Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 1806 2023-06-06 08:17:07 |
2 format correct Meta information modification 1806 2023-06-07 07:13:25 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?


Are you sure to Delete?
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Jacob, S.; Dilshani, A.; Rishivanthi, S.; Khaitan, P.; Vamsidhar, A.; Rajeswari, G.; Kumar, V.; Rajak, R.C.; Din, M.F.M.; Zambare, V. Abundance and Significance of L-Ara as a Bioresource. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 15 June 2024).
Jacob S, Dilshani A, Rishivanthi S, Khaitan P, Vamsidhar A, Rajeswari G, et al. Abundance and Significance of L-Ara as a Bioresource. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed June 15, 2024.
Jacob, Samuel, Aswin Dilshani, Srinivasan Rishivanthi, Pratham Khaitan, Adhinarayan Vamsidhar, Gunasekaran Rajeswari, Vinod Kumar, Rajiv Chandra Rajak, Mohd Fadhil Md. Din, Vasudeo Zambare. "Abundance and Significance of L-Ara as a Bioresource" Encyclopedia, (accessed June 15, 2024).
Jacob, S., Dilshani, A., Rishivanthi, S., Khaitan, P., Vamsidhar, A., Rajeswari, G., Kumar, V., Rajak, R.C., Din, M.F.M., & Zambare, V. (2023, June 06). Abundance and Significance of L-Ara as a Bioresource. In Encyclopedia.
Jacob, Samuel, et al. "Abundance and Significance of L-Ara as a Bioresource." Encyclopedia. Web. 06 June, 2023.
Abundance and Significance of L-Ara as a Bioresource

The exploration of natural substrates for microbial conversion to synthesize industrial platform and fuel chemicals seems to be inevitable within a circular bioeconomy context. Hemicellulose is a natural carbohydrate polymer consisting of a variety of pentose (C5) sugar monomers such as arabinose, mannose, erythrose, and xylose. Among the C5 sugars, L-arabinose (L-Ara) is the second-most-abundant pentose sugar in the lignocellulosic biomass after xylose. L-Ara has been used as an industrial carbon source to produce several value-added chemicals such as putrescine, which is used to synthesize polymers in the textile industry; sugar alcohols that are used as sweeteners in diet foods; and amino acids such as L-lysine, L-glutamate, L-arginine, and L-ornithine, which are used in nutritional supplements, fertilizers, and other products in the food and beverage industries. L-Ara, a natural non-caloric sweetener, is used as a substitute in the food and beverage industry, when the risk of blood sugar and lipid levels could be reduced. Major use of L-Ara is also found in the medical and pharmaceutical sectors to treat several conditions, including mineral absorption disorder, constipation, and diabetes, among others.

arabinose hemicellulose lignocellulosic biomass

1. Introduction

In recent times, the term ‘Circular Bioeconomy’ is one of the keystones of the new economical and societal era to reverse climate changes and produce sustainable green chemicals from renewable carbon sources [1]. Among the various renewable resource options, lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) seems to be the major contributor, with an annual production of 0.2 trillion metric tons [2]. LCB also circumvents the food vs. fuel debate that is prominent among developing countries that reserve the most-abundant non-edible carbon feedstock either as an agro-industrial residue or as dedicated bioenergy crops. The plant biomass is mainly comprised of 65–85% of holocellulosic compounds (cellulose and hemicellulose) and 15–20% of lignin [3][4][5]. Over recent decades, substantial efforts have been taken for the conversion of cellulosic-derived glucose into biofuels and other value-added products. Hemicellulose is a natural carbohydrate polymer consisting of a variety of pentose (C5) sugar monomers such as arabinose, mannose, erythrose, and xylose. Among the C5 sugars, L-arabinose (L-Ara) is the second-most-abundant C5 sugar in LCB after xylose. L-Ara is used as an industrial carbon source to produce several value-added chemicals such as putrescine (a polymer used in the textile industry), ethanol/sugar alcohols (artificial sweeteners in diet foods, fuel additives, etc.), amino acids such as L-lysine, L-glutamate, L-arginine, and L-ornithine (nutritional supplements), fertilizers, and other products in the food and beverage industries [6][7][8][9]. Recent investigations revealed that the whole LCB could be an efficient resource for chemical and fuel production through a biorefinery framework, rather than only cellulose-based bio-renewables [10]. Therefore, a sustainable utilization of LCB prerequisites a completely integrated biorefinery framework that is analogous to a petroleum refinery. In a biorefinery, the holocellulosic fraction contributes a prime role in the production of bio-renewables, owing to its efficient hydrolysis into monomeric sugars that could be subsequently fermented into an array of high-value-added commodities. Table 1 represents a brief list of the value-added bioproducts that are produced. The global market value of food-grade L-Ara is expected to reach USD 33 million by 2028 [11]. In this regard, the valorization of L-Ara could be a promising alternative carbon source for industries that both economically and sustainably augment. There exists a bottleneck in the effective utilization of C5 sugars through microbial fermentation, wherein only a few industrially potent microbes are available for C5 sugar uptake through the specialized intramembrane transport mechanism and metabolic pathways, with a low product yield. However, the conventional metabolic pathway harbored by the microbial candidates possesses low-titer product yields. Hence, upgraded and adapted recent microbial technologies such as adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) [12][13], metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology [14] have been recently emerging as a promising mitigation strategy to meet the industrial utilization of L-Ara for chemical synthesis and the purpose of establishing a sustainable greener technology [1]. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report to shed light on the significance of hemicellulose-derived L-Ara as a renewable carbon source and its valorization toward several value-added commodity chemicals. It also highlights the different metabolic pathways involved in the assimilation of L-Ara by various microbial candidates for industrially important chemicals. In addition, different research directions in terms of metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and microbial strain improvement strategies are discussed.
Table 1. Value-added products and their corresponding yields.

