Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 2338 2023-05-02 12:06:46 |
2 update references and layout -5 word(s) 2333 2023-05-04 03:20:11 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?


Are you sure to Delete?
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Khatri, P.; Rani, A.; Hameed, S.; Chandra, S.; Chang, C.; Pandey, R.P. Antimicrobial Property of Spices. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 20 June 2024).
Khatri P, Rani A, Hameed S, Chandra S, Chang C, Pandey RP. Antimicrobial Property of Spices. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed June 20, 2024.
Khatri, Purnima, Asha Rani, Saif Hameed, Subhash Chandra, Chung-Ming Chang, Ramendra Pati Pandey. "Antimicrobial Property of Spices" Encyclopedia, (accessed June 20, 2024).
Khatri, P., Rani, A., Hameed, S., Chandra, S., Chang, C., & Pandey, R.P. (2023, May 02). Antimicrobial Property of Spices. In Encyclopedia.
Khatri, Purnima, et al. "Antimicrobial Property of Spices." Encyclopedia. Web. 02 May, 2023.
Antimicrobial Property of Spices

Antimicrobial resistance increases day by day around the world. To overcome this situation new antimicrobial agents are needed. Spices such as clove, ginger, coriander, garlic, and turmeric have the potential to fight resistant microbes.

phytochemical antimicrobial resistance spices

1. Introduction

India is a country that is famous for its spices. Since ancient times, people have used spices in their kitchens to enhance the flavor of their food and for therapeutic purposes [1]. Many people use spices to treat microbial infections including bacterial fungal and viral ones. Some spices such as turmeric, garlic, asafoetida, clove, ginger, and many more are routinely used in India to cure diseases [2][3]. More than 500 thousand plants exist on Earth, but only 10% of plants are known to be used by humans and animals [1][4]. In the last few decades, the number of multidrug-resistant microbes has increased gradually [4]. Humans use too many antibiotics and antifungals, creating endurance in microbes, and thus, they are becoming resistant to them. Various microbial infections such as bacterial and fungal infections cause life-threatening diseases as a result of microbes such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhea, Candida albicans, and Candida auris, etc. [5], which are multidrug resistant and cause several diseases such as cholera, respiratory syndrome, bacterial meningitis, urinary tract infections, Candidiasis, and Aspergillosis [6]. The harrowing conditions caused by infectious diseases as a result of drug-resistant microbes and antibiotic side effects has directed interest toward herbal and spice plants that are used as natural drugs and have fewer side effects than synthetic drugs do [7][8]. In recent years, many researchers have shown interest in spices for treating some infectious diseases to check the antimicrobial activity of spices against a wide range of bacteria, yeasts, and fungus [9][10]. Many spices such as coriander, cinnamon, gooseberry, turmeric, clove, fenugreek seed, asafoetida, star anise, garlic, black pepper, bay leaf, and curry leaf, etc., show good antimicrobial activity [11][12]. Curcuma longa, which is commonly called turmeric, is used in food, gives an orange-yellow color, and is very efficient against some fungus and bacterial strains. Its most active compound is curcumin, which has many benefits that have been scientifically proven by researchers [13][14]. The researchers advise that curcumin may be helpful for preventing metabolic syndrome and inflammatory conditions, and it also helps to improve heart disorders [15][16]. Indian gooseberry’s scientific name is Emblica officinalis, but it is commonly called “Amla” in India [17]. It adds a sour flavor to food. It is used to cure several skin disorders, and also, to recover immunity [18]. Its ethanol and methanol extracts show good activity against both bacterial and fungal strains [1]. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils work very well against many bacterial and fungal strains in India, and they are commonly called “Saunf” or fennel seeds [19]. Fennel seed has a sweet smell, and is highly nutritious. Chewing fennel seed help with digestion, and it may prevent many abdominal-related diseases [20]. “Hing” is a spice that has a strong odor, and its scientific name is Ferula assafoetida [21]. It has been used to cure coughs, asthma, stomach pain, blood pressure, and menstrual cramps, etc. Spices and their ingredients are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) [22], and their use is permitted by various regulatory agencies such as the (FDA), the European Union standards, and the Food safety and standard authority of India (FSSAI) [23]. Overall, spice extracts and their essential oils have the potential to prevent microbial infections [24]. Therefore, the extract of the spices is used as a natural drug to inhibit bacterial and fungal infections [25]. The main active compound of essential oil is terpenes, and they are phenolic and have antimicrobial properties [10]. All active phenolic compounds have a different target to eliminate harmful pathogens. A rapidly increasing number of cases of multidrug-resistant pathogens are causing a big problem in society.

