energy-efficient home equipment [12][19] and minimize energy consumption overall [20]. However, because there are so many opposing ways that human capital could affect CO2 releases, the macro-level relationship between it and CO2 emissions is more complicated. It has been noted that there are three different ways that physical capital, wealth, and technology may all have an impact on environmental quality [21]. The link between human capital and CO2 emissions may be mediated by economic development.

2. Renewable Energy and CO2 Emissions

It is widely accepted that boosting the use of renewable energy is a useful strategy for encouraging the reduction of CO2 emissions. Consuming energy from renewable sources has thus emerged as one of the most effective substitute tactics for sustainable growth [22]. Seven East African countries (EACs) have had their asymmetric relationship between CO2 emissions and renewable energy, as well as their economic and population growth, examined at the regional and national levels. The results show that the consumption of renewable energy has a negative impact on CO2 emissions [23]. In response, ref. [24] examined the asymmetric relationship between CO2 emissions and solar energy consumption in the top ten solar-consuming nations, highlighting the need to integrate renewable energy sources for environmental quality and sustainable growth.
In the Portugal example, ref. [25] used wavelet analysis to support the idea that using renewable energy can reduce CO2 emissions over the medium and long term in the nation. Additionally, ref. [22] uses the 3SLS model to perform an empirical investigation on the relationships between the BRICS countries’ real output, consumption of renewable energy, and CO2 emissions (apart from Russia). Notably, ref. [26] uses the Dumitrescu–Hurlin test for the next 11 countries to find a bidirectional causal relationship between CO2 emissions and renewable energy. Similarly, in the 39 developing countries that were chosen, ref. [27] demonstrated through the use of the Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis that the use of renewable energy sources significantly lowers emissions over time. Accordingly, ref. [28] studied this relationship in Uzbekistan, as the country’s economy highly depends on non-renewable energy (97.3%). Ref. [29] raised the unidirectional causal effect between the consumption of hydropower (renewable) energy and CO2 emissions per capita, recommending to lower CO2 emissions through the implementation of effective carbon price laws and the participation of the private sector in renewable energy projects.

3. Human Capital and CO2 Emissions

Increasing education is essential to halting environmental deterioration and maintaining the viability of economic growth. Ref. [30] makes the case that human capital levels influence how economic development affects CO2 emissions. Ref. [31] investigated the possibility that increases in human capital are linked to better environmental quality through lower CO2 emissions. However, ref. [32] pointed out that human capital can inversely regulate the impact of CO2 emissions and that internet usage is one of the key drivers of the development of a low-carbon economy.
Ref. [33] investigates the relationship between human capital and CO2 emissions in the economies of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS). It finds that improvements in education have a long-term beneficial effect on CO2 emissions, while long-term negative changes in education have an adverse effect. Similarly, ref. [34] demonstrated that in the BRICS nations, renewable energy lowers emissions and restores environmental sustainability. According to [35], the Belt and Road countries stand to benefit greatly from technology transfer, the use of renewable energy sources, and human capital as means of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Ref. [36] found that creative human capital reduces environmental degradation in China, suggesting that if China keeps building its creative human capital, its economic growth will eventually support environmental sustainability. In fact, ref. [37] brought up that technology greatly reduces CO2 emissions, the impact of wealth on CO2 emissions shows an inverted U-shape trend, and the population growth exacerbates CO2 emissions. Furthermore, ref. [38] examines the relationship in Central Asian states between natural resources, economic growth, human capital, and CO2 and demonstrates that, both short- and long-term, human capital has a significant and opposite association with CO2.

4. Government Effectiveness and CO2 Emissions

The interaction between institutional factors and the environment is essential to secure sustainable development. Ref. [39] raised that political stability, government effectiveness, democracy, and the control of corruption influence CO2 emissions negatively. Ref. [40] investigates the connection between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and five aspects of good governance—political stability, government efficacy, regulatory quality, rule of law, and corruption—in a sample of 99 developing nations. The findings confirm that, in the case of developing nations, these five factors have a negative and statistically significant correlation with CO2 emissions per capita.
In the case of South Asian countries (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh), according to [41], a 1% increase in governance results in a 7.68% decrease in carbon emissions. As for BRICS countries, ref. [42] discovered that long-term increases in government stability, law and order, and corruption have a negative effect on carbon emissions. Through an analysis of 44 sub-Saharan African nations, ref. [43] explores the role that governance dynamics such as political stability, voice and accountability, government effectiveness, regulation quality, rule of law, and corruption-control play in moderating environmental degradation. Ref. [44] evaluated 93 emerging and developing nations, noting that those with highly effective governments saw statistically significant drops in CO2 emissions. However, as [45] point out, there can be both positive and negative effects of government effectiveness in reducing carbon emissions in both developed and developing nations.

