Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 2127 2023-05-29 10:10:35 |
2 format correction -21 word(s) 2106 2023-05-30 03:18:05 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Manousakis, N.M.; Karagiannopoulos, P.S.; Tsekouras, G.J.; Kanellos, F.D. Integration of RESs and EVs in Power Systems. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/44951 (accessed on 25 June 2024).
Manousakis NM, Karagiannopoulos PS, Tsekouras GJ, Kanellos FD. Integration of RESs and EVs in Power Systems. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/44951. Accessed June 25, 2024.
Manousakis, Nikolaos M., Panagiotis S. Karagiannopoulos, George J. Tsekouras, Fotios D. Kanellos. "Integration of RESs and EVs in Power Systems" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/44951 (accessed June 25, 2024).
Manousakis, N.M., Karagiannopoulos, P.S., Tsekouras, G.J., & Kanellos, F.D. (2023, May 29). Integration of RESs and EVs in Power Systems. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/44951
Manousakis, Nikolaos M., et al. "Integration of RESs and EVs in Power Systems." Encyclopedia. Web. 29 May, 2023.
Integration of RESs and EVs in Power Systems
Edit

Electric vehicles (EVs) represent a promising green technology for mitigating environmental impacts. However, their widespread adoption has significant implications for management, monitoring, and control of power systems. The integration of renewable energy sources (RESs), commonly referred to as green energy sources or alternative energy sources, into the network infrastructure is a sustainable and effective approach to addressing these matters.

electric vehicle renewable energy sources power systems

1. Introduction

The efficient use of energy has significantly contributed to the advancement of civilization. During the pre-industrial epoch, the predominant sources of energy were derived from human and animal labor, as well as the combustion of wood for the purposes of cooking, heating, and metal smelting. The utilization of coal played a pivotal role in the onset of the industrial revolution, as it facilitated the mechanization of various industries, improved transportation systems, and propelled the emerging technology of steam engines. During the preceding century, the exploration and utilization of fossil fuels constituted a significant catalyst for economic growth and advancement [1].
However, the utilization of fossil fuels such as natural gas, oil, and coal incurs substantial expenses related to climate change, ecological degradation, and public health that are not accounted for in prevailing market valuations. The aforementioned costs are commonly referred to as externalities within academic discourse. Externalities are generated at every stage of the supply chain of fossil fuels, including combustion, refining, transportation, and extraction. The process of combusting fossil fuels results in the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. This phenomenon is considered to be the primary contributor to the current climate change, which is causing alterations in the Earth’s ecosystems and posing health risks to both the environment and human populations.
The accumulation of carbon in storage amplifies the greenhouse effect, resulting in the phenomenon of global warming. In addition, aside from carbon dioxide, the combustion of fossil fuels results in the emission of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides, which contribute to the formation of acidic precipitation.

2. Electric Vehicles

A mode of transportation powered by electricity is referred to as an electric vehicle. Electric vehicles are not a new concept, with experts investigating them since the 19th century. EVs have been studied by a vast number of researchers and engineers, and their progress has always been influenced by economic and environmental factors. Some of the most significant events that have had an impact on the development of electric vehicles are mentioned bellow [2].
  • 1832: Robert Anderson created the first primitive EV.
  • 1901: Edison tackles the issue of EV batteries; Ferdinand Porsche created the first hybrid EV.
  • 1968: Oil crises lead to a resurgent interest in EVs.
  • 1971: NASA’s lunar rover was the first electric vehicle utilized for Moon exploration.
  • 1974: Many companies started to design and produce EVs.
  • 1990: New regulation for electromobility.
  • 1997: Toyota Prius was the first mass-produced hybrid EV.
  • 2010: Nissan Leaf was the first mass-produced full electric EV; Chevy Volt was the first mass-produced plug-in hybrid EV.
  • 2013: Cost reduction for EV batteries.
  • 2014: Massive production of EVs from different companies.
  • 2022: Global sales of electric vehicles increased by about 60%, surpassing 10 million for the first time.
There are three distinct categories of electric vehicles now available on the market [3]:
  • Vehicles using a gasoline engine and an electric motor are called hybrid electric vehicles. While the car is moving slowly or at a complete stop, such as in traffic, the electric motor assists with propulsion.
  • Similar to hybrid electric vehicles, but with the added convenience of being able to plug in and charge from an electrical outlet, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles offer the best of both worlds.
  • Vehicles using electric motors and batteries as power sources are known as full electric vehicles.
In recent times, a novel classification, namely the fuel cell electric vehicle, has been incorporated. A fuel cell EV is capable of producing its own electrical power through the use of hydrogen fuel cells, in contrast to conventional EVs that exclusively rely on batteries. It is noteworthy that there exist 60 electric vehicle (EV) manufacturing companies globally, with 43 of them having already introduced their models into the EV market. Table 1 displays the top five companies in terms of sales of plug-in hybrid and full electric vehicles in the year 2022. According to the source [4], BYD held a significant market share of 18.4% in the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle sector, whereas Tesla emerged as the dominant company with an 18.2% share in the global market.
Table 1. The top five corporations with the highest sales of plug-in hybrid and full electric vehicles in the year 2022.
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Full Electric Vehicles
EV Company EV Sales EV Company EV Sales
BYD 1,857,549 Tesla 1,314,330
Tesla 1,314,330 BYD 913,052
Volkswagen 831,844 SAIC 671,725
SAIC 724,911 Volkswagen 571,067
Geely-Volvo 606,114 Geely-Volvo 383,936

References

  1. Freris, L.; Infield, D. Renewable Energy in Power Systems; Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2019; ISBN 978-1-118-78858-5.
  2. The History of the Electric Car. Available online: https://www.energy.gov/articles/history-electric-car (accessed on 9 April 2023).
  3. Types of Electric Vehicles. Available online: https://nspower.ca/your-home/energy-products/electric-vehicles/types (accessed on 9 April 2023).
  4. Pontes, J.; Holland, M.; Hanley, S.; Fortuna, C. Tesla #1 in World BEV Sales by Big Margin—2022 World EV Sales Report—CleanTechnica. Available online: https://cleantechnica.com/2023/02/07/tesla-1-in-world-bev-sales-by-big-margin-2022-world-ev-sales-report/ (accessed on 9 April 2023).