2. Antimicrobial Property of Spices

Several research articles suggest that spices such as curcumin, clove, oregano, thyme, star anise, cumin, black pepper, garlic, coriander, and many more spices have antimicrobial properties, and they are used to treat antibacterial and antifungal infections [6][7][26]. The activity of spices depends on their extraction method and which solvent was used for their extract [25][27][28]. Numerous spices produce essential oils, which are more effective against different types of bacterial and fungal strains [29][30]. Essential oils, which are also called volatile oils when they are extracted from plants containing hydrophobic liquid volatile compounds, are widely used in aromatherapy and several therapeutic systems [25]. As a result, those in the scientific sector are looking at them even more for the treatment of various illnesses, such as cancer, HIV, and asthma [23].

2.1. Cloves

In order to enhance the flavor and scent of our food, Syzygium aromaticum, a member of the Myrtaceae family, is frequently used as a spice [28]. Eugenol is a phytochemical that is extracted from cloves and used to alleviate toothache pain and other types of pain. Several research projects on cloves are checking their efficacy against many pathogens [6]. Both clove essential oil (EO) and eugenol are phenolic molecules that can deactivate peptides, alter the composition of cellular membranes, and prevent the growth of some varieties of yeast and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria [31]. Due to their medicinal properties, they are used as antiseptics in dentistry to overcome dental pain [32].

2.1.1. Phytochemical of Cloves

Many investigations have been conducted to identify different S. aromaticum components [33]. Between fifteen and twenty percent of the essential oils found in clove buds are made up of eugenol, eugenyl acetate, and β-caryophyllene [32]. Clove oil also contains triterpenoids, including alpha-linolenic acid, vanillin, categoric acid, tannins, gallotannic acid, methyl salicylate, eugenin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, and eugenitin [6]. The distinctively pleasant aroma of cloves is caused by minor ingredients such as methyl amyl ketone, and methyl salicylate, etc. [34]. Some phytochemical properties of clove show in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Phytochemical and therapeutic properties of cloves.

2.1.2. Antimicrobial Activity of Cloves

Numerous studies have shown that cloves have strong antibacterial properties. Many compounds, including eugenol, iso-eugenol, methyl-eugenol, phenyl propanoides, dehydro-dieugenol, and trans-confireryl aldehyde, are present [35]. These substances have the ability to denature proteins and interact with lipids in the cellular membrane to influence their porosity. Due to the lysis of the spores and micelles, eugenol was discovered during a chromatographic analysis to be the primary component responsible for antifungal activities. Devi et al. [36] similarly observed a similar mode of action for membrane ruptures and macromolecule deformations caused by eugenol. For Candida, Aspergillus, and dermatophytes, a wide range of fungicidal activities were documented, and their mechanisms of action were related to perforations of the cell membranes [37].

2.2. Cinnamon

The botanical name for cinnamon is Cinnamomum verum, and it is an evergreen plant, and the spices are obtained from its bark [38]. The spice is brown in color, and it has a pleasant fragrance and a sweet flavor. Its essential oil is used in drugs, perfume, flavoring, and liqueur. The major phytochemical compound present in their essential oil is cinnamaldehyde, which is responsible for their antimicrobial property [39]. Cinnamon extract has various therapeutic uses; it shows antifungal, antibacterial, anti-diarrheal, antisemitic, and insecticidal properties [40]. Cinnamon is also used in aromatherapy, which is the medicinal application of plant essential oils that enter the body through the skin or the nose [9]. There are several types of research on cinnamon spices regarding their different roles in the medicinal field [7].

