Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 1511 2023-08-31 15:37:36 |
2 format correction -1 word(s) 1510 2023-09-01 03:00:57 | |
3 reduce the content of Description -116 word(s) 1394 2023-09-06 03:53:23 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Zhang, S.; Du, J.; Yue, H.; Li, G.; Zhang, D. National Identity Education Intentions of Pre-Service Teachers. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/48709 (accessed on 24 June 2024).
Zhang S, Du J, Yue H, Li G, Zhang D. National Identity Education Intentions of Pre-Service Teachers. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/48709. Accessed June 24, 2024.
Zhang, Shuai, Jiannan Du, Huiji Yue, Gui’an Li, Dian Zhang. "National Identity Education Intentions of Pre-Service Teachers" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/48709 (accessed June 24, 2024).
Zhang, S., Du, J., Yue, H., Li, G., & Zhang, D. (2023, August 31). National Identity Education Intentions of Pre-Service Teachers. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/48709
Zhang, Shuai, et al. "National Identity Education Intentions of Pre-Service Teachers." Encyclopedia. Web. 31 August, 2023.
National Identity Education Intentions of Pre-Service Teachers
Edit

National identity education is a form of education that fosters a stable sense of national identity among citizens and plays a crucial role in the sustainable development of the country. However, with the deepening of economic globalisation and cultural pluralism, pre-service teachers, in their dual roles as school students and prospective teachers, have encountered challenges in practicing their intention to implement national identity education. 

national identity education educational intentions pre-service teachers theory of planned behaviour cognitive evaluation theory

1. National Identity Education

Education, which has a natural fit with national identity [1], is never neutral, but ideological and political. Numerous studies have shown that education can contribute to the development of young people’s national identity, which is why most countries have introduced citizenship education-related courses [2][3]. Wong et al. developed the Model of Teachers’ Perceptions of Moral and National Education (the Model) based on the teachers’ acceptance perspective, and the results showed that others’ support (e.g., parents, principals) was the most important aspect influencing teachers’ practice of national identity education [4]. In terms of curriculum classification, some countries or regions have introduced compulsory civics courses to help students become good citizens, while others have infiltrated the concept of national identity through the study of other subjects [5]. Sautereau et al. compare the differences in national identity discourses in France and Ireland, using civics courses in the two regions as an example, and the results of the empirical study show that humanities subjects such as English and history play a more influential role than natural subjects [6]. Of course, very few countries have not yet developed systematic national identity education due to force majeure such as war and religion [7]. Due to the influence of cognitive development, it is generally agreed that national identity education should start in primary school [8] and that it should be internalised and resolved during secondary school [9] so that a much more deeply entrenched concept of national identity can be formed at university and beyond [10][11]. A small number of regions agree that national identity education should be introduced at the preschool level, but on the premise of rationality and depoliticisation [12]. Selecting samples of students between the ages of 14 and 20 in a Xinjiang class school in China, Yuan provides an in-depth analysis of the impact of national identity education on adolescents by investigating National Commitment (NC) and National Exploration (NE) [13]. In terms of delivery methods, textbooks are uniquely placed to add national identity education in many countries [14]. However, attention should be paid to the developmental appropriateness of the choice of content for the students. For example, Danijela et al. classified the representation of national identity education in textbooks into 12 aspects, such as family, religion, language and so on, based on integrative developmental-contextual theory and societal–social–cognitive–motivational theory. The textbooks for the lower grades of primary school in Serbia were found to be under-represented in terms of family, religion, language and 12 other aspects of national identity education, and there were problems with the dynamics and continuity of the representations [15]. Research has also shown that study tours are an important way of promoting national identity education, with visits to historical sites and famous landscapes having a direct impact on students’ cognition, emotions and behaviour [16]. Wang et al. found that national identity education can positively influence individuals’ behavioural intentions by investigating the emotional experience of red tourists [17].
To sum up, in the existing research on national identity education, scholars mainly focus on the analysis of text materials and the investigation of the current status of students’ national identity education, and less on the professional development of teachers, especially pre-service teachers. Although national identity education is mainly presented from the aspects of identity and national pride, the description and understanding of national identity are not static [18], and how to recognize the relationship between national identity, liberalism and human rights is also an important part of civic education, which needs to be guided by teachers [19][20][21][22]. Pre-service teachers are the backbone of national identity education and the forerunners of Generation Z education, and they must be paid attention to [23].

2. Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)

The theory of planned behaviour, derived from the Theory of Reasoned Action, is an important theory that predicts and explains individual intentions and behaviours [24][25]. The theory of planned behavior has a wide range of applications in many fields such as health [26], education [27] and economics [28], and has provided practical solutions for the development of many fields. For example, when Roberta Riverso and others used the theory of planned behavior to investigate customers’ willingness to buy electric cars, they found that attitudes were the biggest factor influencing purchase intentions, so changing people’s utilitarian beliefs may be the best way to increase their willingness to buy pure electric cars. In the field of teacher education, the theory of planned behavior is often used to predict or explain teachers’ willingness to participate in an activity or to further explore the factors that influence teachers’ willingness to participate in an activity, as, for example, Zi Yan and Kuen-fung Sin analysed teachers’ intentions and behaviours in inclusive education from the perspective of the theory of planned behavior [29] from Yusop. FD explored the factors that influence pre-service teachers’ use of ICT in teaching practice based on the theory of planned behavior [30], and Qin, MF used the theory of planned behavior to construct a measurement model to investigate pre-service music teachers’ willingness to continue working in the profession [31].
Behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs are three constructs that are of particular interest to the theory of planned behavior. Ajzen argues that willingness to perform satisfies a certain functional relationship with the three beliefs, and therefore the theory of planned behaviour can be interpreted in three ways [24][25]. Behavioural beliefs refer to individuals’ judgements about the outcomes of their behaviour when engaging in a particular activity, with pre-service teachers’ attitudes in educational contexts being the main manifestation of behavioural beliefs [32]. Normative beliefs refer to the external pressures that individuals perceive when engaging in an activity, such as peer pressure, family atmosphere, social pressure, etc., and are an important influence on subjective norms; control beliefs are a new element based on the Theory of Reasoned Behaviour, which refers to the individual’s subjective judgement of their ability to engage in an activity, and is a potential variable in perceived behavioural control.

3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET)

Cognitive evaluation theory (CET) was developed by Professor Deci at the University of Rochester in the 1970s and revised with Ryan in the early 1980s. It is the first sub-theory of self-determination theory [33]. Internal motivation is the primary concern of cognitive appraisal theory, which suggests that internal motivation is influenced by the need for autonomy, competence and relatedness, and that when these three basic psychological needs are satisfied, individuals are able to show a greater intention to act [34][35]. Although cognitive evaluation theory focuses on an individual’s internal motivation, it also emphasises that the strengthening or weakening of internal motivation is influenced by the surrounding social environment [36] and is internally consistent with an individual’s willingness to behave, and therefore cognitive evaluation theory is a good indicator of an individual’s willingness to behave.
Many researchers have measured individual behavioural intentions based on cognitive evaluation theory. For example, Siyuan Miao et al. concluded that internal motivation, external motivation, reward and self-efficacy are the key factors influencing employees’ work engagement and intention to leave, and found that when only two variables, internal motivation and external motivation, acted on work engagement, the influence of internal motivation was greater, and when internal motivation, external motivation, reward and self-efficacy acted together on work engagement and intention to leave, the influence of internal motivation decreased [37].
Yan Xu et al. identified concentration, autonomy, competence and game rewards as important factors influencing consumers’ purchase intentions, and noted that autonomy could significantly influence consumers’ pleasure stimuli [38]. Focusing on the field of pedagogy, Lisa Legault pointed out that the factors that influence high school students’ academic motivation are task value, need for competence, task characteristics and need for effort, and the results of the study showed that the need for competence significantly influenced high school students’ academic motivation [39]. Presently, there are relatively few studies observing pre-service teachers’ behavioural intentions based on cognitive appraisal theory, but through the above analysis, it is possible to identify the need for autonomy, competence and relatedness as important factors in regulating pre-service teachers’ behavioural intentions.

