Environmental changes, including exposure to terrorism, are a growing concern for employees worldwide. This has increased the need to examine the impact of terrorism on employee work outcomes. Gürsoy and Chi 
found that employees directly exposed to terrorism experienced a significant decline in job performance. Exposure to terrorism can have a profound negative impact on university employee performance. Studies have shown that such exposure can lead to significant levels of stress and anxiety, which can negatively affect cognitive function, job satisfaction, and overall job performance 
. Prior research has found that employees who live in areas that are frequently targeted by terrorism are more likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including intrusive thoughts, avoidance behaviors, and hyperarousal 
. These symptoms can negatively impact job performance by decreasing focus and motivation and increasing absenteeism and turnover 
. PTSD disorder leads to occupational instability and can severely impair the daily lives of those who experience it 
Moreover, individuals with a sound psychological state tend to have a higher probability of participating in and fulfilling jobs and can enjoy a better standard of living 
. However, vulnerable individuals may lack adequate social support, making it harder to handle stress. It can result in them isolating themselves from essential members of society, causing occupational alienation. To ensure that teachers can effectively perform their jobs and provide students with a supportive learning environment, it is critical to address the issue of PTSD among teachers, as it significantly impacts work performance and overall well-being 
. The current study posits that social support is an important boundary condition that can attenuate the negative relationship between PTSD and job performance among university teachers. Exposure to terrorism can result in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), negatively affecting employee performance. Social support (SS) can reduce symptoms of PTSD and improve work performance. Social support helps individuals reframe their thoughts and behaviors, reducing the impact of trauma on their daily lives. Employers can encourage employees to seek social support, promoting resilience and mitigating the adverse effects of exposure to terrorism on their work performance.
2. Exposure to Terrorism, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and University Teachers’ Performance
2.1. Exposure to Terrorism and Employee Performance
Gürsoy and Chi 
used a sample of Turkish employees and revealed that those directly affected by terrorism reported lower levels of job satisfaction, increased absenteeism, and decreased organizational commitment. Similarly, Bader and Berg 
examined the impact of terrorism on the performance of employees in India. They found that exposure to terrorism was associated with lower job satisfaction and increased stress levels, leading to decreased employee performance. The authors concluded that the long-term impact of terrorism on employee performance is a significant concern for organizations and policymakers. Additionally, Ndubisi and Hartel 
explored the relationship between exposure to terrorism and job performance among hospitality employees in Australia’s hospitality industry. The findings showed that employees who were exposed to terrorism reported lower job satisfaction, increased anxiety, and decreased job performance compared to those who were not exposed.
The available literature suggests that exposure to terrorism can have a negative impact on employee performance. Employees who are directly exposed to terrorism report lower job satisfaction, increased stress levels, and decreased organizational commitment, leading to reduced job performance.
2.2. Exposure to Terrorism and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Exposure to terrorism and the aftermath of such events can significantly impact an individual’s mental health. University teachers, who are often at the forefront of societal recovery and reconstruction following acts of terrorism, are no exception. Research has shown that exposure to terrorism can lead to PTSD in university teachers, with several studies finding that rates of PTSD can be as high as 20–30% among those who have been directly exposed to acts of terrorism 
. The symptoms of PTSD can have a profound effect on an individual’s life, and for university teachers, this can have implications for their work and personal life 
. PTSD can lead to feelings of anxiety, irritability, and depression, which can make it difficult for teachers to perform their job effectively and engage with students 
In addition, research has shown that exposure to terrorism can also impact an individual’s sense of security and overall quality of life 
. The high rates of PTSD among university teachers 
who have been exposed to terrorism is essential to address this issue through effective prevention and treatment programs 
. This may involve providing teachers with access to mental health services and support groups, and also implementing measures to improve their sense of safety and security in the workplace.
2.3. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Employee Performance
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that can develop after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event. It can cause symptoms such as intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, avoidance behaviors, and increased anxiety and arousal. PTSD can significantly impact an individual’s daily life and functioning, including work performance 
. Bakker et al. 
investigated the relationship between PTSD and job performance among university teachers. The research found that teachers with PTSD reported lower levels of job satisfaction, higher levels of burnout, and a decrease in their overall work performance compared to teachers without PTSD. The teachers with PTSD also reported increased absenteeism and higher levels of emotional exhaustion.