2.2.1. Phytochemicals of Cinnamon

Cinnamon is made up of many resinous substances, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamate, and cinnamic acid, and a large number of essential oils [41]. According to Singh et al. [42], the spicy flavor and scent are caused by the presence of cinnamaldehyde, and they occur as a result of oxygen absorption. In Figure 2 researchers represent the structure of cinnmaldehyde. The hue of cinnamon darkens with age, enhancing the resinous components. Sangal reported that cinnamon has a number of physiochemical qualities [42].“Trans-cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, eugenol, L-borneol, caryophyllene oxide, b-caryophyllene, L-bornyl acetate, E-nerolidol, α-cubebin, α-terpineol, α-terpinolene, and α-thujene are just a few of the essential oils that have been found” [43].
Figure 2. Active compound of cinnamon (Cinnamaldehyde).

2.2.2. Antimicrobial Activity of Cinnamon

Numerous antibacterial properties of cinnamon and its oils have been documented to date in numerous research studies [41]. For example, Matan et al. stated the effects of cinnamon oils on various bacterial, fungal, and yeast species, which indicate cinnamon as a natural antimicrobial agent [44]. According to Goi et al., combinations of cinnamon and clove oils have antibacterial properties both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus [45]. According to a study by Hili et al., cinnamon oils may be effective against yeast and a variety of bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli [46]. A recent study described the effectiveness of cinnamon and other plant extracts against oral bacteria. Overall, compared to other examined plant extracts such as Azadirachta indica and Syzygium aromaticum, cinnamon’s essential oil is more potent [47].

2.3. Cardamom

Green cardamom’s botanical name is Elettaria cardamomum, and it fits into the Zingiberaceae family [48]. It is used as a flavoring additive in food preparation, drinks, and medication [49]. Cardamom shows good antibacterial and antifungal activities Many research studies suggest that cardamom helps to boost the immune system, reduce high blood pressure, reduce long-term inflammation, cure digestive problems, and also, improve breathing [50]. Researchers on this spice are developing new antibiotics that are less harmful to health.

2.3.1. Phytochemicals of Cardamom

Depending on the species, plant sections, and extraction techniques used, the yield of the EO from dry cardamom ranged from 0.2% to 8.7% [51]. It contains 1,8-cineole, α-terpinyl acetate, α-terpineol, sabinene, nerol and α-pinene α-terpinyl acetate [48], α-terpineol 1, 8-cineole, sabinene, linalyl acetate, linalool limonene [52], 4-terpineol [53], geranylacetate, cis-sabinene hydrate acetate, β-caryophyllene, β-selinene, γ-cadinene, translinalooloxide [54], Geraniol, 1,8-Cineole, β-terpineol, 4-terpineol, and 1,8-Cineol, α-terpene [55]. Main active compound is cineole and α- terpinol shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Active compound of cardamom (Cineole and α-terpineol).

2.3.2. Antimicrobial Activity of Cardamom

Cardamom essential oil (CEO) has potent antibacterial properties against a range of food-borne pathogens. Cardamom oil application moderately inhibited the growth of Morgenella morganii [48]. CEO (10 mg/mL) showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans [56]. Therefore, CEO could be extremely important in creating new and safe antibiotics for use in modern medicine [57]. CEOs may be used to prevent damage from food-borne illnesses and microbial agents that cause food to rot because of their potential for diverse antibacterial and antifungal activities [58][59]. The disc diffusion approach has been used in the bulk of investigations looking at the antibacterial activity of cardamom extracts and CEO, however, because of its flaws, it must be combined with the more useful MIC test [60].

2.4. Coriander

Coriandrum sativum is widely used in spices all parts of this plant that have a significant role in their properties [61]. They contain several compounds such as thymol, bornyl acetate, gallic acid, and many more. The essential oil of coriander contains polyphenol and terpenes, the major constituent of coriander is linalool, which has several medicinal properties and strong flavors its structure given in Figure 4 [62]. Its seeds are consumed for relieving pain, inflammation, and rheumatoid arthritis, whereas its extraction is used for eye problems and mouth ulcers. Coriander shows very good activity against food-borne pathogens such as Campylobacter and Salmonella, and in addition, it is also used as an antioxidant, for indigestion, and diabetes [63].
Figure 4. Active compound of coriander (Linalool).