2. Abundance and Significance of L-Ara as a Bioresource

Hemicellulose, a heterogenous polymer that contains C5 sugars such as α- L-Ara and β-D-xylose, could reach 20–30% of the total LCB [17][18]. Figure 1 represents the potential of LCB, its sugar composition, and its valuable application in industries through microbial metabolic processes. In addition, some other sugars such as α -fucose and α-L-rhamnose are also present to a small extent, albeit rarely [19]. Based on the composition, presence, and side-chain ratio of the constituents, hemicellulose is distinguished as xyloglucan, glucuronoxylan, glucuronoarabinoxylan, galactoglucomanan, arabinoxylan, glucomannan, homoxylan, galactomannan, homomannan, arabinoxyloglucan, and arabinoglucuronoxylan. Among these, a considerable amount of L-Ara was found in arabinoglucuronoxylan, arabinoxyloglucan, glucuronoarabinoxylan, and arabinoxylan [20]. Rapid growth in the fresh juice industry has led to the abundance of fruit processing waste, which is not being efficiently utilized. Fruit processing waste such as pear peel, lime peel, orange peel, mandarin peel, and apple pomace is rich in pectin, i.e., 12–35% of the biomass dry weight has an insignificant amount of lignin (2%, w/w), compared to that of LCB [21][22][23][24][25]. Pectin is a complex heteropolysaccharide composed of α-1,4 linked D-galacturonic acid that contributes 70% of the total homogalacturonan polymer weight. When considering pectin, the presence of a limited amount of lignin merely enables the breakdown of polymers into monomers, where L-Ara becomes the most abundant of the C5 sugars. In addition to LCB, agro-industrial by-products such as wheat bran, corn fiber, sugar beet pulp, brewer’s spent grain, and sugarcane bagasse contain around 10.6%, 12.0%, 18.0%, 8.7%, and 1.3% of L-Ara, respectively [26][27][28][29][30][31]. Table 2 represents the different feedstocks/sources of L-Ara and its potential industrial applications. These abundant waste resources could be sustainably tapped for the L-Ara waste production of chemicals through various microbial candidates, which is discussed in the subsequent sections.
Figure 1. Production of value-added products from LCB-derived L-Ara.
Table 2. Different sources of L-Ara and its applications.

