Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 1270 2023-08-15 01:03:51 |
2 layout Meta information modification 1270 2023-08-15 02:30:53 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Islam, M.T.; Iyer-Raniga, U. Circular Economy and Circular Business Model. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/48058 (accessed on 14 June 2024).
Islam MT, Iyer-Raniga U. Circular Economy and Circular Business Model. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/48058. Accessed June 14, 2024.
Islam, Md Tasbirul, Usha Iyer-Raniga. "Circular Economy and Circular Business Model" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/48058 (accessed June 14, 2024).
Islam, M.T., & Iyer-Raniga, U. (2023, August 15). Circular Economy and Circular Business Model. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/48058
Islam, Md Tasbirul and Usha Iyer-Raniga. "Circular Economy and Circular Business Model." Encyclopedia. Web. 15 August, 2023.
Circular Economy and Circular Business Model
Edit

Circular business models (CBMs) are integral to the concept of the circular economy (CE). 

circular economy business model theory sustainability Sustainable business model Circular business model Business model innovation

1. Circular Economy

According to Ellen MacArthur Foundation [1], “A circular economy is an industrial system that is restorative or regenerative by intention and design. … It replaces the ‘end-of-life’ concept with restoration, shifts towards the use of renewable energy, eliminates the use of toxic chemicals, which impair reuse, and aims for the elimination of waste through the superior design of materials, products, systems, and, within this, business models”. Thus, from this definition, it is seen that the business model (BM) is an essential part that must be considered to have a CE. There are three main principles of CE, (P1) eliminate waste and pollution, (P2) circulate products and materials (at their highest value), (P3) regenerate natural ecosystem, and there are two distinct cycles with the concept (e.g., technical (P1 and P2-based) and biological cycle (P3-based) [1]. Subsequently, Kirchherr et al. [2] analyzed 114 different definitions of CE, indicating the research field’s intensity. At the same time, Potting et al. [3] proposed ten separate Rs contributing to circularity (including R0—refuse).

2. Circular Business Model

An Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) document published by Ekins et al. [4], named these strategies as circularity strategies (within a production chain). Therefore, a business model that incorporates Rs (hereafter R-strategies of CE strategies considered in this research) and essentially follows the principles in its operations (both internally and externally) should be called a CBM. Geissdoerfer, Pieroni, Pigosso, and Soufani [5] defined CBM as “business models that are cycling, extending, intensifying, and/or dematerializing material and energy loops to reduce the resource inputs into and the waste and emission leakage out of an organizational system. This comprises recycling measures (cycling), use phase extensions (extending), a more intense use phase (intensifying), and the substitution of products by service and software solutions (dematerializing)”. In this definition, Geissdoerfer, Pieroni, Pigosso, and Soufani [5], applied the CBM strategies—cycling, extending, intensifying, and dematerializing. These strategies were the modification or further characterization of the strategies (of slowing and closing the loop) that were previously provided by Bocken et al. [6] in two segments: (a) at the circular product design level and (b) at business model-level strategies. By adding “narrowing” and “regenerating” to the previous two strategies, Konietzko et al. [7] called them resource strategies (i.e., the flow of energy and material). The CBM archetypes and typology are still an emerging research area. There are a lot of definitions and typologies that have been developed. The most simplistic categorization in the Nordic Innovation Playbook has been made for CBM. According to Nordic Innovation [8], commonly, there are five types of CBM—(1) circular inputs, (2) sharing platform, (3) product as a service, (4) product use extension, and (5) resource recovery.

