Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 1193 2022-12-08 11:26:29 |
2 Format correction Meta information modification 1193 2022-12-09 01:56:14 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?


Are you sure to Delete?
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Nasab, N.M.;  Kilby, J.;  Bakhtiaryfard, L. Integration of Offshore Wind with Tidal Energy. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 25 June 2024).
Nasab NM,  Kilby J,  Bakhtiaryfard L. Integration of Offshore Wind with Tidal Energy. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed June 25, 2024.
Nasab, Navid Majdi, Jeff Kilby, Leila Bakhtiaryfard. "Integration of Offshore Wind with Tidal Energy" Encyclopedia, (accessed June 25, 2024).
Nasab, N.M.,  Kilby, J., & Bakhtiaryfard, L. (2022, December 08). Integration of Offshore Wind with Tidal Energy. In Encyclopedia.
Nasab, Navid Majdi, et al. "Integration of Offshore Wind with Tidal Energy." Encyclopedia. Web. 08 December, 2022.
Integration of Offshore Wind with Tidal Energy

Reducing the cost of electricity generation and integrating renewable energy sources are two essential factors in encouraging the development of novel ideas to tackle the lack of enough electricity and proposing alternatives for fossil fuels. Compared with onshore wind energy resources, offshore wind fields have many advantages, such as persistent wind, faster-flowing speed, higher uniformity, and longer available time per year, flat sea surface, and low turbulence intensity, which promotes the vigorous development of the offshore wind power industry.

wind renewable energy

1. Hybrid Generation from Offshore Renewable Sources

Deployed on floating bodies or along cables, offshore energy harvesters can convert wave, solar, tidal, ocean currents, and other renewable energy sources to stable electrical energy [1]. Creating hybrids with wind electricity generation would reduce the currently significant operations and maintenance (O&M) of wind turbines (WT), which is around 10–25% of the total cost of electricity, and a lower transmission cost [2][3]. By bringing together two marine renewable technologies with considerable synergies, the combined harnessing of offshore energies creates excellent potential for development. This is corroborated by some recent European Union (EU)-funded projects: MARINA, ORECCA, TROPOS, MERMAID, and H2OCEAN [4]. MARINA classifies combined wave–wind systems according to the technology, water depth (shallow, transition, or deep water), or location relative to the shoreline (shoreline, nearshore, offshore). ORECCA analyses the offshore renewable energies (ORE) combined resources in Europe. Looking particularly at Europe’s combined wave–wind resource, this can be divided into three main sea basins: the Mediterranean Sea, the North and Baltic Seas, and the Atlantic Ocean. TROPOS is aimed at developing a floating multi-purpose platform system for deep water [4]. The MERMAID project seeks to develop concepts for the next generation of offshore activities for multi-use ocean space. It proposes new design concepts for combining offshore activities, such as energy extraction, aquaculture, and platform-related transport at various ocean areas [5]. H2OCEAN is developing a wind–wave power open-sea platform for hydrogen generation with support for multiple energy users [6].
The main projects installed in the previous decade (2010–2019) were the 2.3 MW Hywind in Norway in 2009, the 2 MW Principle Power in Portugal in 2011, and the MOE project in Japan with capacities of 100-kW half-scale model in 2012, and 2 MW full scale in 2013 [7].
Da et al. (2009) propose a control scheme for a hybrid system. Adjusting the generator’s rotation speed can maximize the system’s output power under fluctuating wind or tidal currents [8]. Li et al. (2017) show the integration of floating wind turbines with a wave energy converter and tidal turbines increases power production by 22–45% [9]. Lande et al. (2019) modelled the co-location of a wind turbine with an array of tidal stream turbines in the MeyGen site located in Pentland Firth, UK. It will increase energy yield by around 11% and decrease the levelized cost by 10% [10]. Nichita et al. present the “accelerated simulation time” method and its experimental validation. Wind or tidal turbine characteristics are obtained using the simulation approach developed at the GREAH lab and are validated with an actual ocean turbine installed in the Circulating Water Channel at Inha University Ocean Engineering Laboratory, South Korea [11]. Phurailatpam et al. [12] present a DC microgrid for rural applications in India using wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic panels (PV). Azaza et al. give some insight and techno-economic analysis of microgrid deployment in different Swedish regions using PV/WT/DG, a battery bank, and an energy management system to identify the optimal system size and configuration [13]. Thakur et al. designed, constructed, and tested a new physical simulator under different operating conditions in a real microgrid environment. The simulator replicates the behaviour of a designed wind turbine. The experiments have also shown that the designed wind turbine can work in harmony with PV power modules and battery storage in response to weather and load variations in an island microgrid environment [14]. Wang et al. analysed the stability of a microgrid system containing an offshore wind farm (OWF), an offshore tidal farm (OTF), and a seashore wave farm (SWF) fed to an onshore power grid through a high-voltage direct current (HVDC) link based on a voltage-source converter (VSC) [15]. Adetunji et al. proposed an optimized grid-connected microgrid for South Africa using photovoltaic panels (PV) and a supporting lead-acid battery for downtime [16]. Kitson et al. present a DC microgrid system, interfacing wind and solar using a power electronic interface with droop functions. A case study site in Nepal is simulated to demonstrate the system’s performance to variable generation and loads [17]. Oulis Rousis et al. designed an off-grid system in Greece relying on PV, diesel generators, and batteries for energy storage [18]. Phurailatpam et al. compared different scenarios of DC microgrids in the Indian context using wind and photovoltaic panels for India’s rural and urban power supply [19]. Faridnia et al. designed a grid-connected microgrid for a tidal farm near Darwin, in the north of Australia, including tidal power as the main supply, a pumped hydro system (PHS) with 1000 kWh capacity as the long-term storage system, and a micro-turbine (MT) to minimize the operating cost [20]. Colombo et al. added Photovoltaic (PV) to power-to-gas (P2G) to reduce emissions [21].