2.1. 2,3-Butanediol

2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) or 2,3-butylene glycol has various applications, such as as a chemical feedstock, a solvent, a liquid fuel, and a raw material for several resins and synthetic polymers [57]. A microorganism, identified as Enterobacter cloacae, was found to produce meso-2,3-BD as its primary product during fermentation. There are reports that pathogenic bacteria and other microbes produced 2, 3-BD. Klebsiella pneumoniae had the most significant 2, 3-BD titer of any bacterium, measuring 150 g/L [58]. Another productive maker of 2,3-BD, classified as a class 2 bacteria, was K. oxytoca, and this strain produced 2, 3-BD concentrations up to 130 g/L. Three bacteria with the Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) designation are effective 2, 3-BD producers: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, and B. subtilis. The discovery of new strains and the enhancement of optical clarity has received abundant interest. Industrially applicable hosts, such as L. lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Escherichia coli, are better-suited for large-scale production than indigenous hosts due to their effective genetics and well-proven cultivation techniques [59].
In a study conducted by Saha and Bothast, the authors checked the production of 2,3-BD by E. cloacae NRRL B-23289 by utilizing each of the following carbon sources individually: xylose, glucose, and L-Ara. The study was conducted at a pH of 5.0, a temperature of 30 °C, and 200 rpm. It showed that E. cloacae NRRL B-23289 utilizes the above-mentioned carbon sources in the order: xylose < glucose < L-Ara. About 0.37 g of glucose and 0.38 g of xylose were consumed in 63 h, and 0.43 g of L-Ara was consumed in 39 h. The bacteria were cultivated on mixtures of A and B, made of sugar, in proportions of 1:1:1 and 1:2:1 for glucose, xylose, and L-Ara, respectively. The bacterium variety was found to favor glucose over xylose and L-Ara over xylose. After a significant amount of L-Ara was consumed and only after all of the glucose was used up, the xylose started to vanish. Thus, the authors could use the E. cloacae NRRL B-23289 strain for the enhanced production of 2,3-BD using L-Ara as a carbon source [60].
For an array of sectors, including those in the chemical, cosmetics, agriculture, and medicine fields, 2,3-BD holds enormous potential. 2,3-BD has broad industrial applications, such as as a promising bulk chemical, which has plenty of further use. Its high heating value makes it an excellent drop-in fuel. It can also be converted to octane after adding the methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and hydrogenation reaction, which is then used to produce superior aviation fuel. It is widely used to manufacture antifreeze agents, pharmaceuticals, synthetic rubber, fumigants, foodstuffs, perfumes, fuel additives, and printing inks [61].

2.2. Other Value-Added Products

For the past two decades, the market value for amino acids such as L-tryptophan, DL-methionine, L-lysine, L-aspartic acid, L-threonine, and L-glutamic acid has drastically increased owing to their wide range of applications in the food, cosmetics, agriculture, and pharmaceuticals sectors [62]. Recent studies reported the utilization of hemicellulose-derived L-Ara as the sole carbon source by engineering microbial strains for organic acids (lactic acid and succinic acid) and amino acids production [7][63][64]. Metabolic engineering of the Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 31831 strain resulted in the production of L-amino acids, namely, L-ornithine, L-lysine, L-threonine, L-methionine, L-glutamate, diamine putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane), and organic acids upon arabinose transporter gene (araE) expression [6][7][65]. On the other hand, overexpression of the ornithine decarboxylase gene (speC) from E. coli resulted in a high yield of putrescine by the C. glutamicum strain [16].