3. Theories in Circular Business Model

Analyzing theoretical perspectives is also critical when developing a tool and analyzing specific case studies. Lately, CBM has received tremendous attention among researchers from various disciplines, such as business, operations management, and social and political science. As an evolving research stream and urgency of the issue, researchers are combining various pre-existing theories with the concept. There are various schools of thought around the theory of the business model. According to Teece [9] business model “reflects management’s hypothesis about what customers want and how an enterprise can best meet those needs and get paid for doing so”. At the same time, Chesbrough and Rosenbloom [10], mentioned that “the function of a business model is to ‘articulate’ the value proposition, select the appropriate technology and features, identify target market segments, define the structure of the value chain, and estimate the cost structure and profit potential”. When it comes to CBM, which has been recently popularizing and still has ample opportunities to flourish, many of the authors mentioned that their contribution by developing frameworks and circular and sustainable business model innovation enriching BMT and its derivatives (i.e., sustainability-related business model) [11][12][13]. Hofmann et al. [14] mentioned that the business model itself is a central theoretical construct that exceeds more than just a vogue expression, which is also agreed by Joyce and Paquin [15]. Lewandowski [16] considered the circular economy concept as a contributor to the development of BMT. Authors who developed various tools (in the form of canvas) and frameworks mentioned that they directly contributed to BMT, such as Daou et al. [17]. Pollard et al. [18] mentioned that they contributed to the circular economy business model canvas theory and practice by developing a canvas focusing on the electrical and electronic sectors. Okorie et al. [19] also mentioned that CBM is a theory, and a firm can be considered a “bundle of value” when seen from the resource-based theory lens. The BMC components were considered the basis for the CBM theory. On the other hand, Nußholz [20] expressed skepticism around integrating resource efficiency within CBM as an implementable theory, which is left for future research consideration. There are still gaps in understanding and theoretical development about what makes a business “circular”.
Specifically, stakeholder theory is being applied by researchers in CBMI-related aspects. For risk assessment and management and triple bottom line perspectives by Wit and Pylak [21], for SBM (synergies in value creation) and strategic sustainability aligned with stakeholder interests by Kurucz et al. [22]. However, in developing the “Strongly Sustainable Business Model Canvas”, Kurucz, Colbert, Luedeke-Freund, Upward and Willard [22], have not mentioned or included any specific theory. Bocken [23] integrated stakeholder theory and other concepts such as system thinking, SBM, and value mapping for the conceptual framework development around shared value creation. According to the authors, authentic collaboration with critical stakeholders is optimal for creating shared value by understanding their concerns and requirements. Basile et al. [24] referenced economic, complexity, networks, and stakeholder theories. The author identified that the business model is a standalone theory related to business strategy, innovation management, and economic theory.
Hoveskog et al. [25] highlighted using experiential learning theory (ELT), in which learning occurs through action/reflection and experience/abstraction. Using the theory, the author developed a practical visual collaborative tool within an educational institution environment. Bocken et al. [26] considered the “Lean Startup” approach as a theory that directly links lean startup thinking, triple bottom line value creation (economic, social, and environmental), and the organizational capability of experimentation. Lewandowski [16] referenced force field theory as a driver for change management (behavioral change among staff) in organizations.
From the social enterprise perspective, Rahdari et al. [27] focused on entrepreneurship theory, considering such entrepreneurship as a social and economic catalyst. The authors mentioned the political theory that deeply explains business–society relationships. The authors also drew attention to corporate citizenship theory defining business and societal relationships. The economic development theory was also highlighted as a critical aspect of business research encompassing innovation, value creation, and changing value systems. The authors argued that Schumpeter’s general theory of entrepreneurship [28] clarifies social standpoints on the entrepreneurial processes of such enterprises. The authors included the corporate citizenship theory for their framework (i.e., best practices for agents of change). Brown et al. [29] have referenced entrepreneurship theory integrating decision-making principles into their collaborative circular proposition canvas. They argued that they contributed to theory by integrating effectuation, design thinking, and lean experimentation approaches into the canvas.
It is clear from research by Hernández-Chea et al. [30] that canvas-like business model innovation tools, such as their SBM-IP canvas, contributed to emerging interdisciplinary theory around IP, business model, and sustainability. Here, the business model was considered a standalone theory. By showing the value hill framework, Achterberg et al. [31] mentioned that more insights, both theory and practice, would be gained by connecting CBM with collaborative organizations and potential business logic.