2. The Integration of Offshore Wind with Tidal Energy

Over the recent decades, offshore wind farms have attracted more investment [22]. It is estimated that onshore and offshore wind power will generate more than a third of the total electricity needed in the medium term, becoming the primary generation source by 2050 [23]. Compared with onshore wind energy resources, offshore wind fields have many advantages, such as persistent wind, faster-flowing speed, higher uniformity, and longer available time per year, flat sea surface, and low turbulence intensity, which promotes the vigorous development of the offshore wind power industry [24][25]. More importantly, installing wind turbines in the ocean can protect the environment [26] and save land resources [27]. The vast ocean area provides good conditions for developing large-scale wind farms and turbines [28]. The power generation by the identical turbines in the offshore area is 50–100% higher than in the onshore area [29]. However, the main issue for investors is capital cost which results in increasing the electricity cost for customers. The most expensive component of an offshore wind turbine is the foundation, accounting for 19% of the capital cost. In addition, foundation installation with 6% of the capital cost is the highest cost compared with other parts [30]. However, the cost of electricity using offshore wind is still high [31]. As another offshore energy source, installing tidal turbines has attracted less investment because tidal turbines are exposed to harsh currents. Their lifetime is low, and foundation design is complex in most cases, where the water depth is more than 30 metres [32]. However, tidal turbines can produce an enormous amount of electricity, more than four times per square meter of the rotor than wind turbines [33]. Integration of both wind and tidal turbines with the same foundation may be a way to reduce the cost of electricity [7] and enable predictable power generation from two different energy sources.
Although New Zealand is surrounded by water and has good potential for offshore energy, it has not yet been used for power generation. In recent years, several reports indicated the annual demand of electricity increases from current demand of 40 TWh to 70 TWh by 2050 [34]. Therefore, looking for new sources of harvesting power generation is essential.


