Submitted Successfully!
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Ver. Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 4274 2023-07-06 07:13:48 |
2 format correct Meta information modification 4274 2023-07-06 07:20:28 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?


Are you sure to Delete?
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Flores-Contreras, E.A.; Araújo, R.G.; Rodríguez-Aguayo, A.A.; Guzmán-Román, M.; García-Venegas, J.C.; Nájera-Martínez, E.F.; Sosa-Hernández, J.E.; Iqbal, H.M.N.; Melchor-Martínez, E.M.; Parra-Saldivar, R. Relationship between Polysaccharides Structures and Their Bioactivities. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 01 December 2023).
Flores-Contreras EA, Araújo RG, Rodríguez-Aguayo AA, Guzmán-Román M, García-Venegas JC, Nájera-Martínez EF, et al. Relationship between Polysaccharides Structures and Their Bioactivities. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed December 01, 2023.
Flores-Contreras, Elda A., Rafael G. Araújo, Arath A. Rodríguez-Aguayo, Muriel Guzmán-Román, Jesús Carlos García-Venegas, Erik Francisco Nájera-Martínez, Juan Eduardo Sosa-Hernández, Hafiz M. N. Iqbal, Elda M. Melchor-Martínez, Roberto Parra-Saldivar. "Relationship between Polysaccharides Structures and Their Bioactivities" Encyclopedia, (accessed December 01, 2023).
Flores-Contreras, E.A., Araújo, R.G., Rodríguez-Aguayo, A.A., Guzmán-Román, M., García-Venegas, J.C., Nájera-Martínez, E.F., Sosa-Hernández, J.E., Iqbal, H.M.N., Melchor-Martínez, E.M., & Parra-Saldivar, R.(2023, July 06). Relationship between Polysaccharides Structures and Their Bioactivities. In Encyclopedia.
Flores-Contreras, Elda A., et al. "Relationship between Polysaccharides Structures and Their Bioactivities." Encyclopedia. Web. 06 July, 2023.
Relationship between Polysaccharides Structures and Their Bioactivities

Brown macroalgae polysaccharides are known for their several potential therapeutic properties; in fact, they are used as an ingredient or component in a wide range of industries, including pharmaceutical, medical, food, and cosmetics. The most promising activities are in the field of medicine due to their antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic actions.

brown macroalgae bioactivity biopolymer extraction methods fucoidan

1. Anticancer Activity

Cancer is considered the main cause of death worldwide; in 2021, more than 10 million people died from this disease. Cancer is defined as a malignant tumor or neoplasm of abnormal tissue mass, which has the potential to metastasize and attack any part of the body with a high risk of death [1]. Therefore, research and science have been focused on developing precise and effective alternative techniques to reduce cancer’s impact on health and improve conventional treatments. New technologies using nanomedicine and biomaterials are under evaluation in clinical trials and others are already in clinical practice [2]. Biocompatible materials have been promising elements because they can be bioengineered in different forms as nanoparticles with important advantages, such as selectivity and efficacy in the attack on tumor cells [3].
Several researchers around the world have been promoting and reporting the anticancer activity of brown algae and the behavior of cancer cell lines in in vitro assays. One study reported the anticancer activity of laminarin by using L. japonica at a concentration of 35 mg/mL to significantly decrease the Bel-7404 (human hepatoma cell line) viability; for 48 h, the viability was only 46.20%, and for HepG2, it was only 42.85%. Regarding the apoptosis rate for the Bel-7404 cell line, it was 2.72 higher with laminarin, and for HepG2, it was 8.18 times higher than without treatment (Table 1) [4].
The bioactivity of fucoidan has been widely used due to its inherent anticancer properties, favorable drug delivery behavior, and promising targeting ability, resulting in the induction of cell apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis [5]. For example, in some species of brown seaweed, such as Turbinaria conoides, the anticancer effect on the hepatoblastoma-derived (HepG2) cell line has been studied through a cell viability assay, using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT and different concentrations (0–200 μg/mL) of fucoidan/quercetin treatments for 48 h. The results show that the fucoidan/quercetin treatment reduced cell viability to less than 50% in a concentration-dependent manner. A concentration of 200 μg/mL demonstrated a better performance. The results conclude that fucoidan had more significant anticancer activity compared to quercetin [6].