  1. Francois, J.; Alkim, C.; Morin, N. Engineering microbial pathways for production of bio-based chemicals from lignocellulosi/.c sugars: Current status and perspectives. Biotechnol. Biofuels 2020, 13, 118.
  2. Paul, S.; Dutta, A. Challenges and opportunities of lignocellulosic biomass for anaerobic digestion. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2018, 130, 164–174.
  3. Holtzapple, M.T. Cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. In Encyclopedia of Food Science, Food Technology, and Nutrition; Macrae, R., Robinson, R.K., Sadler, M.J., Eds.; Academic Press: London, UK, 1993; pp. 2731–2738.
  4. Sekeri, S.H.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.; Umar, K.; Yaqoob, A.A.; Azmi, M.N.; Hussin, M.H.; Othman, M.B.H.; Malik, M.F.I.A. Preparation and characterization of nanosized lignin from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) biomass as a novel emulsifying agent. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 164, 3114–3124.
  5. Yaqoob, A.A.; Sekeri, S.H.; Othman, M.B.H.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.; Feizi, Z.H. Thermal degradation and kinetics stability studies of oil palm (Elaeis Guineensis) biomass-derived lignin nanoparticle and its application as an emulsifying agent. Arab. J. Chem. 2021, 14, 103182.
  6. Schneider, J.; Niermann, K.; Wendisch, V. Production of the amino acids L-glutamate, L-lysine, L-ornithine and L-arginine from L-Ara by recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum. J. Biotechnol. 2011, 154, 191–198.
  7. Meiswinkel, T.; Gopinath, V.; Lindner, S.; Nampoothiri, K.; Wendisch, V. Accelerated pentose utilization by Corynebacterium glutamicum for accelerated production of lysine, glutamate, ornithine and putrescine. Microb. Biotechnol. 2012, 6, 131–140.
  8. Rao, J.; Lv, Z.; Chen, G.; Peng, F. Hemicellulose: Structure, Chemical Modification, and Application. Prog. Polym. Sci. 2023, 140, 101675.
  9. Pauly, M.; Gille, S.; Liu, L.; Mansoori, N.; de Souza, A.; Schultink, A.; Xiong, G. Hemicellulose biosynthesis. Planta 2013, 238, 627–642.
  10. Banu, J.R.; Kavitha, P.S.; Tyagi, V.K.; Gunasekaran, M.; Karthikeyan, O.P.; Kumar, G. Lignocellulosic biomass based biorefinery: A successful platform towards circular bioeconomy. Fuel 2021, 302, 121086.
  11. Market Watch. Food Grade L-Arabinose Market Demand by 2030. Available online: (accessed on 10 April 2023).
  12. Lane, S.; Xu, H.; Oh, E.J.; Kim, H.; Lesmana, A.; Jeong, D.; Zhang, G.; Tsai, C.S.; Jin, Y.S.; Kim, S.R. Glucose repression can be alleviated by reducing glucose phosphorylation rate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sci. Rep. 2018, 8, 2613.
  13. Mohamed, E.T.; Mundhada, H.; Landberg, J.; Cann, I.; Mackie, R.I.; Nielsen, A.T.; Herrgard, M.J.; Feist, A.M. Generation of an E. coli platform strain for improved sucrose utilization using adaptive laboratory evolution. Microb. Cell Fact. 2019, 18, 116.
  14. Ceroni, F.; Carbonell, P.; François, J.M.; Haynes, K.A. Editorial–Synthetic biology: Engineering complexity and refactoring cell capabilities. Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 2015, 3, 120.
  15. Kim, H.M.; Park, J.H.; Choi, I.S.; Wi, S.G.; Ha, S.; Chun, H.H.; Hwang, I.M.; Chang, J.Y.; Choi, H.-J.; Kim, J.-C.; et al. Effective approach to organic acid production from agricultural kimchi cabbage waste and its potential application. PLoS ONE 2018, 13, e0207801.
  16. Schneider, J.; Eberhardt, D.; Wendisch, V.F. Improving putrescine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum by fine-tuning ornithine transcarbamoylase activity using a plasmid addiction system. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2012, 95, 169–178.
  17. Venkateswar Rao, L.; Goli, J.; Gentela, J.; Koti, S. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to xylitol: An overview. Bioresour. Technol. 2016, 213, 299–310.
  18. Safian, M.T.-U.; Sekeri, S.H.; Yaqoob, A.A.; Serra, A.; Jamudin, M.D.; Ibrahim, M.N.M. Utilization of lignocellulosic biomass: A practical journey towards the development of emulsifying agent. Talanta 2022, 239, 123109.
  19. Gírio, F.; Fonseca, C.; Carvalheiro, F.; Duarte, L.; Marques, S.; Bogel-Łukasik, R. Hemicelluloses for fuel ethanol: A review. Bioresour. Technol. 2010, 101, 4775–4800.
  20. Fehér, C. Novel approaches for biotechnological production and application of L-arabinose. J. Carbohydr. Chem. 2018, 37, 251–284.