5. Economic Development and CO2 Emissions

Environmental degradation has become one of the most worrying problems in the global setting over the last few decades. Economic development has also been the main goal of all countries since it leads to increasing the quality of living conditions, but is likewise considered as the main reason for rising CO2 emissions, which is the main factor of environmental degradation [46]. Numerous studies have examined the relationship between environmental degradation and economic development, with varying degrees of success. Ref. [47] examined the connections between CO2, renewable and non-renewable energy sources, and economic growth using data from 28 developed and developing nations. They discovered that while there is a two-way causal relationship between the consumption of renewable and nonrenewable energy in developed countries, there is no significant correlation between economic growth and energy consumption in developing countries. Research has demonstrated that in Pakistan, long-term economic growth is slowed down by positive shocks to carbon dioxide emissions, while short- and long-term growth is accelerated by negative shocks [48]. A study on the long-term cointegration relationship between China’s economic growth and CO2 emissions notes that the country’s economic growth has a strong predictive ability for CO2 emissions. In [49][50], the authors investigated the relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation in the context of Turkey, discovering that financial development and energy consumption have long-term positive and statistically significant effects on CO2 emissions, and economic expansion has a statistically significant negative impact on CO2 emissions. Ref. [51] examined the relationship between economic development and environmental degradation in Central Asian nations, finding that while trade openness and the value added of agriculture had negative and statistically significant effects on CO2 emissions in the countries under consideration, economic growth had positive long-term effects on CO2 emissions.