On the other hand, alginate has not been as widely used in anticancer activity as other brown algae polysaccharides, even though some reports of the cytotoxic effects alone or in combination with different compounds have demonstrated the potential that alginate could contribute to cancer treatments. A study using polysaccharides from brown algae C. Sinuosa showed the bioactivity of alginate by promoting a significant decrease in the cell viability of HCT-116 cells, with an IC50 of 690 μg/mL−1 and a 37.1% inhibition rate at 750 μg/mL−1. Nevertheless, fucoidan at similar high concentrations resulted in a better inhibition rate of 45% [7]. Alginate can play a major role in encapsulation as alginate-based hydrogels for cancer therapy, which can control and target drug administration, improving the stability and minimizing unwanted effects, time, and effort [8][9]. Recent research has reported that low-weight alginate oligosaccharides have better anticancer activity than complete polysaccharide because they prevent cancer cell proliferation and reduce tumor metastasis, in addition to providing antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties [10].
Table 1. Biomedicine and therapeutic applications of polysaccharides from brown algae species.

2. Antioxidant Activity

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in biological reactions and intracellular signaling pathways. They are normal products derived from metabolism, such as hydroxyl radicals (OH•), superoxide radicals (•O2−), peroxyl radicals (ROO•), peroxide organics (ROOR’), peroxynitrite (ONOO), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). However, a major problem is caused when oxidative stress is present due to the abnormal proliferation of ROS, which has the potential to induce damage in cells in a significant range; vital biomolecules, such as DNA, proteins, and lipids, among others, are affected by oxidative stress and can cause serious diseases, including neurodegeneration diseases, cancer, arthritis, and atherosclerosis [10][27]. Thus, scientists have been searching for years for potential solutions, such as antioxidants that have a significant role in inhibiting oxidation reactions caused by ROS.
Nowadays, it is known that synthetic antioxidants have generally been used in the food industry as additives. Their long-term use produces side effects, bringing notable attention to natural antioxidants. Algal extracts from different species have demonstrated a crucial opportunity to contribute to this sector; in fact, more than fifty species of brown algae from around the globe have been reported to show significant antioxidant activities [28]. The main bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity in brown seaweed species are phlorotannin, fucoxanthin, and polysaccharides, such as alginic acid, fucoidan, and laminarin. These have been studied extensively due to the interest in their potential implementation in pharmaceuticals [29].
Laminarin presents potential antioxidant activity, especially against oxidative stress caused by ROS and free radicals. Crude laminarin extract from brown algae L. hyperborean has exhibited higher DPPH radical scavenging (38.62%) compared to commercial laminarin standard (13.93%) from SigmaTM (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). These results agree with the theory that the polysaccharides’ structures have antioxidant activity [30]. In vivo trials have been reported, usually in rats and porcine, to demonstrate the potential effect of laminarin in pulmonary and lipid oxidations, in addition to increased natural antioxidant properties and mitigating ROS generation [31].
Fucoidan antioxidant assays have been applied alone and combined with other sulfated polysaccharides. Fucoidan from C. Sinuosa displayed a high antioxidant capacity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) assays, showing remarkable scavenging activity of 89% at 750 μg/mL−1, DPPH IC50 of 46.2, and SOD IC50 23.7 [7]. Sulfated fucoidan of Sargassum polycitum has also demonstrated antioxidant behavior using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method; the results of IC50 of 41,667 ppm show intense activity [32]. Other recent fucoidan antioxidant results demonstrating the activities of Sargassum ilicifolium, Silvetia Compressa, and Sargassum siliquosum are described in Table 1.
Alginate has been widely used as an antioxidant agent, including as a crude extract, combined, and even as base material for encapsulation. The polysaccharide has indicated an ability to scavenge free radicals and reduce ROS disorder. Favorable antioxidant results of alginate alkaline treatment have been reported in a range from 35.83 to 120.48 μMTEg−1 and temperature stable up to 50 °C, decreasing in the temperature range of 70–100 °C [33]. However, recent studies have suggested that alginate oligosaccharides have a better and significant enhancement in antioxidant activities and the capacity to protect endothelial cells, providing a possible therapeutic application for atherosclerosis and related diseases [17].

3. Anti-Inflammatory Activity

External stimuli, such as injuries or the appearance of pathogenic microorganisms, as well as internal stimuli, such as stress that is considered harmful for any living system, trigger the natural response of inflammation. The inflammatory reaction includes the activation of the immune system, particularly the macrophage and neutrophil cells, which, during the inflammation process, generate secondary factors, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) [34]. The cytokines known as interleukin-1B (IL-1B), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alfa), and interleukin-12 (IL-12), as well as enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), are global biomarkers of inflammation [35][36][37].