2.4.1. Phytochemical of Coriander

A medicinal plant called Coriandrum sativum L. is indigenous to the eastern Mediterranean region, from which it has spread to various parts of the world, along with many other aromatic species [64]. In this context, the primary and secondary metabolite of coriander is the essential oil. However, the current compilation also makes reference of an additional group of active ingredients.
Fruits contain carbohydrates, alkaloid, quercetin, resins, tannins, quinones, sterols, and fixed oils [65]. The parts of the coriander fruits that are thought to be most important are the essential oil and fatty oil. The fatty acids present in coriander fruits include palmitic acid, cis-6-octadecenoic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid [66]. As per the reports, coriander is a very good source of thiamine, zinc, and dietary fiber, and like all other green leafy vegetables, it has very low amounts of saturated fat and cholesterol, as well as a rich supply of vitamins, minerals, and iron [67]. Eighty-four percent of unripe coriander is water. Here, the order of the most significant phytoconstituents are described [12].

2.4.2. Antimicrobial Activity of Coriander

The essential oil concentration of coriander is what gives it its antibacterial properties [68]. Additionally, it was discovered that coriander’s aqueous extract was effective against bacteria that cause acne (the MIC values for Propionibacterium acne and Staphylococcus epidermidis are within 1.7–2.1 mg/mL, respectively) [69]. The widely viable formulations for the treatment of acne displayed similar activities. Due to its antibacterial properties, coriander oil is a fantastic choice for the development of cutting-edge anti-acne compositions [70]. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antibacterial qualities of coriander make it a valuable herbal therapy for diaper dermatitis, a common skin condition. Additionally, coriander oil has demonstrated potent activity with varying degrees of inhibition against Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii [71]. With the exception of Bacillus cereus and E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa was the most resistant strain to growth inhibition by the tested oil, displaying the highest determined MIC, along with one of the multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii [71]. As a result, the use of coriander oil in antibacterial formulations can be encouraged because it efficiently eliminates the harmful bacteria linked to hospital infections and foodborne illnesses [72]. The antibacterial and antifungal properties of coriander essential oils have been examined in numerous research, and they have been determined to have good potency. The essential oil from Coriandrum sativum produced by hydrodistillation was tested against various fungi, and it showed antifungal action against Candida, with the exception of C. tropicalis CBS94 [73]. As a result, it was determined that the oil had potential as an antibacterial agent for treating or preventing Candida yeast infections. The fruit oil of coriander was found to exhibit excellent efficacy against Listeria monocytogenes, S. aureus, S. haemolyticus, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli [74]. Additionally, coriander essential oils extracted using both hydro distillation and microwave assistance have been tested for their antibacterial potency. Other than the time and energy savings, no noticeable differences in the activities were discovered [75].