References

  1. United Nations Climate Change. United Nations Climate Change. 2021. Available online: https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement (accessed on 15 October 2023).
  2. Aluko, O.A.; Obalade, A.A. Financial development and environmental quality in sub-Saharan Africa: Is there a technology effect? Sci. Total Environ. 2020, 747, 141515.
  3. Aluko, O.A.; Opoku, E.E.O.; Ibrahim, M. Investigating the environmental effect of globalization: Insights from selected industrialized countries. J. Environ. Manag. 2021, 281, 111892.
  4. Nasir, M.A.; Canh, N.P.; Le, T.N. Environmental degradation & role of financialisation, economic development, industrialisation and trade liberalization. J. Environ. Manag. 2021, 277, 111471.
  5. Shahbaz, M.; Nasir, M.A.; Roubaud, D. Environmental degradation in France: The effects of FDI, financial development, and energy innovations. Energy Econ. 2018, 74, 843–857.
  6. Wesseh, P.K., Jr.; Lin, B. Optimal emission taxes for full internalization of environmental externalities. J. Clean. Prod. 2016, 137, 871–877.
  7. Ahmed, Z.; Wang, Z.; Mahmood, F.; Hafeez, M.; Ali, N. Does globalization increase the ecological footprint? Empirical evidence from Malaysia. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2019, 26, 18565–18582.
  8. Bano, S.; Zhao, Y.; Ahmad, A.; Wang, S.; Liu, Y. Identifying the impacts of human capital on carbon emissions in Pakistan. J. Clean. Prod. 2018, 183, 1082–1092.
  9. Desha, C.; Robinson, D.; Sproul, A. Working in partnership to develop engineering capability in energy efficiency. J. Clean. Prod. 2015, 106, 283–291.
  10. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Summary for policymakers. In Global Warming of 1.5 °C. An IPCC Special Report on the Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5 °C above Pre-Industrial Levels and Related Global Greenhouse Gas Emission Pathways, in the Context of Strengthening the Global Response to the Threat of Climate Change, Sustainable Development, and Efforts to Eradicate Poverty. 2018. Available online: https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/ (accessed on 16 September 2023).
  11. Shaddick, G.; Thomas, M.L.; Mudu, P.; Ruggeri, G.; Gumy, S. Half the world’s population are exposed to increasing air pollution. NPJ Clim. Atmos. Sci. 2020, 3, 23.
  12. International Energy Agency. World Energy Outlook; International Energy Agency: Paris, France, 2009.
  13. Bakhsh, K.; Rose, S.; Ali, M.F.; Ahmad, N.; Shahbaz, M. Economic growth, CO2 emissions, renewable waste and FDI relation in Pakistan: New evidences from 3SLS. J. Environ. Manag. 2017, 196, 627–632.
  14. Javed, A.B. Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption—Impact on economic growth and CO2 emissions in five emerging market economies. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2018, 25, 35515–35530.
  15. Apergis, N.; Payne, J.E. Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption-growth nexus: Evidence from a panel error correction model. Energy Econ. 2012, 34, 733–738.
  16. Blackman, A.; Kildegaard, A. Clean technological change in developing-country industrial clusters: Mexican leather tanning. Environ. Econ. Policy Stud. 2010, 12, 115–132.
  17. Lan, J.; Munro, A. Environmental compliance and human capital: Evidence from Chinese industrial frms. Resour. Energy Econ. 2013, 35, 534–557.
  18. Goetz, S.J.; Debertin, D.L.; Pagoulatos, A. Human capital, income, and environmental quality: A state-level analysis. Agric. Resour. Econ. Rev. 1998, 27, 200–208.
  19. Broadstock, D.C.; Fan, Y.; Ji, Q.; Zhang, D. Shocks and stocks: A bottom-up assessment of the relationship between oil prices, gasoline prices and the returns of Chinese firms. Energy, J. 2016, 37, 55–86.
  20. Ahmed, Z.; Wang, Z. Investigating the impact of human capital on the ecological footprint in India: An empirical analysis. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2019, 26, 26782–26796.
  21. Yao, Y.; Ivanovski, K.; Inekwe, J.; Smyth, R. Human capital and CO2 emissions in the long run. Energy Econ. 2020, 91, 104907.
  22. Liu, J.L.; Ma, C.Q.; Ren, Y.S.; Zhao, X.W. Do Real Output and Renewable Energy Consumption Affect CO2 Emissions? Evidence for Selected BRICS Countries. Energies 2020, 13, 960.
  23. Namahoro, J.P.; Wu, Q.; Xiao, H.; Zhou, N. The Impact of Renewable Energy, Economic and Population Growth on CO2 Emissions in the East African Region: Evidence from Common Correlated Effect Means Group and Asymmetric Analysis. Energies 2021, 14, 312.
  24. Yu, J.; Tang, Y.M.; Chau, K.Y.; Nazar, R.; Ali, S.; Iqbal, W. Role of Solar-Based Renewable Energy in Mitigating CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Quantile-on-Quantile Estimation. Renew. Energy 2022, 182, 216–226.
  25. Adebayo, T.; Oladipupo, S.; Adeshola, I.; Rjoub, H. Wavelet analysis of impact of renewable energy consumption and technological innovation on CO2 emissions: Evidence from Portugal. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2022, 29, 23887–23904.
  26. Wang, Z.; Pham, T.L.H.; Sun, K.; Wang, B.; Bui, Q.; Hashemizadeh, A. The Moderating Role of Financial Development in the Renewable Energy Consumption—CO2 Emissions Linkage: The Case Study of Next-11 Countries. Energy 2022, 254, 124386.
  27. Haldar, A.; Sethi, N. Effect of institutional quality and renewable energy consumption on CO2 emissions−an empirical investigation for developing countries. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2021, 28, 15485–15503.