The biopolymers from brown macroalgae have shown strong anti-inflammatory activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Wang et al. [17] obtained a rich sulfated polysaccharide extract from the Sargassum fulvellum and tested its anti-inflammatory properties against RAW 264.7 macrophages and zebrafish embryos stressed by E. coli lipopolysaccharides. The extract was able to increase the cell viability of the macrophages up to 94.6%, while the levels of NO, PGE2, TNF-alfa, and interleukins 1 and 6 decreased significantly (Table 1). In a similar way, the zebrafish embryos treated with the sulfated polysaccharides increased their survivability by 70%; in addition, the NO levels, the reactive oxygen species, and the overall cell death was reduced as an effect of the sulfated polysaccharides. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments showed a concentration-dependent behavior, and the best results were obtained with the higher polysaccharide concentration of 100 µg/mL. Another study by Manikandan et al. based on an in vivo model reported high anti-inflammatory activity from a fucoidan extracted from brown algae [18]. They used fucoidan extracted from Turbinaria decurrens to explore its activity against formalin-induced paw edema in Swiss albino mice. Their results demonstrate that the polysaccharide administered orally was able to reduce the licking time of the mice of the paw edema by more than 55%, meaning it reduced the mice’s perception of the wound. In addition, the inflammation of the paw edema was reduced by 52% utilizing the standard treatment drug called dexamethasone. An analysis of the paw tissues of the mice reported a reduction in the expression of the COX-2, IL-1B, and MMP-9 genes in comparison to the gene’s expression of the untreated mice with induced paw edema. A study exploring the anti-inflammatory activity of polysaccharides from brown algae was made by Wang et al. [14]: they extracted sulfated polysaccharides from the Sargassum fusiforme by an enzymatic method and tested the extracts on LPS-induced stress RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory activity was analyzed by reading the level of expression of common inflammatory factors, such as NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2. The sulfated polysaccharides were able to decrease the level of expression of these markers in a dose-dependent behavior; in addition, the cellular viability was enhanced as a result of the reduction of the NO levels.

4. Antiviral Activity

Viral infections have caused a severe burden on public health around the globe, especially with the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Viruses are divided into two types: simple (or non-enveloped), which are made up of nucleic acid and a protein capsid, and complex (enveloped), which have a lipoprotein envelope over the protein capsid, making them stronger to protect against environmental factors and conferring protection from viruses to disinfectants or antiviral agents. Nevertheless, to reduce collateral effects from synthetic drugs, pharmacology has been searching for and developing novel, natural, and antiviral agents in order to help alleviate symptoms, shorten the disease period, and minimize side effects and toxicity [38]. Recently, it has been reported in several studies that the antiviral properties of sea life is not only limited to polysaccharides from brown algae, but can also be found in sea cucumber, navicula, green algae, blue–green algae, red algae, and even in chondroitin sulfate from sharks. Recent research indicates the capacity to mitigate viruses by preventing them from interacting with host cells, inhibiting RNA replication and protein synthesis [39].
In this sense, a wide range of studies has been reported on alginate-based materials to verify the antiviral properties of more than 15 types of viruses that can infect different organisms. Alginic acid has been tested against the rabies virus in chicken embryo-related cells, showing a dose-dependent inhibitory effect from 1 to 100 μg/mL. Sodium alginate has also inhibited potato virus X by 95% using Chenopodium quinoa as a host; a strong antiviral effect was demonstrated at a concentration of 1 μg/μL [40]. Furthermore, these previous studies led to research lines for alginate-based biomaterials against SARS-CoV-2.
Laminarin acts by promoting the humoral immune response of virus-infected host cells and activating natural killer (NK) cells and T-lymphocytes [41]. Therefore, laminarin isolated from brown seaweed could be a source of new alternatives against HIV. Shi et al. [42] used a concentration of 50 mg/mL and demonstrated low cytotoxicity; furthermore, they were able to block the adsorption of the virus and suppress the reverse transcriptase. Additionally, other authors have found a positive antiviral response from the laminarin of L. japonica against respiratory viruses, such as H5N1 and the RSV virus [20].