  1. Dhiman, R.; Aggarwal, N.; Aneja, K.R.; Kaur, M. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices. Int. J. Microbiol. 2016, 2016, 9015802.
  2. Ahmad, I.; Beg, A.Z. Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001, 74, 113–123.
  3. Silva, N.C.C.; Júnior, A.F. Biological properties of medicinal plants: A review of their antimicrobial activity. J. Venom. Anim. Toxins Incl. Trop. Dis. 2010, 16, 402–413.
  4. Subramani, R.; Narayanasamy, M.; Feussner, K.-D. Plant-derived antimicrobials to fight against multi-drug-resistant human pathogens. 3 Biotech 2017, 7, 172.
  5. Miladi, H.; Zmantar, T.; Chaabouni, Y.; Fedhila, K.; Bakhrouf, A.; Mahdouani, K.; Chaieb, K. Antibacterial and efflux pump inhibitors of thymol and carvacrol against food-borne pathogens. Microb. Pathog. 2016, 99, 95–100.
  6. Liu, Q.; Meng, X.; Li, Y.; Zhao, C.-N.; Tang, G.-Y.; Li, H.-B. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Spices. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1283.
  7. Rawat, S. Antimicrobial activity of Neem, Tulsi, Henna and Amla against pathogenic bacteria. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 2015, 7, 1056–1059.
  8. Meshaal, A.K.; Hetta, H.F.; Yahia, R.; Abualnaja, K.M.; Mansour, A.T.; Al-Kadmy, I.M.S.; Alghamdi, S.; Dablool, A.S.; Bin Emran, T.; Sedky, H.; et al. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts against Some Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Raw and Processed Meat. Life 2021, 11, 1178.
  9. Mutlu-Ingok, A.; Karbancioglu-Guler, F. Cardamom, Cumin, and Dill Weed Essential Oils: Chemical Compositions, Antimicrobial Activities, and Mechanisms of Action against Campylobacter spp. Molecules 2017, 22, 1191.
  10. Maharjan, D.; Singh, A.; Lekhak, B.; Basnyat, S.; Gautam, L.S. Study on Antibacterial Activity of Common Spices. Nepal J. Sci. Technol. 2012, 12, 312–317.
  11. Mekinić, I.G.; Skroza, D.; Ljubenkov, I.; Katalinić, V.; Šimat, V. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Phenolic Metabolites from Traditionally Used Mediterranean Herbs and Spices. Foods 2019, 8, 579.
  12. Revati, S.; Bipin, C.; Chitra, P.; Minakshi, B. Basic research In vitro antibacterial activity of seven Indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci. Arch. Med. Sci. 2015, 4, 863–868.
  13. Trigo-Gutierrez, J.; Vega-Chacón, Y.; Soares, A.; Mima, E. Antimicrobial Activity of Curcumin in Nanoformulations: A Comprehensive Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 7130.
  14. Cheraghipour, K.; Ezatpour, B.; Masoori, L.; Marzban, A.; Sepahvand, A.; Rouzbahani, A.K.; Moridnia, A.; Khanizadeh, S.; Mahmoudvand, H. Anti-Candida Activity of Curcumin: A Systematic Review. Curr. Cancer Drug Targets 2021, 18, 379–390.
  15. Chen, Y.; Lu, Y.; Lee, R.J.; Xiang, G. Nano Encapsulated Curcumin: And Its Potential for Biomedical Applications. Int. J. Nanomed. 2020, 15, 3099–3120.
  16. Barua, N.; Buragohain, A.K. Therapeutic Potential of Curcumin as an Antimycobacterial Agent. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 1278.
  17. Gantait, S.; Mahanta, M.; Bera, S.; Verma, S.K. Advances in biotechnology of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. syn. Phyllanthus emblica L.: A nutraceuticals-rich fruit tree with multifaceted ethnomedicinal uses. 3 Biotech 2021, 11, 62.
  18. Variya, B.C.; Bakrania, A.K.; Patel, S.S. Emblica officinalis (Amla): A review for its phytochemistry, ethnomedicinal uses and medicinal potentials with respect to molecular mechanisms. Pharmacol. Res. 2016, 111, 180–200.
  19. Ebani, V.V.; Nardoni, S.; Bertelloni, F.; Pistelli, L.; Mancianti, F. Antimicrobial Activity of Five Essential Oils against Bacteria and Fungi Responsible for Urinary Tract Infections. Molecules 2018, 23, 1668.
  20. Kalleli, F.; Rebey, I.B.; Wannes, W.A.; Boughalleb, F.; Hammami, M.; Tounsi, M.S.; M’Hamdi, M. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of essential oil and methanol extract from Tunisian and French fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seeds. J. Food Biochem. 2019, 43, e12935.