  21. Kennedy, M.; List, D.; Lu, Y.; Foo, L.Y.; Newman, R.H.; Sims, I.M.; Bain, P.J.S.; Hamilton, B.; Fenton, G. Apple pomace and products derived from apple pomace: Use, composition and analysis. In Modern Methods of Plant Analysis, Analysis of Plant Waste Materials; Linskens, H.F., Jackson, J.F., Eds.; Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Germany, 1999; Volume 20, pp. 75–119.
  22. Doran, J.B.; Cripe, J.; Sutton, M.; Foster, B. Fermentations of pectin rich biomass with recombinant bacteria to produce fuel ethanol. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 2000, 84, 141–152.
  23. Mohnen, D. Pectin structure and biosynthesis. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 2008, 11, 266–277.
  24. Zhou, W.; Widmer, W.; Grohmann, K. Developments in ethanol production from citrus peel waste. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 2008, 121, 307–310.
  25. Edwards, M.; Doran-Peterson, J. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2012, 95, 565–575.
  26. Seiboth, B.; Metz, B. Fungal arabinan and L-arabinose metabolism. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2011, 89, 1665–1673.
  27. Hollmann, J.; Lindhauer, M. Pilot-scale isolation of glucuronoarabinoxylans from wheat bran. Carbohydr. Polym. 2005, 59, 225–230.
  28. Fehér, C. Integrated process of arabinose biopurification and xylitol fermentation based on the diverse action of Candida boidinii. Chem. Biochem. Eng. Q. 2016, 29, 587–597.
  29. Kühnel, S.; Schols, H.; Gruppen, H. Aiming for the complete utilization of sugar-beet pulp: Examination of the effects of mild acid and hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic digestion. Biotechnol. Biofuels 2011, 4, 14.
  30. Treimo, J.; Westereng, B.; Horn, S.J.; Forssell, P.; Robertson, J.A.; Faulds, C.B.; Waldron, K.W.; Buchert, J.; Eijsink, V.G.H. Enzymatic solubilization of brewers’ spent grain by combined action of carbohydrases and peptidases. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009, 57, 3316–3324.
  31. Gottschalk, L.; Oliveira, R.; Bon, E. Cellulases, xylanases, β-glucosidase and ferulic acid esterase produced by Trichoderma and Aspergillus act synergistically in the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse. Biochem. Eng. J. 2010, 51, 72–78.
  32. Sakdaronnarong, C.; Jonglertjunya, W. Rice straw and sugarcane bagasse degradation mimicking lignocellulose decay in nature: An alternative approach to biorefinery. ScienceAsia 2012, 38, 364.
  33. Sabiha-Hanim, S.; Siti-Norsafurah, A.M. Physical properties of hemicellulose films from sugarcane bagasse. Procedia Eng. 2012, 42, 1390–1395.
  34. Tsigie, Y.; Wang, C.; Truong, C.; Ju, Y. Lipid production from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g grown in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate. Bioresour. Technol. 2011, 102, 9216–9222.
  35. Yang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Yue, W.; Wang, W.; Wang, Y.-Y.; Yuan, T.-Q.; Sun, R.-C. Valorization of lignin and cellulose in acid-steam-exploded corn stover by a moderate alkaline ethanol post-treatment based on an integrated biorefinery concept. Biotechnol. Biofuels. 2016, 9, 238.
  36. Cellulosic Biofuel Process Can also Improve Ruminant Forage Digestibility. MSU Extension. Available online: (accessed on 28 April 2022).
  37. Fehér, A. Combined approaches to xylose production from corn stover by dilute acid hydrolysis. Chem. Biochem. Eng. Q. 2017, 31, 77–87.
  38. Jiang, M.; Zhao, M.; Zhou, Z.; Huang, T.; Chen, X.; Wang, Y. Isolation of cellulose with ionic liquid from steam exploded rice straw. Ind. Crops Prod. 2011, 33, 734–738.
  39. Pinzi, S.; Dorado, M. Vegetable-based feedstocks for biofuels production. In Handbook of Biofuels Production: Processes and Technologies; Luque, R., Campelo, J., Clark, J., Eds.; Woodhead Publishing Ltd.: Cambridge, UK, 2011; pp. 61–94.
  40. Roberto, I.; Mussatto, S.; Rodrigues, R. Dilute-acid hydrolysis for optimization of xylose recovery from rice straw in a semi-pilot reactor. Ind. Crops. Prod. 2003, 17, 171–176.
  41. Nigam, J.N. Bioconversion of water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) hemicellulose acid hydrolysate to motor fuel ethanol by xylose-fermenting yeast. J. Biotechnol. 2002, 97, 107–116.
  42. Alfaro, J.R.; Daza, L.T.; Lindado, G.; Peláez, H.C.; Córdoba, Á.P. Acid hydrolysis of water hyacinth to obtaining fermentable sugars. Cienc. Tecnol. Futuro. 2013, 5, 101–112.
  43. Carvalheiro, F.; Silva-Fernandes, T.; Duarte, L.C.; Gírio, F.M. Wheat straw autohydrolysis: Process optimization and products characterization. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 2009, 153, 84–93.
  44. Farhat, W.; Venditti, R.; Hubbe, M.; Taha, M.; Becquart, F.; Ayoub, A. A review of water-resistant hemicellulose-based materials: Processing and applications. Chem. Sus. Chem. 2016, 10, 305–323.