Fucoidan is the brown algae biopolymer with the largest spectrum of antiviral properties reported; nevertheless, its bioactive capacity depends on the large size chain, molar composition, and structural attributes, such as the molecular weight and chemical compositions, which can be affected by variations in the season and the specie [43]. There is a wide range of viruses that fucoidan can be inhibit as an antiviral, such as RNA and DNA viruses, including HIV, HSV1-2, ASFV, HTLV-1, MPMV, dengue virus, and cytomegalovirus. Moreover, fucoidan can regulate mitosis or cellular apoptosis due to its capacity to inhibit digestive enzymes and interrupt glucose absorption. It has been shown to have positive responses against HIV. Fucoidan from Sargassum henslowianum was used against the herpes virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and demonstrated an IC50 of 0.82–0.89 μg/mL by plaque reduction assay; it also showed 0.48 μg/mL against HSV-2 [44]. Recently, the antiviral action of fucoidan has been tested to determine its usefulness against the current pandemic; in fact, in vitro models have demonstrated efficacy against SARS-CoV-2, significantly inhibiting the effect of viral spike protein binding [45]. Fucoidan concentrations between 9.10–15.6 μg/mL have inhibited SARS-CoV-2 in vitro via S glycoprotein binding. In addition, some reports of comparations of different weights of fucoidan have been performed using Saccharina japonica in HMW (8.3 μg/mL), significantly better than LMW (16 μg/mL) [46][47].

5. Non-Conventional Activities

Besides the known variety of studied bioactivities of polysaccharides extracted from brown algae, these polysaccharides have recently been tested in new applications. The latest evidence proves that these polysaccharides are able to benefit the gastrointestinal tract, improve the angiogenesis process, soothe metabolic syndrome, and enhance bone health [48].
The process in which new blood vessels are formed from old blood vessels is known as angiogenesis. This process consists of four stages: (1) the vascular permeability rises, (2) the endothelial cells travel through the extracellular matrix, (3) the differentiation occurs, and finally, (4) the new vessels form and mature after a short time [49]. The failure of any part of this process can lead to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, but most importantly, can also lead to the growth of carcinogenic cells and therefore to cancer and potential metastasis [50]. Brown macroalgae biopolymers have been used as a countermeasure for uncontrolled angiogenesis. Oliveira et al. [22] used a fucoidan extracted from Fucus vesiculosus to prevent the formation of new blood vessels in endothelial cells and in chicken embryos. The extracted fucoidan at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL was able to prevent the formation of more tubular formations on epithelial cells and the presence of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was downregulated; this factor is necessary for the proper maturation of blood vessels. In addition, the cells treated with this fucoidan presented a tendency to aggregate instead of spreading and connecting with each other. The chicken embryos treated with the fucoidan presented a decrement of blood vessels and the tumoral mass, supporting the activity of fucoidan as a component to prevent tumor progression. Another similar experiment was conducted by Ohmes et al. [23]. They tested fucoidan extracted from Fucus distichus subsp. evanesces into mono- and co-cultured human outgrowth endothelial cells (OEC) and human mesenchymal stem (MSC) cells. The fucoidan was obtained by enzymatic extraction with cellulases and alginate lyases, then different concentrations of fucoidan were tested in the different cultures. The level of expression of different genes, such as angiopoietins-1 (ANG-1), angiopoietins-2 (ANG-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), were measured to analyze the anti-angiogenic properties of the fucoidan extracted, as well as the length and area of the tube-like structures formed by the co-culture of the cells. The fucoidan was able to downregulate the expression of all the genes in MSC; however, the ANG-1 and ANG-2 in the OEC did not decrease because of the fucoidan. The fucoidan extract was able to disrupt and decrease the length and area of the tube-like structures formed during the co-culture of both MSC and OEC cells, showing a strong bioactivity against angiogenesis.
In addition, several researchers have found a prebiotic effect on human intestinal microbiota in brown algae polysaccharides. This is because they are not digestible by hydrolytic enzymes and are fermented in the colon by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, improving growth and decreasing the concentrations of pathogens. However, digestion affects the activity of algae polysaccharides, therefore it is essential to verify resistance to hydrolysis under in vitro conditions [51]. Okolie et al. [24] worked with sodium alginate extracted from Ascophyllum nodosum by different extraction methods. The prebiotic activity was demonstrated by the in vitro growth rate of the Lactobacillus delbruecki ssp bulgaricus strain in growth media supplemented at 0.10, 0.30, and 0.50% (w/v). It was shown that the activity level depends on the concentration compared to the medium without supplements as a control; it was also shown that there are no significant differences between the techniques of extraction methods. It is important to note that in vivo experiments have generally been performed on rats, pigs, and mice. Zheng et al. [52] reviewed many of these and reported studies for the three brown algae biopolymers that had shown the prebiotic effect, especially by the Bacteroides genus, which projects the great potential of these macroalgae biocomposites for functional foods and drugs.