  5. Fazelpour, F.; Vafaeipour, M.; Rahbari, O.; Rosen, M.A. Intelligent Optimization to Integrate a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Smart Parking Lot with Renewable Energy Resources and Enhance Grid Characteristics. Energy Convers. Manag. 2014, 77, 250–261.
  6. Wang, J.; Liu, C.; Ton, D.; Zhou, Y.; Kim, J.; Vyas, A. Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Power Systems with Demand Response and Wind Power. Energy Policy 2011, 39, 4016–4021.
  7. Weis, A.; Jaramillo, P.; Michalek, J. Estimating the Potential of Controlled Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging to Reduce Operational and Capacity Expansion Costs for Electric Power Systems with High Wind Penetration. Appl. Energy 2014, 115, 190–204.
  8. Soares, M.C.; Borba, B.; Szklo, A.; Schaeffer, R. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles as a Way to Maximize the Integration of Variable Renewable Energy in Power Systems: The Case of Wind Generation in Northeastern Brazil. Energy 2012, 37, 469–481.
  9. Fathabadi, H. Utilization of Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energy Sources Used as Distributed Generators for Improving Characteristics of Electric Power Distribution Systems. Energy 2015, 90, 1100–1110.
  10. Affam, A.; Buswig, Y.M.; Othman, A.-K.B.H.; Julai, N.B.; Qays, O. A Review of Multiple Input DC-DC Converter Topologies Linked with Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energy Systems. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2021, 135, 110186.
  11. Swief, R.A.; El-Amary, N.H.; Kamh, M.Z. Optimal Energy Management Integrating Plug in Hybrid Vehicle Under Load and Renewable Uncertainties. IEEE Access 2020, 8, 176895–176904.
  12. Fathabadi, H. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Replacing Internal Combustion Engine with Clean and Renewable Energy Based Auxiliary Power Sources. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 2018, 33, 9611–9618.
  13. Carli, G.; Williamson, S.S. Technical Considerations on Power Conversion for Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Charging in Photovoltaic Installations. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 2013, 28, 5784–5792.
  14. Fattori, F.; Anglani, N.; Muliere, G. Combining Photovoltaic Energy with Electric Vehicles, Smart Charging and Vehicle-to-Grid. Sol. Energy 2014, 110, 438–451.
  15. Li, C.; Shan, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L.; Fu, R. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Based on Hybrid Renewable Energy in China. Energy Strategy Rev. 2022, 41, 100850.
  16. Eid, A.; Mohammed, O.; El-Kishky, H. Efficient Operation of Battery Energy Storage Systems, Electric-Vehicle Charging Stations and Renewable Energy Sources Linked to Distribution Systems. J. Energy Storage 2022, 55, 105644.
  17. Honarmand, M.; Zakariazadeh, A.; Jadid, S. Integrated Scheduling of Renewable Generation and Electric Vehicles Parking Lot in a Smart Microgrid. Energy Convers. Manag. 2014, 86, 745–755.
  18. Nikoobakht, A.; Aghaei, J.; Khatami, R.; Mahboubi-Moghaddam, E.; Parvania, M. Stochastic Flexible Transmission Operation for Coordinated Integration of Plug-in Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energy Sources. Appl. Energy 2019, 238, 225–238.
  19. Hedegaard, K.; Ravn, H.; Juul, N.; Meibom, P. Effects of Electric Vehicles on Power Systems in Northern Europe. Energy 2012, 48, 356–368.
  20. Alghoul, M.A.; Hammadi, F.Y.; Amin, N.; Asim, N. The Role of Existing Infrastructure of Fuel Stations in Deploying Solar Charging Systems, Electric Vehicles and Solar Energy: A Preliminary Analysis. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 2018, 137, 317–326.
  21. Ekman, C.K. On the Synergy between Large Electric Vehicle Fleet and High Wind Penetration—An Analysis of the Danish Case. Renew. Energy 2011, 36, 546–553.
  22. Dallinger, D.; Wietschel, M. Grid Integration of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources Using Price-Responsive Plug-in Electric Vehicles. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2012, 16, 3370–3382.
  23. Li, Y.; Yang, J.; Song, J. Nano Energy System Model and Nanoscale Effect of Graphene Battery in Renewable Energy Electric Vehicle. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2017, 69, 652–663.
  24. Li, Y.; Yang, J.; Song, J. Design Structure Model and Renewable Energy Technology for Rechargeable Battery towards Greener and More Sustainable Electric Vehicle. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2017, 74, 19–25.
  25. Zhang, N.; Hu, Z.; Han, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhou, Y. A Fuzzy Chance-Constrained Program for Unit Commitment Problem Considering Demand Response, Electric Vehicle and Wind Power. Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst. 2015, 65, 201–209.
  26. Raoofat, M.; Saad, M.; Lefebvre, S.; Asber, D.; Mehrjedri, H.; Lenoir, L. Wind Power Smoothing Using Demand Response of Electric Vehicles. Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst. 2018, 99, 164–174.
  27. Nikoobakht, A.; Aghaei, J.; Niknam, T.; Farahmand, H.; Korpås, M. Electric Vehicle Mobility and Optimal Grid Reconfiguration as Flexibility Tools in Wind Integrated Power Systems. Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst. 2019, 110, 83–94.
  28. Domínguez-Navarro, J.A.; Dufo-López, R.; Yusta-Loyo, J.M.; Artal-Sevil, J.S.; Bernal-Agustín, J.L. Design of an Electric Vehicle Fast-Charging Station with Integration of Renewable Energy and Storage Systems. Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst. 2019, 105, 46–58.
  29. Zeynali, S.; Rostami, N.; Feyzi, M.R. Multi-Objective Optimal Short-Term Planning of Renewable Distributed Generations and Capacitor Banks in Power System Considering Different Uncertainties Including Plug-in Electric Vehicles. Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst. 2020, 119, 105885.
  30. Abubakr, H.; Mohamed, T.H.; Hussein, M.M.; Guerrero, J.M.; Agundis-Tinajero, G. Adaptive Frequency Regulation Strategy in Multi-Area Microgrids Including Renewable Energy and Electric Vehicles Supported by Virtual Inertia. Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst. 2021, 129, 106814.
  31. Yang, Z.; Li, K.; Niu, Q.; Xue, Y. A Comprehensive Study of Economic Unit Commitment of Power Systems Integrating Various Renewable Generations and Plug-in Electric Vehicles. Energy Convers. Manag. 2017, 132, 460–481.
