Mindfulness-based intervention programs in the context of the workplace must be supported by a synthesis of empirical evidence in which the heterogeneity of the different studies shows their efficacy. Meta-analytical studies are intended to overcome the deficiencies and contradictions found in the literature by analyzing the empirical evidence available . This meta-analytical review emphasizes exactly which results the various interventions now show and what influence they exert on psychological variables of employees. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to analyze the efficacy of MBIs on psychological variables of employees.
Mindfulness is defined as paying full attention to experiences at the present moment, with an open, accepting attitude []. In the context of labor, highly stressed employees are exposed to greater health risks, which can increase costs for the organization and even loss of productivity []. To counteract these effects, some studies have demonstrated that mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) can improve mental health [] and employee performance [].
Mind/body intervention programs are currently enjoying great popularity. Mindfulness-based interventions, such as mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) or mindfulness-based stress reduction therapy (MBSRT) are the most commo, and are focused on treatment of mental health problems, such as depression or anxiety []. Today, they have strong empirical backing []. These programs are conceptually based on traditional mindfulness teaching, that is, they form part of philosophical mindfulness and psychoeducation and act on psychological and neuropsychological mechanisms []. In the work environment, development of MBIs is acquiring more presence through online intervention, as it offers a promising new direction for intervention and preventive health [] Such intervention leads to improvement in general subjective wellbeing [], and, therefore, the first hypothesis posed for this study was that after mindfulness-based intervention, professionals would have lower levels of stress, anxiety, and depression.
Organizations are quickly implementing cognitive-behavioral interventions in the workplace to promote employee wellbeing and performance []. This may be related to growing violence in the worksite []. MBIa can provide employees with competencies and skills for coping with such situations and promote their strengths []. Some studies have shown the positive effects of such interventions for promoting health in the workplace [] and increasing employee engagement [], enabling them to make a higher-quality effort to achieve results []. Along with this evidence, the literature shows the positive repercussions that mindfulness intervention could have on employee psychological health in specific work contexts [], influencing their ability to cope with adverse situations that may arise []. Therefore, keeping these considerations in mind, the second hypothesis was posed, in which we expected employees to show more engagement and resilience after mindfulness intervention.
Job stress is one of the main causes of lowered productivity and absenteeism []. It affects psychological health and contributes to burnout [], causing the employee to feel apathetic and lose interest in the job []. Emotional intelligence is very important here in coping with such stress and burnout []. MBIs also help reduce professionals’ stress, which notably and significantly alleviates issues associated with sleep problems []. Furthermore, many studies have analyzed the relationship of MBIs with other variables, such as psychological distress [], negative and positive affects [], fatigue [], and so forth []. Therefore, organizations are starting up MBIs in the workplace to alleviate employee stress []. Based on these findings, we posed the third hypothesis, in which we expected employees to have less burnout, emotional exhaustion, fatigue. and negative effects and experience an increase in positive affects and sleep quality, showing greater self-efficacy and better personal wellbeing after participation in mindfulness intervention.
Mindfulness-based intervention programs in the context of the workplace must be supported by a synthesis of empirical evidence in which the heterogeneity of the different studies shows their efficacy. Meta-analytical studies are intended to overcome the deficiencies and contradictions found in the literature by analyzing the empirical evidence available []. This meta-analytical review emphasizes exactly which results the various interventions now show and what influence they exert on psychological variables of employees. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to analyze the efficacy of MBIs on psychological variables of employees.
Its specific objectives were the following: (a) Study the influence of MBIs in reducing stress, anxiety, and depression; (b) analyze engagement, mindfulness, and resilience levels after participation in MBIs, and (c) identify the influence of MBIs on positive and negative affects, burnout, emotional exhaustion, fatigue, sleep quality, self-efficacy, and wellbeing. Based on prior empirical evidence, the following hypotheses were posed:
H.1. Mindfulness intervention reduces stress, anxiety and depression.
H.2. Mindfulness-based intervention programs positively influence engagement, mindfulness, and resilience.
H.3. Mindfulness practice positively influences sleep quality, self-efficacy, wellbeing, positive affects, and reduces burnout, fatigue, emotional exhaustion, and negative affects.