Polysaccharides from brown algae have attracted particular attention in the biomedical field due to their unique properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxic, non-immunogenic, moisture-retaining, swelling ability, and resembling the structure of the extracellular matrix. Over the last few decades, polysaccharides have been used in biomedical treatments, especially for drug delivery systems, wound healing, and tissue engineering using modern polymer-production technologies, such as 3D-bioprinting or electrospinning [53]. Wound healing consists of several overlapping phases that are intended to restore the anatomical structure and retrieve function of damaged skin. Tissue engineering aims to regenerate damaged tissue/organs using cells, growth factors, and scaffolds [54]. Biopolymers, such as alginate, collagen, and chitosan, are the most used raw material for scaffold manufacturing due to their good plasticity behavior, drug compatibility, and biodegradability; however, synthetic biomaterials improve mechanical properties [55]. Alginate-based biomaterials have been the most used brown algae biopolymer due to their superior capacity to form scaffolding materials, including hydrogels, microcapsules, foams, sponges, and fibers [56]. Iglesias-Metujo and García-Gonzalez designed 3D-printing aerogel scaffolds for bone regeneration in an alginate concentration range of 6–10 wt% and a CaCl2 concentration of 0.5 M. In this study, the authors added hydroxyapatite to preserve the geometry of the strands, while the structural stability and yielding scaffolds were improved. The alginate–hydroxyapatite scaffolds were highly porous; furthermore, they were able to attach and proliferate mesenchymal stem cells, in addition to presenting an enhancement of the fibroblast migration in damaged tissue, which supports the bone regeneration potential. There currently exists a wide range of commercial wound dressing products using sodium or calcium alginate in combination with bioactive compounds for specific applications in biomedicine, such as Algicell™, Integra LifeSciences Corp ™, Biatain™, Comfeel Plus™, and Nu-derm™, among others [57].


  1. Cancer. Available online: (accessed on 29 October 2021).
  2. Pucci, C.; Martinelli, C.; Ciofani, G. Innovative approaches for cancer treatment: Current perspectives and new challenges. Ecancermedicalscience 2019, 13, 961.
  3. Martinelli, C.; Pucci, C.; Ciofani, G. Nanostructured carriers as innovative tools for cancer diagnosis and therapy. APL Bioeng. 2019, 3, 011502.
  4. Tian, L.; Li, C.M.; Li, Y.F.; Huang, T.M.; Chao, N.X.; Luo, G.R.; Mo, F.R. Laminarin from Seaweed (Laminaria japonica) Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Through Upregulating Senescence Marker Protein-30. Cancer Biother. Radiopharm. 2020, 35, 277.
  5. Etman, S.M.; Elnaggar, Y.S.R.; Abdallah, O.Y. Fucoidan, a natural biopolymer in cancer combating: From edible algae to nanocarrier tailoring. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 147, 799–808.
  6. PArumugam, P.; Arunkumar, K.; Sivakumar, L.; Murugan, M.; Murugan, K. Anticancer effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, genetic damage and apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cancer cells. Toxicol. Rep. 2019, 6, 556.
  7. Al Monla, R.; Dassouki, Z.; Sari-Chmayssem, N.; Mawlawi, H.; Gali-Muhtasib, H. Fucoidan and Alginate from the Brown Algae Colpomenia sinuosa and Their Combination with Vitamin C Trigger Apoptosis in Colon Cancer. Molecules 2022, 27, 358.
  8. Reig-Vano, B.; Tylkowski, B.; Montané, X.; Giamberini, M. Alginate-based hydrogels for cancer therapy and research. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 170, 424–436.
  9. Shaikh, M.A.J.; Alharbi, K.S.; Almalki, W.H.; Imam, S.S.; Albratty, M.; Meraya, A.M.; Alzarea, S.I.; Kazmi, I.; Al-Abbasi, F.A.; Afzal, O.; et al. Sodium alginate based drug delivery in management of breast cancer. Carbohydr. Polym. 2022, 292, 119689.
  10. Xing, M.; Qi, C.; Yu, W.; Han, X.; Jiarui, Z.; Qing, Z.; Aiguo, J.; Shuliang, S. Advances in Research on the Bioactivity of Alginate Oligosaccharides. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 144.