  32. Pan, J.; Liu, T. Optimal Scheduling for Unit Commitment with Electric Vehicles and Uncertainty of Renewable Energy Sources. Energy Rep. 2022, 8, 13023–13036.
  33. Andersen, P.H.; Mathews, J.A.; Rask, M. Integrating Private Transport into Renewable Energy Policy: The Strategy of Creating Intelligent Recharging Grids for Electric Vehicles. Energy Policy 2009, 37, 2481–2486.
  34. Liu, W.; Hu, W.; Lund, H.; Chen, Z. Electric Vehicles and Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power—The Case of Inner Mongolia in China. Appl. Energy 2013, 104, 445–456.
  35. Schuller, A.; Flath, C.M.; Gottwalt, S. Quantifying Load Flexibility of Electric Vehicles for Renewable Energy Integration. Appl. Energy 2015, 151, 335–344.
  36. Schill, W.-P.; Gerbaulet, C. Power System Impacts of Electric Vehicles in Germany: Charging with Coal or Renewables? Appl. Energy 2015, 156, 185–196.
  37. Wang, M.; Mu, Y.; Jia, H.; Wu, J.; Yu, X.; Qi, Y. Active Power Regulation for Large-Scale Wind Farms through an Efficient Power Plant Model of Electric Vehicles. Appl. Energy 2017, 185, 1673–1683.
  38. Fan, V.H.; Dong, Z.; Meng, K. Integrated Distribution Expansion Planning Considering Stochastic Renewable Energy Resources and Electric Vehicles. Appl. Energy 2020, 278, 115720.
  39. Park, S.-W.; Cho, K.-S.; Hoefter, G.; Son, S.-Y. Electric Vehicle Charging Management Using Location-Based Incentives for Reducing Renewable Energy Curtailment Considering the Distribution System. Appl. Energy 2022, 305, 117680.
  40. Kiviluoma, J.; Meibom, P. Influence of Wind Power, Plug-in Electric Vehicles, and Heat Storages on Power System Investments. Energy 2010, 35, 1244–1255.
  41. Bellekom, S.; Benders, R.; Pelgröm, S.; Moll, H. Electric Cars and Wind Energy: Two Problems, One Solution? A Study to Combine Wind Energy and Electric Cars in 2020 in The Netherlands. Energy 2012, 45, 859–866.
  42. Nunes, P.; Farias, T.; Brito, M.C. Day Charging Electric Vehicles with Excess Solar Electricity for a Sustainable Energy System. Energy 2015, 80, 263–274.
  43. Verma, A.; Raj, R.; Kumar, M.; Ghandehariun, S.; Kumar, A. Assessment of Renewable Energy Technologies for Charging Electric Vehicles in Canada. Energy 2015, 86, 548–559.
  44. Nunes, P.; Farias, T.; Brito, M.C. Enabling Solar Electricity with Electric Vehicles Smart Charging. Energy 2015, 87, 10–20.
  45. Carrión, M.; Zárate-Miñano, R. Operation of Renewable-Dominated Power Systems with a Significant Penetration of Plug-in Electric Vehicles. Energy 2015, 90, 827–835.
  46. Rahbari, O.; Vafaeipour, M.; Omar, N.; Rosen, M.A.; Hegazy, O.; Timmermans, J.-M.; Heibati, S.; Bossche, P.V.D. An Optimal Versatile Control Approach for Plug-in Electric Vehicles to Integrate Renewable Energy Sources and Smart Grids. Energy 2017, 134, 1053–1067.
  47. McPherson, M.; Ismail, M.; Hoornweg, D.; Metcalfe, M. Planning for Variable Renewable Energy and Electric Vehicle Integration under Varying Degrees of Decentralization: A Case Study in Lusaka, Zambia. Energy 2018, 151, 332–346.
  48. Bellocchi, S.; Gambini, M.; Manno, M.; Stilo, T.; Vellini, M. Positive Interactions between Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energy Sources in CO2-Reduced Energy Scenarios: The Italian Case. Energy 2018, 161, 172–182.
  49. Taibi, E.; Fernández del Valle, C.; Howells, M. Strategies for Solar and Wind Integration by Leveraging Flexibility from Electric Vehicles: The Barbados Case Study. Energy 2018, 164, 65–78.
  50. Colmenar-Santos, A.; Muñoz-Gómez, A.-M.; Rosales-Asensio, E.; López-Rey, Á. Electric Vehicle Charging Strategy to Support Renewable Energy Sources in Europe 2050 Low-Carbon Scenario. Energy 2019, 183, 61–74.
  51. Ata, M.; Erenoğlu, A.K.; Şengör, İ.; Erdinç, O.; Taşcıkaraoğlu, A.; Catalão, J.P.S. Optimal Operation of a Multi-Energy System Considering Renewable Energy Sources Stochasticity and Impacts of Electric Vehicles. Energy 2019, 186, 115841.
  52. Sadeghi, D.; Hesami Naghshbandy, A.; Bahramara, S. Optimal Sizing of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems in Presence of Electric Vehicles Using Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization. Energy 2020, 209, 118471.
  53. Forrest, K.E.; Tarroja, B.; Zhang, L.; Shaffer, B.; Samuelsen, S. Charging a Renewable Future: The Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging Intelligence on Energy Storage Requirements to Meet Renewable Portfolio Standards. J. Power Sources 2016, 336, 63–74.
  54. Mesarić, P.; Krajcar, S. Home Demand Side Management Integrated with Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energy Sources. Energy Build. 2015, 108, 1–9.
  55. Azarhooshang, A.; Sedighizadeh, D.; Sedighizadeh, M. Two-Stage Stochastic Operation Considering Day-Ahead and Real-Time Scheduling of Microgrids with High Renewable Energy Sources and Electric Vehicles Based on Multi-Layer Energy Management System. Electr. Power Syst. Res. 2021, 201, 107527.
  56. Yu, L.; Li, Y.P. A Flexible-Possibilistic Stochastic Programming Method for Planning Municipal-Scale Energy System through Introducing Renewable Energies and Electric Vehicles. J. Clean. Prod. 2019, 207, 772–787.
  57. Drude, L.; Pereira Junior, L.C.; Rüther, R. Photovoltaics (PV) and Electric Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Strategies for Peak Demand Reduction in Urban Regions in Brazil in a Smart Grid Environment. Renew. Energy 2014, 68, 443–451.