  21. Amalraj, A.; Gopi, S. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Asafoetida: A review. J. Tradit. Complement. Med. 2016, 7, 347–359.
  22. Aggarwal, N.K.; Dhiman, R.; Kaur, M. Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activities of Commonly Used Indian Spices Against Microbes Associated with Juices. Res. J. Microbiol. 2015, 10, 170–180.
  23. Jiang, T.A. Health Benefits of Culinary Herbs and Spices. J. AOAC Int. 2019, 102, 395–411.
  24. Abers, M.; Schroeder, S.; Goelz, L.; Sulser, A.; Rose, T.S.; Puchalski, K.; Langland, J. Antimicrobial activity of the volatile substances from essential oils. BMC Complement. Med. Ther. 2021, 21, 124.
  25. Tabassum, N.; Vidyasagar, G.M. Antifungal investigations on plant essential oils. A review. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 2013, 5, 19–28.
  26. Shaikh, U.; Abrar, M.; Shaikh, M.; Danish, A.; Kalam, A. A Review: Household Herbs Have Antifungal Activity. World J. Pharm. Sci. 2018, 7, 659–665.
  27. Ikegbunam, M.; Ukamaka, M.; Emmanuel, O. Evaluation of the Antifungal Activity of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Six Spices. Am. J. Plant Sci. 2016, 07, 118–125.
  28. Gupta, C.; Prakash, D. Comparative Study of the Antimicrobial Activity of Clove Oil and Clove Extract on Oral Pathogens. Dent.-Open J. 2021, 7, 12–15.
  29. Kumari, K.; Sachan, A.K.; Kumar, S.; Singh, D.; Anupam Kr Sachan, C. Medicinal uses of spices used in our traditional culture: World wide. J. Med. Plants Stud. 2018, 6, 116–122.
  30. Fifi, A.C.; Axelrod, C.H.; Chakraborty, P.; Saps, M. Herbs and Spices in the Treatment of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Review of Clinical Trials. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1715.
  31. Ismail, M.M.; Essam, T.M.; Mohamed, A.F.; Mourad, F.E. Screening for the antimicrobial activities of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of some common spices in Egypt. Int. J. Microbiol. Res. 2012, 3, 200–207.
  32. Haro-González, J.N.; Castillo-Herrera, G.A.; Martínez-Velázquez, M.; Espinosa-Andrews, H. Clove Essential Oil (Syzygium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): Extraction, Chemical Composition, Food Applications, and Essential Bioactivity for Human Health. Molecules 2021, 26, 6387.
  33. PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW | International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Available online: (accessed on 23 December 2022).
  34. Hemalatha, R.; Nivetha, P.; Mohanapriya, C.; Sharmila, G.; Muthukumaran, C.; Gopinath, M. Phytochemical composition, GC-MS analysis, in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial potential of clove flower bud (Eugenia caryophyllus) methanolic extract. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2015, 53, 1189–1198.
  35. Gupta, N.; Parashar, P.; Mittal, M.; Mehra, V.; Khatri, M.; Rajguru, S. Antibacterial potential of Elletaria cardamomum, Syzygium aromaticum and Piper nigrum, their synergistic effects and phytochemical determination. J. Pharm. Res. 2014, 1091–1097.
  36. Devi, K.P.; Nisha, S.A.; Sakthivel, R.; Pandian, S.K. Eugenol (an essential oil of clove) acts as an antibacterial agent against Salmonella typhi by disrupting the cellular membrane. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2010, 130, 107–115.
  37. Burt, S.; Reinders, R. Antibacterial activity of selected plant essential oils against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 2003, 36, 162–167.
  38. Ranasinghe, P.; Jayawardana, R.; Galappaththy, P.; Constantine, G.R.; Gunawardana, N.D.V.; Katulanda, P. Efficacy and safety of ‘true’ cinnamon(Cinnamomum zeylanicum) as a pharmaceutical agent in diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet. Med. 2012, 29, 1480–1492.
  39. Vasconcelos, N.G.; Croda, J.; Simionatto, S. Antibacterial mechanisms of cinnamon and its constituents: A review. Microb. Pathog. 2018, 120, 198–203.