  11. Arunkumar, K.; Raja, R.; Kumar, V.B.S.; Joseph, A.; Shilpa, T.; Carvalho, I.S. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of sulfated polysaccharides from five different edible seaweeds. J. Food Meas. Charact. 2021, 15, 567–576.
  12. Devi , G.V.Y.; Nagendra, A.H.; Shenoy, P.S.; Chatterjee, K.; Venkatesan, J. Isolation and purification of fucoidan from Sargassum ilicifolium: Osteogenic differentiation potential in mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue engineering. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. 2022, 136, 104418.
  13. Múzquiz De La Garza, A.R.; Tapia-Salazar, M.; Maldonado-Muñiz, M.; De La Rosa-Millán, J.; Gutiérrez-Uribe, J.A.; Santos-Zea, L.; Barba-Dávila, B.A.; Ricque-Marie, D.; Cruz-Suárez, L.E. Nutraceutical Potential of Five Mexican Brown Seaweeds. Biomed. Res. Int. 2019, 2019, 3795160.
  14. Wang, S.H.; Huang, C.Y.; Chen, C.Y.; Chang, C.C.; Huang, C.Y.; Di Dong, C.; Chang, J.S. Structure and Biological Activity Analysis of Fucoidan Isolated from Sargassum siliquosum. ACS Omega 2020, 5, 32447–32455.
  15. Fernando, I.P.S.; Jayawardena, T.U.; Sanjeewa, K.K.A.; Wang, L.; Jeon, Y.J.; Lee, W.W. Anti-inflammatory potential of alginic acid from Sargassum horneri against urban aerosol-induced inflammatory responses in keratinocytes and macrophages. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2018, 160, 24–31.
  16. Sanjeewa, K.K.A.; Jayawardena, T.U.; Kim, S.Y.; Kim, H.S.; Ahn, G.; Kim, J.; Jeon, Y.J. Fucoidan isolated from invasive Sargassum horneri inhibit LPS-induced inflammation via blocking NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Algal Res. 2019, 41, 101561.
  17. Wang, M.; Chen, L.; Zhang, Z. Potential applications of alginate oligosaccharides for biomedicine—A mini review. Carbohydr. Polym. 2021, 271, 118408.
  18. Manikandan, R.; Parimalanandhini, D.; Mahalakshmi, K.; Beulaja, M.; Arumugam, M.; Janarthanan, S.; Palanisamy, S.; You, S.G.; Prabhu, N.M. Studies on isolation, characterization of fucoidan from brown algae Turbinaria decurrens and evaluation of it’s in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 160, 1263–1276.
  19. Wang, L.; Oh, J.Y.; Jayawardena, T.U.; Jeon, Y.J.; Ryu, B.M. Anti-inflammatory and anti-melanogenesis activities of sulfated polysaccharides isolated from Hizikia fusiforme: Short communication. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 142, 545–550.
  20. Cao, Y.G.; Hao, Y.; Li, Z.H.; Liu, S.T.; Wang, L. xin Antiviral activity of polysaccharide extract from Laminaria japonica against respiratory syncytial virus. Biomed. Pharmacother. 2016, 84, 1705–1710.
  21. Palanisamy, S.; Vinosha, M.; Rajasekar, P.; Anjali, R.; Sathiyaraj, G.; Marudhupandi, T.; Selvam, S.; Prabhu, N.M.; You, S.G. Antibacterial efficacy of a fucoidan fraction (Fu-F2) extracted from Sargassum polycystum. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2019, 125, 485–495.
  22. Oliveira, C.; Granja, S.; Neves, N.M.; Reis, R.L.; Baltazar, F.; Silva, T.H.; Martins, A. Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus inhibits new blood vessel formation and breast tumor growth in vivo. Carbohydr. Polym. 2019, 223, 115034.
  23. Ohmes, J.; Xiao, Y.; Wang, F.; Mikkelsen, M.D.; Nguyen, T.T.; Schmidt, H.; Seekamp, A.; Meyer, A.S.; Fuchs, S. Effect of Enzymatically Extracted Fucoidans on Angiogenesis and Osteogenesis in Primary Cell Culture Systems Mimicking Bone Tissue Environment. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 481.
  24. Okolie, C.L.; Mason, B.; Mohan, A.; Pitts, N.; Udenigwe, C.C. Extraction technology impacts on the structure-function relationship between sodium alginate extracts and their in vitro prebiotic activity. Food Biosci. 2020, 37, 100672.
