Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 + 538 word(s) 538 2020-12-15 07:47:34

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Zhou, V. CHMP2B Gene. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/5126 (accessed on 25 April 2024).
Zhou V. CHMP2B Gene. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/5126. Accessed April 25, 2024.
Zhou, Vicky. "CHMP2B Gene" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/5126 (accessed April 25, 2024).
Zhou, V. (2020, December 24). CHMP2B Gene. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/5126
Zhou, Vicky. "CHMP2B Gene." Encyclopedia. Web. 24 December, 2020.
CHMP2B Gene
Edit

charged multivesicular body protein 2B

genes

1. Normal Function

The CHMP2B gene provides instructions for making a protein called charged multivesicular body protein 2B. This protein is active in the brain, where it appears to be essential for the survival of nerve cells (neurons).

Charged multivesicular body protein 2B forms one part (subunit) of a group of proteins known as the ESCRT-III complex. This complex helps transport other proteins from the cell membrane to the interior of the cell, a process known as endocytosis. In particular, the ESCRT-III complex is involved in the endocytosis of proteins that need to be broken down (degraded) by the cell. The complex helps sort these proteins into structures called multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which deliver them to lysosomes. Lysosomes are compartments within cells that digest and recycle many different types of molecules.

Charged multivesicular body protein 2B is regulated by a segment at one end of the protein known as the C-terminal domain. This domain usually keeps the protein turned off (inactive). The inactive protein is unable to interact with other subunits of the ESCRT-III complex, which prevents the complex from forming when it is not needed. The C-terminal domain also plays an important role in disassembling the ESCRT-III complex through its interaction with a protein called vacuolar protein sorting 4 (Vps4).

2. Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

2.1. CHMP2B-Related Frontotemporal Dementia

Several changes in the CHMP2B gene have been identified in people with frontotemporal dementia. At least two of these genetic changes are thought to be mutations that cause the disease. It is unclear whether the other genetic changes also cause disease; they may be rare variations that are unrelated to the development of frontotemporal dementia.

Most people with CHMP2B-related frontotemporal dementia are members of a single, large Danish family. Affected individuals in this family have a particular mutation, written as 532-1G>C, that changes a single DNA building block (base pair) in the CHMP2B gene. This mutation leads to the production of two abnormal versions of charged multivesicular body protein 2B, both of which are missing the C-terminal domain.

Without the C-terminal domain, charged multivesicular body protein 2B is constantly turned on (active) as part of the ESCRT-III complex. It cannot interact with Vps4, so the complex cannot be disassembled when it is no longer needed. As a result, the ESCRT-III complex builds up within cells and disrupts the transport and degradation of other proteins. These abnormalities ultimately lead to the death of neurons in the brain.

A gradual loss of neurons throughout the brain is characteristic of CHMP2B-related frontotemporal dementia. Many of the features of this disease result from neuronal death in regions near the front of the brain called the frontal and temporal lobes. The frontal lobes are involved in reasoning, planning, judgment, and problem-solving, while the temporal lobes help process hearing, speech, memory, and emotion. It is unclear why the signs and symptoms of this disease are related primarily to the frontal and temporal lobes.

2.2. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

3. Other Names for This Gene

  • CHM2B_HUMAN
  • CHMP family, member 2B
  • CHMP2.5
  • chromatin modifying protein 2B
  • DMT1
  • hVps2-2
  • vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 2-2
  • VPS2 homolog B
  • VPS2-2
  • VPS2B

References

  1. Ferrari R, Kapogiannis D, Huey ED, Grafman J, Hardy J, Momeni P. Novelmissense mutation in charged multivesicular body protein 2B in a patient withfrontotemporal dementia. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2010 Oct-Dec;24(4):397-401. doi: 10.1097/WAD.0b013e3181df20c7.
  2. Lee JA, Gao FB. ESCRT, autophagy, and frontotemporal dementia. BMB Rep. 2008Dec 31;41(12):827-32. Review.
  3. Momeni P, Rogaeva E, Van Deerlin V, Yuan W, Grafman J, Tierney M, Huey E, BellJ, Morris CM, Kalaria RN, van Rensburg SJ, Niehaus D, Potocnik F, Kawarai T,Salehi-Rad S, Sato C, St George-Hyslop P, Hardy J. Genetic variability in CHMP2B and frontotemporal dementia. Neurodegener Dis. 2006;3(3):129-33.
  4. Skibinski G, Parkinson NJ, Brown JM, Chakrabarti L, Lloyd SL, Hummerich H,Nielsen JE, Hodges JR, Spillantini MG, Thusgaard T, Brandner S, Brun A, RossorMN, Gade A, Johannsen P, Sørensen SA, Gydesen S, Fisher EM, Collinge J. Mutationsin the endosomal ESCRTIII-complex subunit CHMP2B in frontotemporal dementia. Nat Genet. 2005 Aug;37(8):806-8.
  5. Urwin H, Authier A, Nielsen JE, Metcalf D, Powell C, Froud K, Malcolm DS, HolmI, Johannsen P, Brown J, Fisher EM, van der Zee J, Bruyland M; FReJA Consortium, Van Broeckhoven C, Collinge J, Brandner S, Futter C, Isaacs AM. Disruption ofendocytic trafficking in frontotemporal dementia with CHMP2B mutations. Hum MolGenet. 2010 Jun 1;19(11):2228-38. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddq100.
  6. Urwin H, Ghazi-Noori S, Collinge J, Isaacs A. The role of CHMP2B infrontotemporal dementia. Biochem Soc Trans. 2009 Feb;37(Pt 1):208-12. doi:10.1042/BST0370208. Review.
  7. van der Zee J, Urwin H, Engelborghs S, Bruyland M, Vandenberghe R, Dermaut B, De Pooter T, Peeters K, Santens P, De Deyn PP, Fisher EM, Collinge J, Isaacs AM, Van Broeckhoven C. CHMP2B C-truncating mutations in frontotemporal lobardegeneration are associated with an aberrant endosomal phenotype in vitro. HumMol Genet. 2008 Jan 15;17(2):313-22.
More
Information
Contributor MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register :
View Times: 219
Entry Collection: MedlinePlus
Revision: 1 time (View History)
Update Date: 24 Dec 2020
1000/1000