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HandWiki. Howard Scott. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/38635 (accessed on 13 April 2024).
HandWiki. Howard Scott. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/38635. Accessed April 13, 2024.
HandWiki. "Howard Scott" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/38635 (accessed April 13, 2024).
HandWiki. (2022, December 13). Howard Scott. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/38635
HandWiki. "Howard Scott." Encyclopedia. Web. 13 December, 2022.
Howard Scott
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technocracy

1. Introduction

Howard Scott (April 1, 1890 – January 1, 1970) was an American engineer and founder of the Technocracy movement. He formed the Technical Alliance and Technocracy Incorporated.[1]

2. Early Life

Little is known about Scott's background or his early life and he has been described as a "mysterious young man".[2] He was born in Virginia in 1890 and was of Scottish-Irish descent. He claimed to have been educated in Europe, but his training did not include any formal higher education.[2]

In 1918, shortly before the end of WWI, Scott appeared in New York City . Scott worked in various construction camps, where he picked up on-the-job engineering experience, and in 1918 was working in a cement pouring gang at Muscle Shoals.[2][3] Following this, Scott established himself in Greenwich Village as "a kind of Bohemian engineer".[2] Scott also ran a small business called Duron Chemical Company which made paint and floor polish at Pompton Lakes, New Jersey. Scott's job was to deliver his goods and show his customers how to use the floor polishing material.[2][3]

3. Technocracy

At the end of World War I, Howard Scott helped to form the Technical Alliance which explored economic and social trends in North America; the Technical Alliance disbanded in 1921.[4] In 1920, the Industrial Workers of the World hired Scott as a research director.[2]

Scott, together with Walter Rautenstrauch formed the Committee on Technocracy in 1932, which advocated a more rational and productive society headed by technical experts. The Committee disbanded in January 1933, after only a few months, largely because of different views held by Scott and Rautenstrauch as well as widespread criticism of Scott.[4][5] Scott had "overstated his academic credentials",[6] and he was discovered not to be a "distinguished engineer".[2][7]

On January 13, 1933, Scott gave a speech about technocracy at New York's Hotel Pierre, before a live audience of 400, which was also broadcast on radio nationwide.[2][8][9] The speech was subsequently called a "grave mistake",[8] "disastrous",[9][10] and "a complete failure".[2] Scott had no experience or training as a public speaker.[11]

4. Genesis of the Technocratic Movement

M. King Hubbert joined the staff of Columbia University in 1931 and met Howard Scott. Hubbert and Scott co-founded Technocracy Incorporated in 1933, with Scott as leader and Hubbert as secretary.[12] Scott remained as the chief engineer of Technocracy Incorporated until his death in 1970.[2] Scott "argued indefatigably that scientific analysis of industrial production would show the path to lasting efficiency and unprecedented abundance".[13] Scott gained many supporters within the movement. M. King Hubbert, for example, considered Scott extremely knowledgeable in physics. There was some discontent with Scott's leadership during WWII and a number of technocrats broke away from Technocracy Inc. and established their own breakaway organisation which only lasted for about a year.[14]

5. Radical Reform

Technocracy Inc. formed in 1931 to promote the ideas of Howard Scott. Scott saw government and industry as wasteful and unfair and believed that an economy run by engineers would be efficient and equitable. He called for the "price system" and fiat currencies to be replaced with a system based on how much energy it takes to produce specific goods. Scott called for engineers to run a continental government, which he termed a technate, to "optimize the use of energy to assure abundance." Virtually unknown today, the organization boasted over half a million members in California alone at its peak in the 1930s and 1940s.[15]

Further Reading
In this part, we encourage you to list the link of papers wrote by the character, or published reviews/articles about his/her academic contributions. Edit

References

  1. Peter J. Taylor. "Technocratic optimism, H. T. Odum, and the partial transformation of ecological metaphor after World War II". Journal of the History of Biology 21: 213–244. doi:10.1007/BF00146987. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00146987#page-1. 
  2. William E. Akin (1977). Technocracy and the American Dream: The Technocrat Movement 1900-1941, University of California Press, pp. 28-29.
  3. "Science: Technocrat". TIME.com. 26 December 1932. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,744852,00.html. 
  4. Beverly H. Burris (1993). Technocracy at work. State University of New York Press. pp. 28–30. https://books.google.com/books?id=I-k0hgtaiCcC&pg=PA31. 
  5. "Book review: Technocracy and the American Dream". History of Political Economy 10 (4): 682. 1978. http://hope.dukejournals.org/cgi/pdf_extract/10/4/682. 
  6. David E. Nye (1992). Electrifying America: social meanings of a new technology, 1880-1940. p. 344. https://books.google.com/books?id=dAElGDvk2yUC&pg=PA343. 
  7. Layton, Edwin T. (April 1968). Book review: The Technocrats, Prophets of Automation. 9, No. 2. p. 256. https://www.jstor.org/pss/3102180. 
  8. Baker, Kevin (April 2000). "The Engineered Society". American Heritage Magazine. http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/2000/2/2000_2_10_print.shtml. 
  9. Howard P. Segal (2005). Technological Utopianism in American Culture. Syracuse University Press. p. 123. https://books.google.com/books?id=n6RabZ8t48gC&pg=PA121. 
  10. Harold Loeb; Howard P. Segal (1996). Life in a technocracy: what it might be like. p. xv. https://books.google.com/books?id=1kvifvNro9MC&pg=PR13. 
  11. Giles Slade (2009). "Made to Break: Technology and Obsolescence in America". Harvard University Press. p. 71. https://books.google.com/books?id=9GdxQSLeFmYC&pg=PA71. 
  12. "The Oil Drum: Australia/New Zealand - Hubbert: King Of The Technocrats". theoildrum.com. http://anz.theoildrum.com/node/4808. 
  13. Frank Fischer (1990). Technocracy and the Politics of Expertise, Sage Publications, p. 85.
  14. Henry Elsner, jr. (1967). The Technocrats: Prophets of Automation, Syracuse University.
  15. https://www.wired.com/2015/06/technocracy-inc/ Retrieved June-13-2015
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Name: Howard Scott
Born: Apr 1890
Died: Jan 1970
Birth
Location:
Virginia
Title: Engineer
Affiliation: Technocracy Incorporated
Honor: The founder of the Technocracy movement
Information
Subjects: Others
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