  1. Zhao, T.; Xu, M.; Xiao, X.; Ma, Y.; Li, Z.; Wang, Z.L. Recent progress in blue energy harvesting for powering distributed sensors in ocean. Nano Energy 2021, 88, 106199.
  2. Sarma, N.; Tuohy, P.M.; Mohammed, A.; Djurovic, S. Rotor Electrical Fault Detection in DFIGs Using Wide-Band Controller Signals. IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy 2020, 12, 623–633.
  3. Karumalai, D. Offshore Integrated Renewable Power System. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering; IOP Publishing: Washington, DC, USA, 2020.
  4. Pérez-Collazo, C.; Greaves, D.; Iglesias, G. A review of combined wave and offshore wind energy. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2015, 42, 141–153.
  5. Christensen, E.D.; Stuiver, M.; Guanche, R.; Møhlenberg, F.; Schouten, J.J.; Pedersen, O.S.; He, W.; Zanuttigh, B.; Koundouri, P. Go Offshore-Combining Food and Energy Production; Technical University of Denmark, Department of Mechanical Engineering: Lyngby, Denmark, 2015.
  6. H2OCEAN. Available online: (accessed on 7 September 2021).
  7. Chen, P.; Chen, J.; Hu, Z. Review of Experimental-Numerical Methodologies and Challenges for Floating Offshore Wind Turbines. J. Mar. Sci. Appl. 2020, 19, 339–361.
  8. Da, Y.; Khaligh, A. Hybrid offshore wind and tidal turbine energy harvesting system with independently controlled rectifiers. In Proceedings of the 2009 35th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics, Porto, Portugal, 3–5 November 2009.
  9. Li, L.; Gao, Y.; Yuan, Z.; Day, S.; Hu, Z. Dynamic response and power production of a floating integrated wind, wave and tidal energy system. Renew. Energy 2018, 116, 412–422.
  10. Lande-Sudall, D.; Stallard, T.; Stansby, P. Co-located deployment of offshore wind turbines with tidal stream turbine arrays for improved cost of electricity generation. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2019, 104, 492–503.
  11. Nichita, C.; Ashglaf, M.; Amara, Y.; Jo, C.H. Preliminary study of a concept of wind-tidal turbine coupling using functional similarities of real time emulation. Renew. Energy Power Qual. J. Tenerife 2019, 17, 371–376.
  12. Phurailatpam, C.; Rajpurohit, B.; Wang, L. Optimization of DC microgrid for rural applications in India. In Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON), Singapore, 22–25 November 2016.
  13. Azaza, M.; Wallin, F. Multi objective particle swarm optimization of hybrid micro-grid system: A case study in Sweden. Energy 2017, 123, 108–118.
  14. Thakur, D.; Jiang, J. Design and Construction of a Wind Turbine Simulator for Integration to a Microgrid with Renewable Energy Sources. Electr. Power Components Syst. 2017, 45, 949–963.
  15. Wang, L.; Lin, C.-Y.; Wu, H.-Y.; Prokhorov, A.V. Stability Analysis of a Microgrid System With a Hybrid Offshore Wind and Ocean Energy Farm Fed to a Power Grid Through an HVDC Link. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 2017, 54, 2012–2022.
  16. Adetunji, K.E.; Akinlabi, O.A.; Joseph, M.K. Developing a microgrid for tafelkop using homer. In Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Advances in Big Data, Computing and Data Communication Systems (icABCD), Durban, South Africa, 6–7 August 2018.
  17. Kitson, J.; Williamson, S.; Harper, P.; McMahon, C.; Rosenberg, G.; Tierney, M.; Bell, K.; Gautam, B. Modelling of an expandable, reconfigurable, renewable DC microgrid for off-grid communities. Energy 2018, 160, 142–153.
  18. Rousis, A.O.; Tzelepis, D.; Konstantelos, I.; Booth, C.; Strbac, G. Design of a Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid Using HOMER Pro: Case Study on an Islanded Residential Application. Inventions 2018, 3, 55.
  19. Phurailatpam, C.; Rajpurohit, B.S.; Wang, L. Planning and optimization of autonomous DC microgrids for rural and urban applications in India. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2018, 82, 194–204.
  20. Faridnia, N.; Habibi, D.; Lachowicz, S.; Kavousifard, A. Optimal scheduling in a microgrid with a tidal generation. Energy 2018, 171, 435–443.
  21. Colombo, P.; Saeedmanesh, A.; Santarelli, M.; Brouwer, J. Dynamic dispatch of solid oxide electrolysis system for high renewable energy penetration in a microgrid. Energy Convers. Manag. 2019, 204, 112322.
  22. Green, R.; Vasilakos, N. The economics of offshore wind. Energy Policy 2011, 39, 496–502.
  23. Sierra-Garcia, J.E.; Santos, M. Improving Wind Turbine Pitch Control by Effective Wind Neuro-Estimators. IEEE Access 2021, 9, 10413–10425.
  24. Zhang, J.; Sun, L.; Wang, M.; Shi, F.; Gong, Z. Comparative analysis of nonlinear dynamic response for offshore wind turbine structures under incoming wind speed. Ships Offshore Struct. 2020, 16, 326–333.
  25. Kang, J.; Sun, L.; Soares, C.G. Fault Tree Analysis of floating offshore wind turbines. Renew. Energy 2019, 133, 1455–1467.
  26. Jeon, S.H.; Cho, Y.U.; Seo, M.W.; Cho, J.R.; Jeong, W.B. Dynamic response of floating substructure of spar-type offshore wind turbine with catenary mooring cables. Ocean Eng. 2013, 72, 356–364.
  27. Hallowell, S.T.; Arwade, S.R.; Fontana, C.M.; DeGroot, D.J.; Aubeny, C.P.; Diaz, B.D.; Myers, A.T.; Landon, M.E. System reliability of floating offshore wind farms with multiline anchors. Ocean Eng. 2018, 160, 94–104.
  28. Chen, Z.; Blaabjerg, F. Wind farm—A power source in future power systems. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2009, 13, 1288–1300.
  29. Karlõševa, A.; Nõmmann, S.; Nõmmann, T.; Urbel-Piirsalu, E.; Budziński, W.; Czajkowski, M.; Hanley, N. Marine trade-offs: Comparing the benefits of off-shore wind farms and marine protected areas. Energy Econ. 2016, 55, 127–134.
  30. Blanco, M.I. The economics of wind energy. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2009, 13, 1372–1382.
  31. Heptonstall, P.; Gross, R.; Greenacre, P.; Cockerill, T. The cost of offshore wind: Understanding the past and projecting the future. Energy Policy 2011, 41, 815–821.
  32. Lande-Sudall, D.; Stallard, T.; Stansby, P. Co-located offshore wind and tidal stream turbines: Assessment of energy yield and loading. Renew. Energy 2018, 118, 627–643.
  33. Fraenkel, P. Marine Current Turbines: Exploiting Currents for Large-Scale Power Generation; IGG Publishing Ltd.: London, UK, 2007.
  34. Asian Productivity Organization. Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wind Generation Stack Update; Roaring40s Wind Power Ltd.: Wellington, New Zealand, 2020.
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to : , ,
View Times: 1.6K
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 09 Dec 2022
Video Production Service