  25. Huang, C.Y.; Huang, C.Y.; Yang, C.C.; Lee, T.M.; Chang, J.S. Hair growth-promoting effects of Sargassum glaucescens oligosaccharides extracts. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. 2022, 134, 104307.
  26. Amiri Goushki, M.; Sabahi, H.; Kabiri, M. In Vitro Evaluation of the Wound Healing Properties and Safety Assessment of Fucoidan Extracted from Sargassum angustifolium. Curr. Appl. Sci. Technol. 2023, 23, 10-55003.
  27. Sanjeewa, K.K.A.; Lee, J.S.; Kim, W.S.; Jeon, Y.J. The potential of brown-algae polysaccharides for the development of anticancer agents: An update on anticancer effects reported for fucoidan and laminaran. Carbohydr. Polym. 2017, 177, 451–459.
  28. Güven, K.C.; Coban, B.; Özdemir, O. Pharmacology of Marine Macroalgae. Encycl. Mar. Biotechnol. 2020, 1, 585–615.
  29. Remya, R.R.; Samrot, A.V.; Suresh Kumar, S.; Mohanavel, V.; Karthick, A.; Kumar Chinnaiyan, V.; Umapathy, D.; Muhibbullah, M. Bioactive Potential of Brown Algae. Adsorpt. Sci. Technol. 2022, 2022, 9104835.
  30. Rajauria, G.; Ravindran, R.; Garcia-Vaquero, M.; Rai, D.K.; Sweeney, T.; O’Doherty, J. Molecular characteristics and antioxidant activity of laminarin extracted from the seaweed species Laminaria hyperborea, using hydrothermal-assisted extraction and a multi-step purification procedure. Food Hydrocoll. 2021, 112, 106332.
  31. Zargarzadeh, M.; Amaral, A.J.R.; Custódio, C.A.; Mano, J.F. Biomedical applications of laminarin. Carbohydr. Polym. 2020, 232, 115774.
  32. Manggau, M.; Kasim, S.; Fitri, N.; Aulia, N.S.; Agustiani, A.N.; Raihan, M.; Nurdin, W.B. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant activities of sulfate polysaccharide isolate from brown alga Sargassum policystum. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2022, 967, 012029.
  33. Nogueira, M.T.; Chica, L.R.; Yamashita, C.; Nunes, N.S.S.; Moraes, I.C.F.; Branco, C.C.Z.; Branco, I.G. Optimal conditions for alkaline treatment of alginate extraction from the brown seaweed Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh by response surface methodology. Appl. Food Res. 2022, 2, 100141.
  34. Apostolova, E.; Lukova, P.; Baldzhieva, A.; Katsarov, P.; Nikolova, M.; Iliev, I.; Peychev, L.; Trica, B.; Oancea, F.; Delattre, C.; et al. Immunomodulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Fucoidan: A Review. Polymers 2020, 12, 2338.
  35. Park, J.C.; Han, S.H.; Mook-Jung, I. Peripheral inflammatory biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease: A brief review. BMB Rep. 2020, 53, 10–19.
  36. Silva, N.J.; Nagashima, M.; Li, J.; Kakuk-Atkins, L.; Ashrafzadeh, M.; Hyde, D.R.; Hitchcock, P.F. Inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Mmp-9) regulate photoreceptor regeneration in adult zebrafish. Glia 2020, 68, 1445–1465.
  37. Rawat, C.; Kukal, S.; Dahiya, U.R.; Kukreti, R. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors: Future therapeutic strategies for epilepsy management. J. Neuroinflamm. 2019, 16, 1–15.
  38. Lomartire, S.; Gonçalves, A.M.M. Antiviral Activity and Mechanisms of Seaweeds Bioactive Compounds on Enveloped Viruses—A Review. Mar. Drugs 2022, 20, 385.
  39. Kaparapu, J.; Krishna Prasad, M.; Mohan Narasimha Rao, G. Antiviral potentials of marine algal bioactive compounds for coronavirus drug discovery. Coronavirus Drug Discov. 2022, 2, 225–245.
  40. Serrano-Aroca, Á.; Ferrandis-Montesinos, M.; Wang, R. Antiviral Properties of Alginate-Based Biomaterials: Promising AntiviralAgents against SARS-CoV-2. ACS Appl. Bio Mater. 2021, 4, 5897–5907.