Further, Micali et al. 
found that teachers with PTSD showed lower levels of job performance, as measured by their ability to handle stress and overall job performance ratings. In addition, the research found that teachers with PTSD were more likely to experience feelings of isolation and were less likely to seek support from either colleagues or superiors.
2.4. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder as a Mediator between TE and EP
Exposure to terrorism can be one such traumatic event that can lead to PTSD, which in turn can significantly impact an individual’s work performance. Existing literature has shown that exposure to terrorism can lead to the development of PTSD. For example, Schiff 
found that individuals who had experienced terrorism had higher rates of PTSD than those who had not. Similarly, a study by Norris et al. 
found that individuals who had experienced terrorism-related trauma had higher rates of PTSD than those who had experienced other types of trauma.
PTSD has a significant impact on an individual’s work performance. Bryant et al. 
found that PTSD symptoms were associated with lower job satisfaction and increased work-related stress. Another study by Hoge et al. 
found that PTSD was associated with decreased work performance and increased absenteeism. PTSD can mediate the relationship between terrorism exposure and employee performance. A study by Schiff 
found that PTSD mediated the relationship between terrorism exposure and work productivity. Similarly, a study by Pargament et al. 
found that PTSD mediated the relationship between exposure to terrorism and job satisfaction.
There are several potential mechanisms through which PTSD can impact work performance. PTSD can lead to intrusive thoughts and flashbacks, distracting individuals from work. PTSD can also lead to avoidance behaviors, such as avoiding situations that remind individuals of their traumatic events, leading to decreased work performance. Additionally, PTSD can lead to emotional numbness and reduced motivation, impacting work performance. This research posits that exposure to terrorism can lead to PTSD, which can significantly affect an individual’s work performance. PTSD mediates the relationship between terrorism exposure and employee performance, and there are several potential mechanisms through which PTSD can impact work performance.
2.5. Social Support as a Moderator between PTSD and EP
Social support comprises the resources that individuals receive from their social networks, including emotional, informational, and instrumental support 
. In universities, social support comes from colleagues, supervisors, and students, and it impacts a teacher’s job satisfaction, well-being, and performance. Prior research findings suggest that social support positively impacts university teachers’ performance. For example, a study by Chi et al 
found that social support from colleagues was positively associated with teaching effectiveness and well being among teachers. Similarly, Liu et al 
found that social support from colleagues and supervisors was positively related to job satisfaction and performance among faculty members.
Social support also buffers the negative effects of stress and burnout on university teachers’ performance 
. This highlights the importance of fostering a supportive work environment that encourages social support among colleagues and supervisors. Social support significantly impacted university teachers’ job satisfaction, well-being, and performance, emphasizing the importance of creating a supportive work environment to promote positive outcomes. University teachers are particularly vulnerable to PTSD due to the potential for exposure to traumatic events, such as student suicides, violence on campus, and natural disasters. PTSD negatively affects teachers’ performance and well-being. Social support is a potential moderator between PTSD and work-related outcomes such as job performance 
. Liu et al. 
suggested that teachers with PTSD can suffer from impaired thinking and experience decreased performance. They emphasized the importance of social support in mitigating the adverse effects of PTSD among university teachers. The research suggests that interventions aimed at improving social support among university teachers may help to prevent or reduce the negative impact of PTSD on job performance.
Social support is the assistance and encouragement provided by colleagues, supervisors, and family members to individuals in various situations, including the workplace. Social support has a positive impact on employee performance. Bakker et al. 
found that social support from colleagues and supervisors positively relates to job performance. Similarly, Eisenberger et al. 
found that social support from family members positively predicts job satisfaction and performance. In addition, social support can also buffer the adverse effects of stress on employee performance. Kim et al. 
found that social support from supervisors and coworkers helps mitigate the negative impact of job stress on employee performance. These findings suggest that social support is essential when managing organizational employee performance.