  28. Apergis, N.; Kuziboev, B.; Abdullaev, I.; Rajabov, A. Investigating the association among CO2 emissions, renewable and non renewable energy consumption in Uzbekistan: An ARDL approach. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2023, 30, 39666–39679.
  29. Kuziboev, B.; Vysušilová, P.; Salahodjaev, R.; Rajabov, A.; Rakhimov, T. The Volatility Assessment of CO2 Emissions in Uzbekistan: ARCH/GARCH Models. Int. J. Energy Econ. Policy 2023, 13, 14487.
  30. Khan, M. CO2 emissions and sustainable economic development: New evidence on the role of human capital. Sustain. Dev. 2020. 28, 1279–1288.
  31. Wang, J.; Xu, Y. Internet Usage, Human Capital and CO2 Emissions: A Global Perspective. Sustainability 2021, 13, 8268.
  32. Li, X.; Ullah, S. Caring for the environment: How CO2 emissions respond to human capital in BRICS economies? Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2022, 29, 18036–18046.
  33. Jahanger, A.; Hossain, M.R.; Usman, M.; Chukwuma Onwe, J. Recent scenario and nexus between natural resource dependence, energy use and pollution cycles in BRICS region: Does the mediating role of human capital exist? Resour. Policy 2023, 81, 103382.
  34. Khan, Y.; Hassan, T.; Tufail, M.; Marie, M.; Imran, M.; Xiuqin, Z. The nexus between CO2 emissions, human capital, technology transfer, and renewable energy: Evidence from Belt and Road countries. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2022, 29, 59816–59834.
  35. Lin, X.; Zhao, Y.; Ahmad, M.; Ahmed, Z.; Rjoub, H.; Adebayo, T.S. Linking Innovative Human Capital, Economic Growth, and CO2 Emissions: An Empirical Study Based on Chinese Provincial Panel Data. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 8503.
  36. Lee, C.-C.; Zhao, Y.-N. Heterogeneity Analysis of Factors Influencing CO2 Emissions: The Role of Human Capital, Urbanization, and FDI. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2023, 185, 113644.
  37. Isiksal, A.Z.; Assi, A.F.; Zhakanov, A.; Rakhmetullina, S.Z.; Joof, F. Natural resources, human capital, and CO2 emissions: Missing evidence from the Central Asian States. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2022, 29, 77333–77343.
  38. Abid, M. Impact of economic, financial, and institutional factors on CO2 emissions: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa economies. Util. Policy 2016, 41, 85–94.
  39. Gani, A. The Relationship Between Good Governance And Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Evidence From Developing Economies. J. Econ. Dev. 2012, 37, 77–93.
  40. Mehmood, U. Renewable energy and foreign direct investment: Does the governance matter for CO2 emissions? Application of CS-ARDL. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2022, 29, 19816–19822.
  41. Zhang, D.; Ozturk, I.; Ullah, S. Institutional factors-environmental quality nexus in BRICS: A strategic pillar of governmental performance. Econ. Res.-Ekon. Istraživanja 2022, 35, 5777–5789.
  42. Asongu, S.A.; Odhiambo, N.M. Governance, CO2 emissions and inclusive human development in sub-Saharan Africa. Energy Explor. Exploit. 2020, 38, 18–36.
  43. Wawrzyniak, D.; Doryń, W. Does the quality of institutions modify the economic growth-carbon dioxide emissions nexus? Evidence from a group of emerging and developing countries. Econ. Res.-Ekon. Istraživanja 2020, 33, 124–144.
  44. Yasmeen, R.; Tao, R.; Shah, W.U.; Padda, I.U.H.; Tang, C. The nexuses between carbon emissions, agriculture production efficiency, research and development, and government effectiveness: Evidence from major agriculture-producing countries. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2022, 29, 52133–52146.
  45. Aslan, A.; Altinoz, B.; Özsolak, B. The nexus between economic growth, tourism development, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions in Mediterranean countries. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2021, 28, 3243–3252.
  46. Jin, L.; Chang, Y.-H.; Wang, M.; Zheng, X.-Z.; Yang, J.-X.; Gu, J. The dynamics of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and economic development: Evidence from the top 28 greenhouse gas emitters. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2022, 29, 36565–36574.
  47. Rehman, A.; Ma, H.; Ozturk, I.; Murshed, M.; Dagar, V. The dynamic impacts of CO2 emissions from diferent sources on Pakistan’s economic progress: A roadmap to sustainable development. Environ. Dev. Sustain. 2021, 23, 17857–17880.
  48. Kirikkaleli, D. New insights into an old issue: Exploring the nexus between economic growth and CO2 emissions in China. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2020, 27, 40777–40786.
  49. Doğanlar, M.; Mike, F.; Kızılkaya, O.; Karlılar, S. Testing the long-run effects of economic growth, financial development and energy consumption on CO2 emissions in Turkey: New evidence from RALS cointegration test. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2021, 28, 32554–32563.
  50. Saidmamatov, O.; Tetreault, N.; Bekjanov, D.; Khodjaniyazov, E.; Ibadullaev, E.; Sobirov, Y.; Adrianto, L.R. The Nexus between Agriculture, Water, Energy and Environmental Degradation in Central Asia-Empirical Evidence Using Panel Data Models. Energies 2023, 16, 3206.
  51. Arellano, M.; Bover, O. Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models. J. Econom. 1995, 68, 29–51.
More
Information
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register : , , , , , ,
View Times: 193
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 28 Nov 2023
1000/1000
Video Production Service