  41. Liu, J.; Obaidi, I.; Nagar, S.; Scalabrino, G.; Sheridan, H. The antiviral potential of algal-derived macromolecules. Curr. Res. Biotechnol. 2021, 3, 120–134.
  42. Shi, Q.; Wang, A.; Lu, Z.; Qin, C.; Hu, J.; Yin, J. Overview on the antiviral activities and mechanisms of marine polysaccharides from seaweeds. Carbohydr. Res. 2017, 453–454, 1–9.
  43. Bai, R.G.; Tuvikene, R. Potential Antiviral Properties of Industrially Important Marine Algal Polysaccharides and Their Significance in Fighting a Future Viral Pandemic. Viruses 2021, 13, 1817.
  44. Sun, Q.L.; Li, Y.; Ni, L.Q.; Li, Y.X.; Cui, Y.S.; Jiang, S.L.; Xie, E.Y.; Du, J.; Deng, F.; Dong, C.X. Structural characterization and antiviral activity of two fucoidans from the brown algae Sargassum henslowianum. Carbohydr. Polym. 2020, 229, 115487.
  45. Pradhan, B.; Nayak, R.; Patra, S.; Bhuyan, P.P.; Behera, P.K.; Mandal, A.K.; Behera, C.; Ki, J.S.; Adhikary, S.P.; MubarakAli, D.; et al. A state-of-the-art review on fucoidan as an antiviral agent to combat viral infections. Carbohydr. Polym. 2022, 291, 119551.
  46. Song, S.; Peng, H.; Wang, Q.; Liu, Z.; Dong, X.; Wen, C.; Ai, C.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Zhu, B. Inhibitory activities of marine sulfated polysaccharides against SARS-CoV-2. Food Funct. 2020, 11, 7415–7420.
  47. Kwon, P.S.; Oh, H.; Kwon, S.J.; Jin, W.; Zhang, F.; Fraser, K.; Hong, J.J.; Linhardt, R.J.; Dordick, J.S. Sulfated polysaccharides effectively inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Cell Discov. 2020, 6, 50.
  48. Wang, Y.; Xing, M.; Cao, Q.; Ji, A.; Liang, H.; Song, S. Biological Activities of Fucoidan and the Factors Mediating Its Therapeutic Effects: A Review of Recent Studies. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 183.
  49. Yao, W.; Qiu, H.M.; Cheong, K.L.; Zhong, S. Advances in anti-cancer effects and underlying mechanisms of marine algae polysaccharides. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2022, 221, 472–485.
  50. Li, Z.; Wu, N.; Wang, J.; Yue, Y.; Geng, L.; Zhang, Q. Low molecular weight fucoidan alleviates cerebrovascular damage by promoting angiogenesis in type 2 diabetes mice. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2022, 217, 345–355.
  51. Corino, C.; Di Giancamillo, A.; Modina, S.C.; Rossi, R. Prebiotic Effects of Seaweed Polysaccharides in Pigs. Animals 2021, 11, 1573.
  52. Zheng, L.X.; Chen, X.Q.; Cheong, K.L. Current trends in marine algae polysaccharides: The digestive tract, microbial catabolism, and prebiotic potential. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 151, 344–354.
  53. Sahoo, D.R.; Biswal, T. Alginate and its application to tissue engineering. SN Appl. Sci. 2021, 3, 30.
  54. Liu, R.; Pang, Y.; Xiao, T.; Zhang, S.; Liu, Y.; Min, Y. Multifunctional PCL composite nanofibers reinforced with lignin and ZIF-8 for the treatment of bone defects. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2022, 218, 1–8.
  55. Melchor-Martínez, E.M.; Torres Castillo, N.E.; Macias-Garbett, R.; Lucero-Saucedo, S.L.; Parra-Saldívar, R.; Sosa-Hernández, J.E. Modern World Applications for Nano-Bio Materials: Tissue Engineering and COVID-19. Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 2021, 9, 597958.
  56. Iglesias-Mejuto, A.; García-González, C.A. 3D-printed alginate-hydroxyapatite aerogel scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2021, 131, 112525.
  57. Kuznetsova, T.A.; Andryukov, B.G.; Besednova, N.N.; Zaporozhets, T.S.; Kalinin, A.V. Marine Algae Polysaccharides as Basis for Wound Dressings, Drug Delivery, and Tissue Engineering: A Review. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 481.
Subjects: Plant Sciences
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to : , , , , , , , , ,
View Times: 162
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 06 Jul 2023