  58. Atia, R.; Yamada, N. More Accurate Sizing of Renewable Energy Sources under High Levels of Electric Vehicle Integration. Renew. Energy 2015, 81, 918–925.
  59. Shi, R.; Li, S.; Zhang, P.; Lee, K.Y. Integration of Renewable Energy Sources and Electric Vehicles in V2G Network with Adjustable Robust Optimization. Renew. Energy 2020, 153, 1067–1080.
  60. Wang, Y.; Wang, X.; Shao, C.; Gong, N. Distributed Energy Trading for an Integrated Energy System and Electric Vehicle Charging Stations: A Nash Bargaining Game Approach. Renew. Energy 2020, 155, 513–530.
  61. Gong, L.; Cao, W.; Liu, K.; Yu, Y.; Zhao, J. Demand Responsive Charging Strategy of Electric Vehicles to Mitigate the Volatility of Renewable Energy Sources. Renew. Energy 2020, 156, 665–676.
  62. Bastida-Molina, P.; Hurtado-Pérez, E.; Moros Gómez, M.C.; Vargas-Salgado, C. Multicriteria Power Generation Planning and Experimental Verification of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Fast Electric Vehicle Charging Stations. Renew. Energy 2021, 179, 737–755.
  63. Richardson, D.B. Electric Vehicles and the Electric Grid: A Review of Modeling Approaches, Impacts, and Renewable Energy Integration. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2013, 19, 247–254.
  64. Mwasilu, F.; Justo, J.J.; Kim, E.-K.; Do, T.D.; Jung, J.-W. Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid Interaction: A Review on Vehicle to Grid and Renewable Energy Sources Integration. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2014, 34, 501–516.
  65. Liu, L.; Kong, F.; Liu, X.; Peng, Y.; Wang, Q. A Review on Electric Vehicles Interacting with Renewable Energy in Smart Grid. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2015, 51, 648–661.
  66. Chellaswamy, C.; Ramesh, R. Future Renewable Energy Option for Recharging Full Electric Vehicles. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2017, 76, 824–838.
  67. Liu, C.; Abdulkareem, S.S.; Rezvani, A.; Samad, S.; Aljojo, N.; Foong, L.K.; Nishihara, K. Stochastic Scheduling of a Renewable-Based Microgrid in the Presence of Electric Vehicles Using Modified Harmony Search Algorithm with Control Policies. Sustain. Cities Soc. 2020, 59, 102183.
  68. Zou, Y.; Zhao, J.; Ding, D.; Miao, F.; Sobhani, B. Solving Dynamic Economic and Emission Dispatch in Power System Integrated Electric Vehicle and Wind Turbine Using Multi-Objective Virus Colony Search Algorithm. Sustain. Cities Soc. 2021, 67, 102722.
  69. Farhoodnea, M.; Mohamed, A.; Shareef, H.; Zayandehroodi, H. Power Quality Impact of Renewable Energy Based Generators and Electric Vehicles on Distribution Systems. Procedia Technol. 2013, 11, 11–17.
  70. van der Kam, M.J.; Meelen, A.A.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Alkemade, F. Diffusion of Solar Photovoltaic Systems and Electric Vehicles among Dutch Consumers: Implications for the Energy Transition. Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 2018, 46, 68–85.
  71. Feng, J.; Yang, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, K.; Ji, H.; Yuan, J.; Ma, Y. Flexible Optimal Scheduling of Power System Based on Renewable Energy and Electric Vehicles. Energy Rep. 2022, 8, 1414–1422.
  72. Chakir, A.; Abid, M.; Tabaa, M.; Hachimi, H. Demand-Side Management Strategy in a Smart Home Using Electric Vehicle and Hybrid Renewable Energy System. Energy Rep. 2022, 8, 383–393.
  73. Allouhi, A.; Rehman, S. Grid-Connected Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Supermarkets with Electric Vehicle Charging Platforms: Optimization and Sensitivity Analyses. Energy Rep. 2023, 9, 3305–3318.
  74. Latifi, M.; Khalili, A.; Rastegarnia, A.; Sanei, S. A Bayesian Real-Time Electric Vehicle Charging Strategy for Mitigating Renewable Energy Fluctuations. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inform. 2019, 15, 2555–2568.
  75. Ravichandran, A.; Sirouspour, S.; Malysz, P.; Emadi, A. A Chance-Constraints-Based Control Strategy for Microgrids with Energy Storage and Integrated Electric Vehicles. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 2018, 9, 346–359.
  76. Zahedmanesh, A.; Muttaqi, K.M.; Sutanto, D. A Cooperative Energy Management in a Virtual Energy Hub of an Electric Transportation System Powered by PV Generation and Energy Storage. IEEE Trans. Transp. Electrif. 2021, 7, 1123–1133.
  77. Wu, H.; Shahidehpour, M.; Alabdulwahab, A.; Abusorrah, A. A Game Theoretic Approach to Risk-Based Optimal Bidding Strategies for Electric Vehicle Aggregators in Electricity Markets with Variable Wind Energy Resources. IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy 2016, 7, 374–385.
  78. Sharma, P.; Mishra, A.; Saxena, A.; Shankar, R. A Novel Hybridized Fuzzy PI-LADRC Based Improved Frequency Regulation for Restructured Power System Integrating Renewable Energy and Electric Vehicles. IEEE Access 2021, 9, 7597–7617.
  79. Jiao, F.; Zou, Y.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, B. A Three-Stage Multitimescale Framework for Online Dispatch in a Microgrid with EVs and Renewable Energy. IEEE Trans. Transp. Electrif. 2022, 8, 442–454.
  80. Mou, X.; Zhang, Y.; Jiang, J.; Sun, H. Achieving Low Carbon Emission for Dynamically Charging Electric Vehicles Through Renewable Energy Integration. IEEE Access 2019, 7, 118876–118888.
  81. Abedinia, O.; Lu, M.; Bagheri, M. An Improved Multicriteria Optimization Method for Solving the Electric Vehicles Planning Issue in Smart Grids via Green Energy Sources. IEEE Access 2020, 8, 3465–3481.
  82. Akhtar, I.; Jameel, M.; Altamimi, A.; Kirmani, S. An Innovative Reliability Oriented Approach for Restructured Power System Considering the Impact of Integrating Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energy Resources. IEEE Access 2022, 10, 52358–52376.