  40. Denkova-Kostova, R.; Teneva, D.; Tomova, T.; Goranov, B.; Denkova, Z.; Shopska, V.; Slavchev, A.; Hristova-Ivanova, Y. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from tangerine (Citrus reticulata L.), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi L.), lemon (Citrus lemon L.) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume). Z. Nat. C J. Biosci. 2020, 76, 175–185.
  41. Rao, P.V.; Gan, S.H. Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant. Evidence-Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2014, 2014, 642942.
  42. Singh, G.; Maurya, S.; Delampasona, M.; Catalan, C.A. A comparison of chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of cinnamon leaf and bark volatile oils, oleoresins and their constituents. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2007, 45, 1650–1661.
  43. Tung, Y.-T.; Yen, P.-L.; Lin, C.-Y.; Chang, S.-T. Anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils and their constituents from different provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum) leaves. Pharm. Biol. 2010, 48, 1130–1136.
  44. Matan, N.; Rimkeeree, H.; Mawson, A.; Chompreeda, P.; Haruthaithanasan, V.; Parker, M. Antimicrobial activity of cinnamon and clove oils under modified atmosphere conditions. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2006, 107, 180–185.
  45. Goñi, P.; López, P.; Sánchez, C.; Gómez-Lus, R.; Becerril, R.; Nerín, C. Antimicrobial activity in the vapour phase of a combination of cinnamon and clove essential oils. Food Chem. 2009, 116, 982–989.
  46. Hili, P.; Evans, C.S.; Veness, R.G. Antimicrobial action of essential oils: The effect of dimethylsulphoxide on the activity of cinnamon oil. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 1997, 24, 269–275.
  47. Parthasarathy, H.; Experimental, S.T.-A.J. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica, Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeyalnicumagainst oral microflora. Am. J. Econ. Sociol. 2013, 27, 13–16.
  48. Ashokkumar, K.; Murugan, M.; Dhanya, M.K.; Raj, S.; Kamaraj, D. Phytochemical variations among four distinct varieties of Indian cardamom Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton. Nat. Prod. Res. 2019, 34, 1919–1922.
  49. Kumar, A. Phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and uses of traditional medicinal plant Kaempferia galanga L.—An overview. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2020, 253, 112667.
  50. Rahman, M.; Alam, M.N.; Ulla, A.; Sumi, F.A.; Subhan, N.; Khan, T.; Sikder, B.; Hossain, H.; Reza, H.M.; Alam, A. Cardamom powder supplementation prevents obesity, improves glucose intolerance, inflammation and oxidative stress in liver of high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats. Lipids Health Dis. 2017, 16, 151.
  51. Ashokkumar, K.; Murugan, M.; Dhanya, M.; Warkentin, T.D. Botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of cardamom —A critical review. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2019, 246, 112244.
  52. Singh, G.; Kiran, S.; Marimuthu, P.; Isidorov, V.; Vinogorova, V. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil and various oleoresins of Elettaria cardamomum (seeds and pods). J. Sci. Food Agric. 2007, 88, 280–289.
  53. Ahlawat, J. Therapeutic Uses of Elettaria cardomum. Available online: (accessed on 23 December 2022).
  54. (PDF) Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Elettaria Cardamomum L. (Manton) Essential Oil: A High Activity against a Wide Range of Food Borne and Medically Important Bacteria and Fungi. Available online: (accessed on 23 December 2022).
  55. Savan, E.K.; Küçükbay, F.Z. Essential Oil Composition of Elettaria cardamomum Maton. J. Appl. Biol. Sci. 2013, 7, 42–45.
  56. Bano, S.; Ahmad, N.; Sharma, A.K. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity of Elettaria cardamom (Cardamom). J. Appl. Nat. Sci. 2016, 8, 1966–1970.
  57. Abdullah; Asghar, A.; Butt, M.S.; Shahid, M.; Huang, Q. Evaluating the antimicrobial potential of green cardamom essential oil focusing on quorum sensing inhibition of Chromobacterium violaceum. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2017, 54, 2306–2315.