  45. Tozluoğlu, A.; Özyurek, Ö.; Çöpür, Y.; Özdemir, H. Integrated production of biofilm, bioethanol, and papermaking pulp from wheat Straw. Bioresour. 2015, 10, 7834–7854.
  46. Olmos, J.C.; Hansen, M.Z. Enzymatic depolymerization of sugar beet pulp: Production and characterization of pectin and pectic-oligosaccharides as a potential source for functional carbohydrates. Chem. Eng. J. 2012, 192, 29–36.
  47. Saric, L.; Filipcev, B.; Simurina, O.; Plavsic, D. Sugar beet molasses: Properties and applications in osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables. Food Feed Res. 2016, 43, 135–144.
  48. Dinand, E.; Chanzy, H.; Vignon, M. Parenchymal cell cellulose from sugar beet pulp: Preparation and properties. Cellulose 1996, 3, 183–188.
  49. Eveleigh, D.E. Comprehensive biotechnology: The principles, applications and regulations of biotechnology in industry, agriculture and medicine. In The Principles of Biotechnology: Scientific Fundamentals; Moo-Young, M., Bull, A.T., Dalton, H., Eds.; Pergamon Press: Oxford, UK, 1985; Volume 1, p. 688.
  50. Gama, R.; Dyk, J.V.; Pletschke, B. Optimisation of enzymatic hydrolysis of apple pomace for production of biofuel and biorefinery chemicals using commercial enzymes. 3 Biotech 2015, 5, 1075–1087.
  51. Ayala, J.R.; Montero, G.; Coronado, M.A.; García, C.; Curiel-Alvarez, M.A.; León, J.A.; Sagaste, C.A.; Montes, D.G. Characterization of orange peel waste and valorization to obtain reducing sugars. Molecules 2021, 26, 1348.
  52. Torrado, A.M.; Cortés, S.; Salgado, J.M.; Max, B.; Rodríguez, N.; Bibbins, B.P.; Converti, A.; Domínguez, J.M. Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation. Braz. J. Microbiol. 2011, 42, 394–409.
  53. Nawirska, A.; Kwaśniewska, M. Dietary fibre fractions from fruit and vegetable processing waste. Food Chem. 2005, 91, 221–225.
  54. Szymańska-Chargot, M.; Chylińska, M.; Gdula, K.; Kozioł, A.; Zdunek, A. Isolation and characterization of cellulose from different fruit and vegetable pomaces. Polymers 2017, 9, 495.
  55. Kheiralla, Z.H.; El-Gendy, N.S.; Ahmed, H.A.; Shaltout Th, H.; Hussein, M.M.D. Upgrading of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Agroindustrial Wastes. J. Microb. Biochem. Technol. 2018, 10, 46–48.
  56. Del Valle, M.; Cámara, M.; Torija, M. Chemical characterization of tomato pomace. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2006, 86, 1232–1236.
  57. Song, C.W.; Park, J.M.; Chung, S.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Song, H. Microbial production of 2,3-butanediol for industrial applications. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2019, 46, 1583–1601.
  58. Ma, C.; Wang, A.; Qin, J.; Li, L.; Ai, X.; Jiang, T.; Tang, H.; Xu, P. Enhanced 2, 3-butanediol production by Klebsiella pneumoniae SDM. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2009, 82, 49–57.
  59. Yang, Z.; Zhang, Z. Recent advances on production of 2, 3-butanediol using engineered microbes. Biotechnol. Adv. 2019, 37, 569–578.
  60. Saha, B.C.; Bothast, R.J. Production of 2,3-butanediol by newly isolated Enterobacter cloacae. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 1999, 52, 321–326.
  61. Białkowska, A.M. Strategies for efficient and economical 2, 3-butanediol production: New trends in this field. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2016, 32, 1–14.
  62. Leuchtenberger, W.; Huthmacher, K.; Drauz, K. Biotechnological production of amino acids and derivatives: Current status and prospects. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2005, 69, 1–8.
  63. Hahn-Hagerdal, B.; Karhumaa, K.; Fonseca, C.; Spencer-Martins, I.; Gorwa-Grauslund, M.F. Towards industrial pentose-fermenting yeast strains. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2007, 74, 937–953.
  64. Gopinath, V.; Meiswinkel, T.M.; Wendisch, V.F.; Nampoothiri, K.M. Amino acid production from rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysates by recombinant pentose-utilizing Corynebacterium glutamicum. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2011, 92, 985–996.
  65. Sasaki, M.; Jojima, T.; Kawaguchi, H.; Inui, M.; Yukawa, H. Engineering of pentose transport in Corynebacterium glutamicum to improve simultaneous utilization of mixed sugars. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2009, 85, 105–115.
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to : , , , , , , , , ,
View Times: 216
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 07 Jun 2023
Video Production Service