  83. Shafie-Khah, M.; Siano, P.; Fitiwi, D.Z.; Mahmoudi, N.; Catalao, J.P.S. An Innovative Two-Level Model for Electric Vehicle Parking Lots in Distribution Systems with Renewable Energy. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 2018, 9, 1506–1520.
  84. Liu, H.; Zeng, P.; Guo, J.; Wu, H.; Ge, S. An Optimization Strategy of Controlled Electric Vehicle Charging Considering Demand Side Response and Regional Wind and Photovoltaic. J. Mod. Power Syst. Clean Energy 2015, 3, 232–239.
  85. Habib, H.U.R.; Waqar, A.; Hussien, M.G.; Junejo, A.K.; Jahangiri, M.; Imran, R.M.; Kim, Y.-S.; Kim, J.-H. Analysis of Microgrid’s Operation Integrated to Renewable Energy and Electric Vehicles in View of Multiple Demand Response Programs. IEEE Access 2022, 10, 7598–7638.
  86. Khan, A.; Memon, S.; Sattar, T.P. Analyzing Integrated Renewable Energy and Smart-Grid Systems to Improve Voltage Quality and Harmonic Distortion Losses at Electric-Vehicle Charging Stations. IEEE Access 2018, 6, 26404–26415.
  87. Nour, M.; Magdy, G.; Chaves-Avila, J.P.; Sanchez-Miralles, A.; Petlenkov, E. Automatic Generation Control of a Future Multisource Power System Considering High Renewables Penetration and Electric Vehicles: Egyptian Power System in 2035. IEEE Access 2022, 10, 51662–51681.
  88. Bayani, R.; Manshadi, S.D.; Liu, G.; Wang, Y.; Dai, R. Autonomous Charging of Electric Vehicle Fleets to Enhance Renewable Generation Dispatchability. CSEE J. Power Energy Syst. 2022, 8, 669–681.
  89. Li, S.; Zhao, P.; Gu, C.; Li, J.; Cheng, S.; Xu, M. Battery Protective Electric Vehicle Charging Management in Renewable Energy System. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inform. 2023, 19, 1312–1321.
  90. Zeng, B.; Dong, H.; Sioshansi, R.; Xu, F.; Zeng, M. Bilevel Robust Optimization of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations with Distributed Energy Resources. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 2020, 56, 5836–5847.
  91. Chen, X.; Zhang, T.; Ye, W.; Wang, Z.; Iu, H.H.-C. Blockchain-Based Electric Vehicle Incentive System for Renewable Energy Consumption. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II Express Briefs 2021, 68, 396–400.
  92. Guzman, C.P.; Arias, N.B.; Franco, J.F.; Soares, J.; Vale, Z.; Romero, R. Boosting the Usage of Green Energy for EV Charging in Smart Buildings Managed by an Aggregator Through a Novel Renewable Usage Index. IEEE Access 2021, 9, 105357–105368.
  93. Wang, B.; Dehghanian, P.; Zhao, D. Chance-Constrained Energy Management System for Power Grids with High Proliferation of Renewables and Electric Vehicles. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 2020, 11, 2324–2336.
  94. Deb, S.; Goswami, A.K.; Harsh, P.; Sahoo, J.P.; Chetri, R.L.; Roy, R.; Shekhawat, A.S. Charging Coordination of Plug-In Electric Vehicle for Congestion Management in Distribution System Integrated with Renewable Energy Sources. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 2020, 56, 5452–5462.
  95. Zhang, T.; Chen, W.; Han, Z.; Cao, Z. Charging Scheduling of Electric Vehicles with Local Renewable Energy Under Uncertain Electric Vehicle Arrival and Grid Power Price. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 2014, 63, 2600–2612.
  96. Jampeethong, P.; Khomfoi, S. Coordinated Control of Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energy Sources for Frequency Regulation in Microgrids. IEEE Access 2020, 8, 141967–141976.
  97. Hajiakbari Fini, M.; Golshan, M.E.H.; Marti, J.R. Coordinated Participation of Electric Vehicles and Generating Units in Primary Frequency Control in the Presence of Renewables. IEEE Trans. Transp. Electrif. 2023, 9, 130–141.
  98. Wang, B.; Dehghanian, P.; Zhao, D. Coordinated Planning of Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure and Renewables in Power Grids. IEEE Open Access J. Power Energy 2023, 10, 233–244.
  99. Li, Y.; Ni, Z.; Zhao, T.; Yu, M.; Liu, Y.; Wu, L.; Zhao, Y. Coordinated Scheduling for Improving Uncertain Wind Power Adsorption in Electric Vehicles—Wind Integrated Power Systems by Multiobjective Optimization Approach. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 2020, 56, 2238–2250.
  100. Li, Y.; Han, M.; Yang, Z.; Li, G. Coordinating Flexible Demand Response and Renewable Uncertainties for Scheduling of Community Integrated Energy Systems with an Electric Vehicle Charging Station: A Bi-Level Approach. IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy 2021, 12, 2321–2331.
  101. Yang, Y.; Jia, Q.-S.; Deconinck, G.; Guan, X.; Qiu, Z.; Hu, Z. Distributed Coordination of EV Charging with Renewable Energy in a Microgrid of Buildings. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 2018, 9, 6253–6264.
  102. Nguyen, H.N.T.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, J. Dynamic Demand Control of Electric Vehicles to Support Power Grid with High Penetration Level of Renewable Energy. IEEE Trans. Transp. Electrif. 2016, 2, 66–75.
  103. Saber, A.Y.; Venayagamoorthy, G.K. Efficient Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources by Gridable Vehicles in Cyber-Physical Energy Systems. IEEE Syst. J. 2010, 4, 285–294.
  104. Kikusato, H.; Fujimoto, Y.; Hanada, S.; Isogawa, D.; Yoshizawa, S.; Ohashi, H.; Hayashi, Y. Electric Vehicle Charging Management Using Auction Mechanism for Reducing PV Curtailment in Distribution Systems. IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy 2020, 11, 1394–1403.
  105. Lee, W.; Xiang, L.; Schober, R.; Wong, V.W.S. Electric Vehicle Charging Stations with Renewable Power Generators: A Game Theoretical Analysis. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 2015, 6, 608–617.
  106. Wang, W.; Liu, L.; Liu, J.; Chen, Z. Energy Management and Optimization of Vehicle-to-Grid Systems for Wind Power Integration. CSEE J. Power Energy Syst. 2021, 7, 172–180.