  58. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Elettaria Cardamomum L. (Manton) Essential Oil: A High Activity against a Wide Range of Food Borne and Medically Important Bacteria and Fungi|Research Paper|Indexing|Impact Factor. Available online: (accessed on 23 December 2022).
  59. Kumar, P.K. Small Cardamom Production Technology and Future Prospects. Int. J. Agric. Sci. 2018, 10, 6943–6948.
  60. van Vuuren, S. Antimicrobial activity of South African medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008, 119, 462–472.
  61. Silva, F.; Domingues, F.C. Antimicrobial activity of coriander oil and its effectiveness as food preservative. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2015, 57, 35–47.
  62. Aelenei, P.; Rimbu, C.M.; Guguianu, E.; Dimitriu, G.; Aprotosoaie, A.C.; Brebu, M.; Horhogea, C.E.; Miron, A. Coriander essential oil and linalool—Interactions with antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 2018, 68, 156–164.
  63. Kačániová, M.; Galovičová, L.; Ivanišová, E.; Vukovic, N.L.; Štefániková, J.; Valková, V.; Borotová, P.; Žiarovská, J.; Terentjeva, M.; Felšöciová, S.; et al. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) Essential Oil for Its Application in Foods. Foods 2020, 9, 282.
  64. Önder, A. Coriander and Its Phytoconstituents for the Beneficial Effects. In Potential of Essential Oils; IntechOpen: London, UK, 2018.
  65. Uitterhaegen, E.; Sampaio, K.A.; Delbeke, E.I.P.; De Greyt, W.; Cerny, M.; Evon, P.; Merah, O.; Talou, T.; Stevens, C.V. Characterization of French Coriander Oil as Source of Petroselinic Acid. Molecules 2016, 21, 1202.
  66. Rajeshwari, U.; Andallu, B. Medicinal benefits of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L). Kişnişin (Coriandrum sativum L.) Tıbbi Faydaları. Spatula DD 2011, 1, 51–58.
  67. Rastenievodstva, M.G.-B.-V. Initial Material and Main Directions of Breeding of Some Uncommon Species of Vegetables. 1982. Available online: (accessed on 23 December 2022).
  68. Pawar Vinita, A.; Bhagat, T.B.; Toshniwal, M.R.; Mokashi Nitin, D.; Khandelwal, K.R. Formulation and evaluation of dental gel containing essential oil of coriander against oral pathogens. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2013, 4, 48–54.
  69. Vats, A.; Sharma, P. Formulation, and evaluation of topical anti-acne formulation of coriander extract. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res. 2012, 16, 97–103.
  70. Dastgheib, L.; Pishva, N.; Saki, N.; Khabnadideh, S.; Kardeh, B.; Torabi, F.; Arabnia, S.; Heiran, A. Efficacy of topical coriandrum sativum extract on treatment of infants with diaper dermatitis: A single blinded non-randomised controlled trial. Malays. J. Med. Sci. 2017, 24, 97–101.
  71. Silva, F.; Ferreira, S.; Duarte, A.; Mendonça, D.I.; Domingues, F.C. Antifungal activity of Coriandrum sativum essential oil, its mode of action against Candida species and potential synergism with amphotericin B. Phytomedicine 2011, 19, 42–47.
  72. Soares, B.V.; Morais, S.M.; Fontenelle, R.O.D.S.; Queiroz, V.A.; Vila-Nova, N.S.; Pereira, C.M.C.; Brito, E.S.; Neto, M.A.S.; Brito, E.H.S.; Cavalcante, C.S.P.; et al. Antifungal Activity, Toxicity and Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Coriandrum sativum L. Fruits. Molecules 2012, 17, 8439–8448.
  73. Begnami, A.; Duarte, M.; Furletti, V.; chemistry, V.R.-F. Antimicrobial Potential of Coriandrum sativum L. Against Different Candida Species In Vitro; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2010.
  74. Matasyoh, J.; Maiyo, Z.; Ngure, R.; Chemistry, R.C.-F. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Coriandrum sativum; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2009.
  75. Mahleyuddin, N.N.; Moshawih, S.; Ming, L.C.; Zulkifly, H.H.; Kifli, N.; Loy, M.J.; Sarker, M.R.; Al-Worafi, Y.M.; Goh, B.H.; Thuraisingam, S.; et al. Coriandrum sativum L.: A Review on Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Cardiovascular Benefits. Molecules 2021, 27, 209.
Subjects: Immunology
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to : , , , , ,
View Times: 560
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 04 May 2023
Video Production Service