References

  1. Murray, H. Curriculum wars: National identity in education. Lond. Rev. Educ. 2008, 6, 39–45.
  2. Idris, F.; Hassan, Z.; Ya’acob, A.; Gill, S.K.; Awal, N.A.M. The role of education in shaping youth’s national identity. Procedia-Soc. Behav. Sci. 2012, 59, 443–450.
  3. Mukhibat, M.; Effendi, M. Strengthening of National Identity Through Personality Development Based on Ethno-Pedagogy at Higher Education. Int. J. Psychosoc. Rehabil. 2020, 24, 2548–2559.
  4. Wong, K.L.; Haste, H.; Lee, J.C.-K.; Kennedy, K.J.; Chan, J.K.-S. A proposed model for teachers’ perceptions of national and moral education: A national identity building curriculum in post-colonial Hong Kong. J. Educ. Chang. 2021, 22, 221–246.
  5. Yuan, Y.; Fang, L. Cultivating College Students’ National Culture Identity Based on English Education. Engl. Lang. Teach. 2016, 9, 192.
  6. Sautereau, A.; Faas, D. Comparing national identity discourses in history, geography and civic education curricula: The case of France and Ireland. Eur. Educ. Res. J. 2022, 22, 555–571.
  7. Nguyen, C.H. Educating National Cultural Identity for Vietnamese Students: A Case Study at an Giang University. Univers. J. Educ. Res. 2021, 9, 1773–1784.
  8. Tormey, R. The construction of national identity through primary school history: The Irish case. Br. J. Sociol. Educ. 2006, 27, 311–324.
  9. Gelisli, Y.; Kazykhankyzy, L. Investigation of students’ perceptions of national identity. New Trends Issues Proc. Humanit. Soc. Sci. 2019, 6, 451–463.
  10. Gelisli, Y.; Beisenbayeva, L. Opinions of the University Students Studying in Kazakhstan about National Identity. Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci. 2015, 197, 486–493.
  11. Milošević-Đorđević, J. Primordialistic concept of national identity in Serbia. Psihologija 2007, 40, 385–397.
  12. Wong, J.M.S.; Wong, S.M.F. A struggle of identification: Hong Kong pre-service teachers’ perceived dilemma of introducing ‘national education’in preschools. Comp. A J. Comp. Int. Educ. 2022, 1–18.
  13. Yuan, Z.; Xie, Y.; Li, J.; Li, J.; Yang, R. Learning to Succeed? Interplay between Ethnic Identity, National Identity, and Students’ Perception on Social Mobility in a Xinjiang Class School of China. Sustainability 2022, 14, 4444.
  14. Al-Nakib, R. Citizenship, nationalism, human rights and democracy: A tangling of terms in the Kuwaiti curriculum. Educ. Res. 2011, 53, 165–178.
  15. Vasilijević, D.; Semiz, M. Representations of National Identity in the Methodological Apparatus/Structure of Science & Social Studies Textbooks in the LowerGrades of Primary School. Croat. J. Educ. 2023, 25.
  16. Hui, S.K.-F.; Cheung, F.K.-K.; Wong, Y.Y.-N. Nationalistic Education in a Post-colonial Age: The Impact of Study Trips to China and the Development of Hong Kong Students’ National Identity. Asia Pac. J. Educ. 2004, 24, 205–224.
  17. Wang, D.; Tang, Y.; Wang, Y. National identity and public-welfare behavior among Chinese adolescents: A mediated moderation model. Eur. J. Psychol. Open 2023. Advance online publication.
  18. Azada-Palacios, R.A. Hybridity and national identity in post-colonial schools. Educ. Philos. Theory 2022, 54, 1431–1441.
  19. White, J. Education and nationality. J. Philos. Educ. 1996, 30, 327–343.
  20. Moon, R.J. Negotiating human rights: Citizenship education in South Korea. Asia Pac. J. Educ. 2021, 1–14.
  21. Clark, E.R.; Flores, B.B. Who Am I? The Social Construction of Ethnic Identity and Self-Perceptions in Latino Preservice Teachers. Urban Rev. 2001, 33, 69–86.