  107. Junquera Martínez, I.; García-Villalobos, J.; Zamora, I.; Eguía, P. Energy Management of Micro Renewable Energy Source and Electric Vehicles at Home Level. J. Mod. Power Syst. Clean Energy 2017, 5, 979–990.
  108. Monteiro, V.; Pinto, J.G.; Afonso, J.L. Experimental Validation of a Three-Port Integrated Topology to Interface Electric Vehicles and Renewables with the Electrical Grid. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inform. 2018, 14, 2364–2374.
  109. Moradisizkoohi, H.; Elsayad, N.; Mohammed, O.A. Experimental Verification of a Double-Input Soft-Switched DC–DC Converter for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle with Hybrid Energy Storage System. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 2019, 55, 6451–6465.
  110. Singh, S.; Chauhan, P.; Jap Singh, N. Feasibility of Grid-Connected Solar-Wind Hybrid System with Electric Vehicle Charging Station. J. Mod. Power Syst. Clean Energy 2021, 9, 295–306.
  111. Jan, M.U.; Xin, A.; Rehman, H.U.; Abdelbaky, M.A.; Iqbal, S.; Aurangzeb, M. Frequency Regulation of an Isolated Microgrid with Electric Vehicles and Energy Storage System Integration Using Adaptive and Model Predictive Controllers. IEEE Access 2021, 9, 14958–14970.
  112. Muttaqi, K.M.; Islam, M.R.; Sutanto, D. Future Power Distribution Grids: Integration of Renewable Energy, Energy Storage, Electric Vehicles, Superconductor, and Magnetic Bus. IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 2019, 29, 3800305.
  113. Mu, C.; Liu, W.; Xu, W. Hierarchically Adaptive Frequency Control for an EV-Integrated Smart Grid with Renewable Energy. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inform. 2018, 14, 4254–4263.
  114. Khodayar, M.E.; Wu, L.; Shahidehpour, M. Hourly Coordination of Electric Vehicle Operation and Volatile Wind Power Generation in SCUC. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 2012, 3, 1271–1279.
  115. Astero, P.; Choi, B.J.; Liang, H. Multi-agent Transactive Energy Management System Considering High Levels of Renewable Energy Source and Electric Vehicles. IET Gener. Transm. Distrib. 2017, 11, 3713–3721.
  116. Shafie-khah, M.; Vahid-Ghavidel, M.; Di Somma, M.; Graditi, G.; Siano, P.; Catalão, J.P.S. Management of Renewable-based Multi-energy Microgrids in the Presence of Electric Vehicles. IET Renew. Power Gener. 2019, 14, 417–426.
  117. Vithayasrichareon, P.; Mills, G.; MacGill, I.F. Impact of Electric Vehicles and Solar PV on Future Generation Portfolio Investment. IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy 2015, 6, 899–908.
  118. de Quevedo, P.M.; Munoz-Delgado, G.; Contreras, J. Impact of Electric Vehicles on the Expansion Planning of Distribution Systems Considering Renewable Energy, Storage, and Charging Stations. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 2019, 10, 794–804.
  119. Singh, B.; Verma, A.; Chandra, A.; Al Haddad, K. Implementation of Solar PV-Battery and Diesel Generator Based Electric Vehicle Charging Station. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 2020, 56, 4007–4016.
  120. Ahmadi, A.; Esmaeel Nezhad, A.; Siano, P.; Hredzak, B.; Saha, S. Information-Gap Decision Theory for Robust Security-Constrained Unit Commitment of Joint Renewable Energy and Gridable Vehicles. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inform. 2020, 16, 3064–3075.
  121. Gao, S.; Jia, H. Integrated Configuration and Optimization of Electric Vehicle Aggregators for Charging Facilities in Power Networks with Renewables. IEEE Access 2019, 7, 84690–84700.
  122. Gao, S.; Chau, K.T.; Liu, C.; Wu, D.; Chan, C.C. Integrated Energy Management of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Power Grid with Renewables. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 2014, 63, 3019–3027.
  123. Chung, H.-M.; Maharjan, S.; Zhang, Y.; Eliassen, F. Intelligent Charging Management of Electric Vehicles Considering Dynamic User Behavior and Renewable Energy: A Stochastic Game Approach. IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 2021, 22, 7760–7771.
  124. Zhang, X.S.; Yu, T.; Pan, Z.N.; Yang, B.; Bao, T. Lifelong Learning for Complementary Generation Control of Interconnected Power Grids with High-Penetration Renewables and EVs. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 2018, 33, 4097–4110.
  125. Kim, G.; Hur, J. Methodology for Security Analysis of Grid- Connected Electric Vehicle Charging Station with Wind Generating Resources. IEEE Access 2021, 9, 63905–63914.
  126. Traube, J.; Lu, F.; Maksimovic, D.; Mossoba, J.; Kromer, M.; Faill, P.; Katz, S.; Borowy, B.; Nichols, S.; Casey, L. Mitigation of Solar Irradiance Intermittency in Photovoltaic Power Systems with Integrated Electric-Vehicle Charging Functionality. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 2013, 28, 3058–3067.
  127. Hu, J.; Zhou, H.; Li, Y.; Hou, P.; Yang, G. Multi-Time Scale Energy Management Strategy of Aggregator Characterized by Photovoltaic Generation and Electric Vehicles. J. Mod. Power Syst. Clean Energy 2020, 8, 727–736.
  128. Kirihara, K.; Kawabe, T. Novel Emission Dispatch for Adding Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energy Sources with Short-Term Frequency Stability. IEEE Access 2021, 9, 110695–110709.
  129. Esmaeili, M.; Anvari-Moghaddam, A.; Muyeen, S.M.; Peric, V.S. On the Role of Renewable Energy Policies and Electric Vehicle Deployment Incentives for a Greener Sector Coupling. IEEE Access 2022, 10, 53873–53893.
  130. Yang, H.; Pan, H.; Luo, F.; Qiu, J.; Deng, Y.; Lai, M.; Dong, Z.Y. Operational Planning of Electric Vehicles for Balancing Wind Power and Load Fluctuations in a Microgrid. IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy 2017, 8, 592–604.
  131. Ugirumurera, J.; Haas, Z.J. Optimal Capacity Sizing for Completely Green Charging Systems for Electric Vehicles. IEEE Trans. Transp. Electrif. 2017, 3, 565–577.