References

  1. Ellen MacArthur Foundation. Towards the circular economy. J. Ind. Ecol. 2013, 2, 23–44.
  2. Kirchherr, J.; Reike, D.; Hekkert, M. Conceptualizing the circular economy: An analysis of 114 definitions. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2017, 127, 221–232.
  3. Potting, J.; Hekkert, M.P.; Worrell, E.; Hanemaaijer, A. Circular Economy: Measuring Innovation in the Product Chain; Utrecht University: Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2017.
  4. Ekins, P.; Domenech Aparisi, T.; Drummond, P.; Bleischwitz, R.; Hughes, N.; Lotti, L. The Circular Economy: What, Why, How and Where. 2019. Available online: https://www.oecd.org/cfe/regionaldevelopment/Ekins-2019-Circular-Economy-What-Why-How-Where.pdf (accessed on 21 July 2023).
  5. Geissdoerfer, M.; Pieroni, M.P.; Pigosso, D.C.; Soufani, K. Circular business models: A review. J. Clean. Prod. 2020, 277, 123741.
  6. Bocken, N.M.; De Pauw, I.; Bakker, C.; Van Der Grinten, B. Product design and business model strategies for a circular economy. J. Ind. Prod. Eng. 2016, 33, 308–320.
  7. Konietzko, J.; Bocken, N.; Hultink, E.J. Circular ecosystem innovation: An initial set of principles. J. Clean. Prod. 2020, 253, 119942.
  8. Nordic Innovation. Circular Business Models in the Nordic Manufacturing Industry. Available online: http://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1738958/FULLTEXT01.pdf (accessed on 8 June 2023).
  9. Teece, D.J. Explicating dynamic capabilities: The nature and microfoundations of (sustainable) enterprise performance. Strateg. Manag. J. 2007, 28, 1319–1350.
  10. Chesbrough, H.; Rosenbloom, R.S. The role of the business model in capturing value from innovation: Evidence from Xerox Corporation’s technology spin-off companies. Ind. Corp. Chang. 2002, 11, 529–555.
  11. Giourka, P.; Sanders, M.W.; Angelakoglou, K.; Pramangioulis, D.; Nikolopoulos, N.; Rakopoulos, D.; Tryferidis, A.; Tzovaras, D. The smart city business model canvas—A smart city business modeling framework and practical tool. Energies 2019, 12, 4798.
  12. Cardeal, G.; Höse, K.; Ribeiro, I.; Götze, U. Sustainable business models–canvas for sustainability, evaluation method, and their application to additive manufacturing in aircraft maintenance. Sustainability 2020, 12, 9130.
  13. Hamwi, M.; Lizarralde, I.; Legardeur, J. Demand response business model canvas: A tool for flexibility creation in the electricity markets. J. Clean. Prod. 2021, 282, 124539.
  14. Hofmann, F.; Marwede, M.; Nissen, N.; Lang, K. Circular added value: Business model design in the circular economy. In PLATE: Product Lifetimes and the Environment; IOS Press: Tepper Drive Clifton, VA, USA, 2017; pp. 171–177.
  15. Joyce, A.; Paquin, R.L. The triple layered business model canvas: A tool to design more sustainable business models. J. Clean. Prod. 2016, 135, 1474–1486.
  16. Lewandowski, M. Designing the business models for circular economy—Towards the conceptual framework. Sustainability 2016, 8, 43.
  17. Daou, A.; Mallat, C.; Chammas, G.; Cerantola, N.; Kayed, S.; Saliba, N.A. The Ecocanvas as a business model canvas for a circular economy. J. Clean. Prod. 2020, 258, 120938.
  18. Pollard, J.; Osmani, M.; Grubnic, S.; Díaz, A.I.; Grobe, K.; Kaba, A.; Ünlüer, Ö.; Panchal, R. Implementing a circular economy business model canvas in the electrical and electronic manufacturing sector: A case study approach. Sustain. Prod. Consump. 2023, 36, 17–31.
  19. Okorie, O.; Charnley, F.; Russell, J.; Tiwari, A.; Moreno, M. Circular business models in high value manufacturing: Five industry cases to bridge theory and practice. Bus. Strateg. Environ. 2021, 30, 1780–1802.
  20. Nußholz, J.L. Circular business models: Defining a concept and framing an emerging research field. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1810.
  21. Wit, B.; Pylak, K. Implementation of triple bottom line to a business model canvas in reverse logistics. Electron. Mark. 2020, 30, 679–697.
  22. Kurucz, E.C.; Colbert, B.A.; Luedeke-Freund, F.; Upward, A.; Willard, B. Relational leadership for strategic sustainability: Practices and capabilities to advance the design and assessment of sustainable business models. J. Clean. Prod. 2017, 140, 189–204.
  23. Bocken, N. Conceptual framework for shared value creation based on value mapping. In Proceedings of the Global Cleaner Production Conference, Sitges, Barcelona, 1–4 November 2015.
  24. Basile, V.; Capobianco, N.; Vona, R. The usefulness of sustainable business models: Analysis from oil and gas industry. Corp. Soc. Responsib. Environ. Manag. 2021, 28, 1801–1821.
  25. Hoveskog, M.; Halila, F.; Mattsson, M.; Upward, A.; Karlsson, N. Education for Sustainable Development: Business modelling for flourishing. J. Clean. Prod. 2018, 172, 4383–4396.
  26. Bocken, N.M.P.; Schuit, C.S.C.; Kraaijenhagen, C. Experimenting with a circular business model: Lessons from eight cases. Environ. Innov. Soc. Transit. 2018, 28, 79–95.
  27. Rahdari, A.; Sepasi, S.; Moradi, M. Achieving sustainability through Schumpeterian social entrepreneurship: The role of social enterprises. J. Clean. Prod. 2016, 137, 347–360.
  28. Schumpeter, J.A. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy; Routledge: Abingdon, UK, 2013.
  29. Brown, P.; Baldassarre, B.; Konietzko, J.; Bocken, N.; Balkenende, R. A tool for collaborative circular proposition design. J. Clean. Prod. 2021, 297, 126354.
  30. Hernández-Chea, R.; Vimalnath, P.; Bocken, N.; Tietze, F.; Eppinger, E. Integrating intellectual property and sustainable business models: The SBM-IP canvas. Sustainability 2020, 12, 8871.
  31. Achterberg, E.; Hinfelaar, J.; Bocken, N. Master Circular Busienss with the Value Hill. Available online: https://assets.website-files.com/5d26d80e8836af2d12ed1269/5dea74fe88e8a5c63e2c7121_finance-white-paper-20160923.pdf (accessed on 22 December 2022).
More
Information
Subjects: Business
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register : ,
View Times: 354
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 17 Aug 2023
1000/1000
Video Production Service