  22. Osler, A. Teacher interpretations of citizenship education: National identity, cosmopolitan ideals, and political realities. J. Curric. Stud. 2011, 43, 1–24.
  23. Wang, C.K.J.; Liu, W.C. Teachers’ motivation to teach national education in Singapore: A self-determination theory approach. Asia Pac. J. Educ. 2008, 28, 395–410.
  24. Ajzen, I. The theory of planned behaviour: Reactions and reflections. Psychol. Health 2011, 26, 1113–1127.
  25. Ajzen, I. The theory of planned behavior. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 1991, 50, 179–211.
  26. Xie, X.; Wang, R.; Gou, Z. Incorporating motivation and execution into healthy building rating systems based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Build. Environ. 2022, 222, 109452.
  27. Knauder, H.; Koschmieder, C. Individualized student support in primary school teaching: A review of influencing factors using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Teach. Teach. Educ. 2019, 77, 66–76.
  28. Riverso, R.; Altamura, C.; La Barbera, F. Consumer Intention to Buy Electric Cars: Integrating Uncertainty in the Theory of Planned Behavior. Sustainability 2023, 15, 8548.
  29. Yan, Z.; Sin, K.-F. Inclusive education: Teachers’ intentions and behaviour analysed from the viewpoint of the theory of planned behaviour. Int. J. Incl. Educ. 2014, 18, 72–85.
  30. Yusop, F.D.; Habibi, A.; Razak, R.A. Factors Affecting Indonesian Preservice Teachers’ Use of ICT During Teaching Practices Through Theory of Planned Behavior. SAGE Open 2021, 11, 21582440211027572.
  31. Qin, M.; Tao, D. Understanding preservice music teachers’ intention to remain in the profession: An integrated model of the theory of planned behaviour and motivation theory. Int. J. Music. Educ. 2021, 39, 355–370.
  32. Opoku, M.P.; Cuskelly, M.; Pedersen, S.J.; Rayner, C.S. Applying the theory of planned behaviour in assessments of teachers’ intentions towards practicing inclusive education: A scoping review. Eur. J. Spéc. Needs Educ. 2021, 36, 577–592.
  33. Ryan, R.M.; Deci, E.L. Self-Determination Theory: Basic Psychological Needs in Motivation, Development, and Wellness. Guilford publications: New York, NY, USA, 2017.
  34. Deci, E.L.; Ryan, R.M. Self-determination theory: When mind mediates behavior. J. Mind Behav. 1980, 1, 33–43.
  35. Riley, G. The role of self-determination theory and cognitive evaluation theory in home education. Cogent Educ. 2016, 3, 1163651.
  36. Ryan, R.M.; Deci, E.L. Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic dialectical perspective. Handb. Self-Determ. Res. 2002, 2, 3–33.
  37. Miao, S.; Rhee, J.; Jun, I. How Much Does Extrinsic Motivation or Intrinsic Motivation Affect Job Engagement or Turnover Intention? A Comparison Study in China. Sustainability 2020, 12, 3630.
  38. Xu, Y.; Chen, Z.; Peng, M.Y.-P.; Anser, M.K. Enhancing Consumer Online Purchase Intention Through Gamification in China: Perspective of Cognitive Evaluation Theory. Front. Psychol. 2020, 11, 581200.
  39. Legault, L.; Green-Demers, I.; Pelletier, L. Why do high school students lack motivation in the classroom? Toward an understanding of academic amotivation and the role of social support. J. Educ. Psychol. 2006, 98, 567–582.
More
Information
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register : , , , ,
View Times: 291
Revisions: 3 times (View History)
Update Date: 06 Sep 2023
1000/1000
Video Production Service