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Manousakis, N.M.; Karagiannopoulos, P.S.; Tsekouras, G.J.; Kanellos, F.D. Integration of RESs and EVs in Power Systems. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 25 June 2024).
Manousakis NM, Karagiannopoulos PS, Tsekouras GJ, Kanellos FD. Integration of RESs and EVs in Power Systems. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed June 25, 2024.
Manousakis, Nikolaos M., Panagiotis S. Karagiannopoulos, George J. Tsekouras, Fotios D. Kanellos. "Integration of RESs and EVs in Power Systems" Encyclopedia, (accessed June 25, 2024).
Manousakis, N.M., Karagiannopoulos, P.S., Tsekouras, G.J., & Kanellos, F.D. (2023, May 29). Integration of RESs and EVs in Power Systems. In Encyclopedia.
Manousakis, Nikolaos M., et al. "Integration of RESs and EVs in Power Systems." Encyclopedia. Web. 29 May, 2023.
Integration of RESs and EVs in Power Systems

Electric vehicles (EVs) represent a promising green technology for mitigating environmental impacts. However, their widespread adoption has significant implications for management, monitoring, and control of power systems. The integration of renewable energy sources (RESs), commonly referred to as green energy sources or alternative energy sources, into the network infrastructure is a sustainable and effective approach to addressing these matters.

electric vehicle renewable energy sources power systems

1. Introduction

The efficient use of energy has significantly contributed to the advancement of civilization. During the pre-industrial epoch, the predominant sources of energy were derived from human and animal labor, as well as the combustion of wood for the purposes of cooking, heating, and metal smelting. The utilization of coal played a pivotal role in the onset of the industrial revolution, as it facilitated the mechanization of various industries, improved transportation systems, and propelled the emerging technology of steam engines. During the preceding century, the exploration and utilization of fossil fuels constituted a significant catalyst for economic growth and advancement [1].
However, the utilization of fossil fuels such as natural gas, oil, and coal incurs substantial expenses related to climate change, ecological degradation, and public health that are not accounted for in prevailing market valuations. The aforementioned costs are commonly referred to as externalities within academic discourse. Externalities are generated at every stage of the supply chain of fossil fuels, including combustion, refining, transportation, and extraction. The process of combusting fossil fuels results in the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. This phenomenon is considered to be the primary contributor to the current climate change, which is causing alterations in the Earth’s ecosystems and posing health risks to both the environment and human populations.
The accumulation of carbon in storage amplifies the greenhouse effect, resulting in the phenomenon of global warming. In addition, aside from carbon dioxide, the combustion of fossil fuels results in the emission of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides, which contribute to the formation of acidic precipitation.

2. Electric Vehicles

A mode of transportation powered by electricity is referred to as an electric vehicle. Electric vehicles are not a new concept, with experts investigating them since the 19th century. EVs have been studied by a vast number of researchers and engineers, and their progress has always been influenced by economic and environmental factors. Some of the most significant events that have had an impact on the development of electric vehicles are mentioned bellow [2].
  • 1832: Robert Anderson created the first primitive EV.
  • 1901: Edison tackles the issue of EV batteries; Ferdinand Porsche created the first hybrid EV.
  • 1968: Oil crises lead to a resurgent interest in EVs.
  • 1971: NASA’s lunar rover was the first electric vehicle utilized for Moon exploration.
  • 1974: Many companies started to design and produce EVs.
  • 1990: New regulation for electromobility.
  • 1997: Toyota Prius was the first mass-produced hybrid EV.
  • 2010: Nissan Leaf was the first mass-produced full electric EV; Chevy Volt was the first mass-produced plug-in hybrid EV.
  • 2013: Cost reduction for EV batteries.
  • 2014: Massive production of EVs from different companies.
  • 2022: Global sales of electric vehicles increased by about 60%, surpassing 10 million for the first time.
There are three distinct categories of electric vehicles now available on the market [3]:
  • Vehicles using a gasoline engine and an electric motor are called hybrid electric vehicles. While the car is moving slowly or at a complete stop, such as in traffic, the electric motor assists with propulsion.
  • Similar to hybrid electric vehicles, but with the added convenience of being able to plug in and charge from an electrical outlet, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles offer the best of both worlds.
  • Vehicles using electric motors and batteries as power sources are known as full electric vehicles.
In recent times, a novel classification, namely the fuel cell electric vehicle, has been incorporated. A fuel cell EV is capable of producing its own electrical power through the use of hydrogen fuel cells, in contrast to conventional EVs that exclusively rely on batteries. It is noteworthy that there exist 60 electric vehicle (EV) manufacturing companies globally, with 43 of them having already introduced their models into the EV market. Table 1 displays the top five companies in terms of sales of plug-in hybrid and full electric vehicles in the year 2022. According to the source [4], BYD held a significant market share of 18.4% in the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle sector, whereas Tesla emerged as the dominant company with an 18.2% share in the global market.
Table 1. The top five corporations with the highest sales of plug-in hybrid and full electric vehicles in the year 2022.
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Full Electric Vehicles
EV Company EV Sales EV Company EV Sales
BYD 1,857,549 Tesla 1,314,330
Tesla 1,314,330 BYD 913,052
Volkswagen 831,844 SAIC 671,725
SAIC 724,911 Volkswagen 571,067
Geely-Volvo 606,114 Geely-Volvo 383,936


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