  132. Eseye, A.T.; Lehtonen, M.; Tukia, T.; Uimonen, S.; Millar, R.J. Optimal Energy Trading for Renewable Energy Integrated Building Microgrids Containing Electric Vehicles and Energy Storage Batteries. IEEE Access 2019, 7, 106092–106101.
  133. Affolabi, L.; Shahidehpour, M.; Gan, W.; Yan, M.; Chen, B.; Pandey, S.; Vukojevic, A.; Paaso, E.A.; Alabdulwahab, A.; Abusorrah, A. Optimal Transactive Energy Trading of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations with On-Site PV Generation in Constrained Power Distribution Networks. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 2022, 13, 1427–1440.
  134. Melhem, F.Y.; Grunder, O.; Hammoudan, Z.; Moubayed, N. Optimization and Energy Management in Smart Home Considering Photovoltaic, Wind, and Battery Storage System with Integration of Electric Vehicles. Can. J. Electr. Comput. Eng. 2017, 40, 128–138.
  135. El-Taweel, N.A.; Farag, H.; Shaaban, M.F.; AlSharidah, M.E. Optimization Model for EV Charging Stations with PV Farm Transactive Energy. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inform. 2022, 18, 4608–4621.
  136. Ahmed, E.M.; Mohamed, E.A.; Elmelegi, A.; Aly, M.; Elbaksawi, O. Optimum Modified Fractional Order Controller for Future Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energy-Based Interconnected Power Systems. IEEE Access 2021, 9, 29993–30010.
  137. Xie, R.; Wei, W.; Khodayar, M.E.; Wang, J.; Mei, S. Planning Fully Renewable Powered Charging Stations on Highways: A Data-Driven Robust Optimization Approach. IEEE Trans. Transp. Electrif. 2018, 4, 817–830.
  138. Saber, A.Y.; Venayagamoorthy, G.K. Plug-in Vehicles and Renewable Energy Sources for Cost and Emission Reductions. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 2011, 58, 1229–1238.
  139. Zhang, H.; Hu, Z.; Song, Y. Power and Transport Nexus: Routing Electric Vehicles to Promote Renewable Power Integration. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 2020, 11, 3291–3301.
  140. Gupta, N. Probabilistic Optimal Reactive Power Planning with Onshore and Offshore Wind Generation, EV and PV Uncertainties. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 2020, 56, 4200–4213.
  141. Appino, R.R.; Munoz-Ortiz, M.; Ordiano, J.A.G.; Mikut, R.; Hagenmeyer, V.; Faulwasser, T. Reliable Dispatch of Renewable Generation via Charging of Time-Varying PEV Populations. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 2019, 34, 1558–1568.
  142. Liu, X. Research on Flexibility Evaluation Method of Distribution System Based on Renewable Energy and Electric Vehicles. IEEE Access 2020, 8, 109249–109265.
  143. Saber, A.Y.; Venayagamoorthy, G.K. Resource Scheduling Under Uncertainty in a Smart Grid With Renewables and Plug-in Vehicles. IEEE Syst. J. 2012, 6, 103–109.
  144. Liu, H.; Pan, H.; Wang, N.; Yousaf, M.Z.; Goh, H.H.; Rahman, S. Robust Under-Frequency Load Shedding With Electric Vehicles Under Wind Power and Commute Uncertainties. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 2022, 13, 3676–3687.
  145. Gao, S.; Chau, K.T.; Liu, C.; Wu, D.; Li, J. SMES Control for Power Grid Integrating Renewable Generation and Electric Vehicles. IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 2012, 22, 5701804.
  146. Kavousi-Fard, A.; Niknam, T.; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M. Stochastic Reconfiguration and Optimal Coordination of V2G Plug-in Electric Vehicles Considering Correlated Wind Power Generation. IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy 2015, 6, 822–830.
  147. Liu, D.; Wang, L.; Wang, W.; Li, H.; Liu, M.; Xu, X. Strategy of Large-Scale Electric Vehicles Absorbing Renewable Energy Abandoned Electricity Based on Master-Slave Game. IEEE Access 2021, 9, 92473–92482.
  148. Salama, H.S.; Said, S.M.; Aly, M.; Vokony, I.; Hartmann, B. Studying Impacts of Electric Vehicle Functionalities in Wind Energy-Powered Utility Grids with Energy Storage Device. IEEE Access 2021, 9, 45754–45769.
  149. Masuta, T.; Yokoyama, A. Supplementary Load Frequency Control by Use of a Number of Both Electric Vehicles and Heat Pump Water Heaters. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 2012, 3, 1253–1262.
  150. Joseph, P.K.; Elangovan, D.; Sanjeevikumar, P. System Architecture, Design, and Optimization of a Flexible Wireless Charger for Renewable Energy-Powered Electric Bicycles. IEEE Syst. J. 2021, 15, 2696–2707.
  151. Masood, A.; Hu, J.; Xin, A.; Sayed, A.R.; Yang, G. Transactive Energy for Aggregated Electric Vehicles to Reduce System Peak Load Considering Network Constraints. IEEE Access 2020, 8, 31519–31529.
  152. Bashash, S.; Fathy, H.K. Transport-Based Load Modeling and Sliding Mode Control of Plug-In Electric Vehicles for Robust Renewable Power Tracking. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 2012, 3, 526–534.
  153. Wang, R.; Wang, P.; Xiao, G. Two-Stage Mechanism for Massive Electric Vehicle Charging Involving Renewable Energy. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 2016, 65, 4159–4171.
  154. Giordano, F.; Ciocia, A.; Leo, P.D.; Mazza, A.; Spertino, F.; Tenconi, A.; Vaschetto, S. Vehicle-to-Home Usage Scenarios for Self-Consumption Improvement of a Residential Prosumer with Photovoltaic Roof. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 2020, 56, 2945–2956.
  155. Alkawsi, G.; Baashar, Y.; Abbas, U.D.; Alkahtani, A.A.; Tiong, S.K. Review of Renewable Energy-Based Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 3847.
  156. Chen, X.; Zhang, H.; Xu, Z.; Nielsen, C.P.; McElroy, M.B.; Lv, J. Impacts of Fleet Types and Charging Modes for Electric Vehicles on Emissions under Different Penetrations of Wind Power. Nat. Energy 2018, 3, 413–421.
  157. Chowdhury, N.; Hossain, C.; Longo, M.; Yaïci, W. Optimization of Solar Energy System for the Electric Vehicle at University Campus in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Energies 2018, 11, 2433.
  158. Osório, G.; Shafie-khah, M.; Coimbra, P.; Lotfi, M.; Catalão, J. Distribution System Operation with Electric Vehicle Charging Schedules and Renewable Energy Resources. Energies 2018, 11, 3117.
  159. Badea, G.; Felseghi, R.-A.; Varlam, M.; Filote, C.; Culcer, M.; Iliescu, M.; Răboacă, M. Design and Simulation of Romanian Solar Energy Charging Station for Electric Vehicles. Energies 2018, 12, 74.
  160. Bellocchi, S.; Manno, M.; Noussan, M.; Vellini, M. Impact of Grid-Scale Electricity Storage and Electric Vehicles on Renewable Energy Penetration: A Case Study for Italy. Energies 2019, 12, 1303.
  161. Sayed, K.; Abo-Khalil, A.G.; Alghamdi, A.S. Optimum Resilient Operation and Control DC Microgrid Based Electric Vehicles Charging Station Powered by Renewable Energy Sources. Energies 2019, 12, 4240.
  162. AlHammadi, A.; Al-Saif, N.; Al-Sumaiti, A.S.; Marzband, M.; Alsumaiti, T.; Heydarian-Forushani, E. Techno-Economic Analysis of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems Designed for Electric Vehicle Charging: A Case Study from the United Arab Emirates. Energies 2022, 15, 6621.
  163. Yang, X.; Niu, D.; Sun, L.; Wang, K.; De, G. Participation of Electric Vehicles in Auxiliary Service Market to Promote Renewable Energy Power Consumption: Case Study on Deep Peak Load Regulation of Auxiliary Thermal Power by Electric Vehicles. Energy Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 1465–1476.
  164. Ilango, R.; Rajesh, P.; Shajin, F.H. S2NA-GEO Method–Based Charging Strategy of Electric Vehicles to Mitigate the Volatility of Renewable Energy Sources. Int. Trans. Electr. Energy Syst. 2021, 31, e13125.
  165. Eser, P.; Chokani, N.; Abhari, R.S. Impacts of Battery Electric Vehicles on Renewable Integration within the 2030 European Power System. Int. J. Energy Res. 2018, 42, 4142–4156.
  166. Sadeghi, D.; Amiri, N.; Marzband, M.; Abusorrah, A.; Sedraoui, K. Optimal Sizing of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems by Considering Power Sharing and Electric Vehicles. Int. J. Energy Res. 2022, 46, 8288–8312.
  167. Long, T.; Jia, Q.-S. Matching Uncertain Renewable Supply with Electric Vehicle Charging Demand—A Bi-Level Event-Based Optimization Method. Complex Syst. Model. Simul. 2021, 1, 33–44.
  168. Šare, A.; Krajačić, G.; Pukšec, T.; Duić, N. The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources and Electric Vehicles into the Power System of the Dubrovnik Region. Energy Sustain. Soc. 2015, 5, 27.
  169. Mamun, K.A.; Islam, F.R.; Haque, R.; Chand, A.A.; Prasad, K.A.; Goundar, K.K.; Prakash, K.; Maharaj, S. Systematic Modeling and Analysis of On-Board Vehicle Integrated Novel Hybrid Renewable Energy System with Storage for Electric Vehicles. Sustainability 2022, 14, 2538.
  170. Dutta, A.; Prakash, S. Utilizing Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energy Sources for Load Frequency Control in Deregulated Power System Using Emotional Controller. IETE J. Res. 2019, 68, 1500–1511.
  171. Oldenbroek, V.; Verhoef, L.A.; van Wijk, A.J.M. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle as a Power Plant: Fully Renewable Integrated Transport and Energy System Design and Analysis for Smart City Areas. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2017, 42, 8166–8196.
  172. Bamisile, O.; Babatunde, A.; Adun, H.; Yimen, N.; Mukhtar, M.; Huang, Q.; Hu, W. Electrification and Renewable Energy Nexus in Developing Countries; an Overarching Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Electric Vehicles Integrality in Renewable Energy Penetration. Energy Convers. Manag. 2021, 236, 114023.
  173. Ampah, J.D.; Afrane, S.; Agyekum, E.B.; Adun, H.; Yusuf, A.A.; Bamisile, O. Electric Vehicles Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Performance Assessment of Standalone Renewable Energy Systems for Hydrogen Refuelling and Electricity Charging Stations (HRECS). J. Clean. Prod. 2022, 376, 134238.
  174. Turkdogan, S. Design and Optimization of a Solely Renewable Based Hybrid Energy System for Residential Electrical Load and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle. Eng. Sci. Technol. Int. J. 2021, 24, 397–404.
  175. Hamajima, T.; Amata, H.; Iwasaki, T.; Atomura, N.; Tsuda, M.; Miyagi, D.; Shintomi, T.; Makida, Y.; Takao, T.; Munakata, K.; et al. Application of SMES and Fuel Cell System Combined with Liquid Hydrogen Vehicle Station to Renewable Energy Control. IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 2012, 22, 5701704.
  176. Zhang, M.; Zhang, N.; Guan, D.; Ye, P.; Song, K.; Pan, X.; Wang, H.; Cheng, M. Optimal Design and Operation of Regional Multi-Energy Systems with High Renewable Penetration Considering Reliability Constraints. IEEE Access 2020, 8, 205307–205315.
  177. Shao, C.; Feng, C.; Shahidehpour, M.; Zhou, Q.; Wang, X.; Wang, X. Optimal Stochastic Operation of Integrated Electric Power and Renewable Energy with Vehicle-Based Hydrogen Energy System. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 2021, 36, 4310–4321.
  178. Cai, G.; Kong, L. Techno-Economic Analysis of Wind Curtailment/Hydrogen Production/Fuel Cell Vehicle System with High Wind Penetration in China. CSEE J. Power Energy Syst. 2017, 3, 44–52.
  179. Luca de Tena, D.; Pregger, T. Impact of Electric Vehicles on a Future Renewable Energy-Based Power System in Europe with a Focus on Germany. Int. J. Energy Res. 2018, 42, 2670–2685.
More
Information
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register : , , ,
View Times: 339
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 30 May 2023
1000/1000
Video Production Service