Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 handwiki -- 1344 2022-12-02 01:42:25

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
HandWiki. List of Starship Flights. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/37763 (accessed on 24 April 2024).
HandWiki. List of Starship Flights. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/37763. Accessed April 24, 2024.
HandWiki. "List of Starship Flights" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/37763 (accessed April 24, 2024).
HandWiki. (2022, December 02). List of Starship Flights. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/37763
HandWiki. "List of Starship Flights." Encyclopedia. Web. 02 December, 2022.
List of Starship Flights
Edit

Prototypes of the upper stage of the SpaceX Starship have been flown nine times. Designed and operated by private manufacturer SpaceX, the flown prototypes of Starship have been Starhopper, SN5, SN6, SN8, SN9, SN10, SN11, and SN15. Starship is planned to be a fully reusable super heavy-lift launch vehicle and unusual for previous launch vehicle and spacecraft designs, the upper stage of Starship is intended to function both as a second stage to reach orbital velocity on launches from Earth, and also be used in outer space as an on-orbit long-duration spacecraft.

upper stage launch vehicle outer space

1. History

In 2018, SpaceX CEO Elon Musk also planned to send a selection of space tourists (including Yusaku Maezawa) in a lunar flyby in 2023, as part of the dearMoon project. In 2019, SpaceX planned to launch commercial payloads using Starship no earlier than 2021.[1] In the same year, Space.com said that SpaceX may fly Starship to the Moon in 2022.[2]

In July 2020, SpaceX anticipated a cargo Starship mission to Mars as early as 2022, followed by a crewed Starship mission to Mars in 2024.[3]

(As of April 2021), the Starships SN16–SN20[4] and Super Heavy Boosters BN2 and BN3[5] are currently in production.[5] All flights have been launched at the Boca Chica launch site in Texas,[6] which SpaceX began to refer to as Starbase after March 2021.[7][8]

Map of SpaceX launch site at Boca Chica. https://handwiki.org/wiki/index.php?curid=1336947

2. Starship Test Flights

Eight prototype Starship vehicles, each with different vehicle configurations, have flown nine suborbital test flights in the period July 2019 to May 2021. SpaceX testing is proprietary, and the company does not release a detailed set of test objectives for their vehicle development test flights. All test flights have been launched from the SpaceX South Texas launch site at Boca Chica, South Texas.[9]

Flight
No.
Date and time
(UTC)
Vehicle Launch site[10] Flight apogee Duration
- 3 April 2019 Starhopper Launch site, Boca Chica, Texas ~0.2 m (1 ft) ~3 seconds
The first firing of Starhopper and the first tethered hop (according to Musk[11][12]). The firing was a few seconds in duration and the vehicle was tethered to the ground. The vehicle might have lifted off the ground, but only to the height of few inches, and it was not possible to see the lift off in public video recordings of the test.[12][13]
- 5 April 2019 Starhopper Launch site, Boca Chica, Texas ~1 m (3 ft) ~5 seconds
Tethered hop which hit tether limits. Used a single Raptor SN2 engine.[14]
1 25 July 2019[15] Starhopper Launch site, Boca Chica, Texas 20 m (66 ft)[16] ~22 seconds
First free (untethered) flight test. Single Raptor engine, SN6.
2 27 August 2019 22:00[17][18] Starhopper Launch site, Boca Chica, Texas 150 m (490 ft)[17] ~1 minute[19]
Single Raptor engine, SN6. Starhopper was retired after this launch, with some parts being reused for other tests.[17][20][21]
3 4 August 2020 23:57[22][23] Starship SN5 Suborbital Pad A, Boca Chica, Texas 150 m (490 ft)[22] ~45 seconds
Single Raptor engine, SN27.[24] A successful 150-meter flight was completed on 4 August 2020.[25]
4 3 September 2020 17:47[26] Starship SN6 Suborbital Pad A, Boca Chica, Texas 150 m (490 ft)[27] ~45 seconds
Single Raptor engine, SN29.[26] A successful test hop took place on 3 September 2020.[26]
5 9 December 2020[28] 22:45 Starship SN8 Suborbital Pad A, Boca Chica, Texas 12.5 km (41,000 ft)[29] 6 minutes, 42 seconds
Three Raptor engines, SN30, SN36, and SN42.[30] The vehicle successfully launched, ascended, performed the skydive descent maneuver, relit the engines fueled by the header tanks, and steered to the landing pad.[29] The flip maneuver from horizontal descent to vertical was successful. Low pressure in the fuel header tank as a result of the flip maneuver caused engine issues and insufficient retropropulsive deceleration, resulting in a hard landing and destruction of SN8.[29]
6 2 February 2021[31] 20:25 Starship SN9 Suborbital Pad B, Boca Chica, Texas 10 km (33,000 ft)[31][32][33] 6 minutes, 26 seconds[33]
Three Raptor engines, including SN45 and SN49.[33][34][35][36] A hard landing destroyed SN9.[37] The cause of the crash was one of the engines not relighting due to an issue with the oxygen preburner.
7 3 March 2021[38][39] 23:15 Starship SN10 Suborbital Pad A, Boca Chica, Texas 10 km (33,000 ft)[40] 6 minutes, 24 seconds[41][42]
SN10 experienced a hard landing with a slight lean and a fire near the base,[43] and then exploded eight minutes after landing.Template:Undue inline[40] The thrust was too low causing the legs & part of the skirt to get crushed. The cause was probably due to partial helium ingestion from the fuel header tank.[44]
8 30 March 2021 13:00[45] Starship SN11 Suborbital Pad B, Boca Chica, Texas 10 km (33,000 ft)[46] ~6 minutes[45]
SN11 launched in heavy fog, and had engine issues during ascent according to Elon Musk.[47] Telemetry was lost midair at T+5:49, shortly after engine re-ignition to perform landing procedures and around 2,000 feet in the air.[48] Debris was then seen falling from the sky, indicating that the vehicle had exploded mid-air.[49] Elon Musk stated that a small methane leak caused a fire on one of the Raptor engines which then eventually fried the avionics of the Raptor.[50]
9 5 May 2021 22:24[51] Starship SN15 Suborbital Pad A, Boca Chica, Texas 10 km (33,000 ft)[52] 5 minutes, 59 seconds
SN15 is a new iteration of prototype Starship with many upgrades over previous vehicles.[53] SN15 launched in low level clouds and achieved a soft landing, with a small fire near the base. (similar to SN10.) The post-flight fire was out within 20 minutes.[54][55]
- TBA Starship SN15 Suborbital Pad B, Boca Chica Texas TBD  
As of 7 May, SpaceX is considering the possibility of flying SN15 a second time.[56] This would be the first reflight of a Starship prototype since Starhopper. On 11 May 2021, Starship SN15 was transported from the landing pad to Suborbital Pad B.[57]
  1. All launches are from the same Boca Chica site. SpaceX started calling this Starbase from March 2021 after discussions called a "casual inquiry". See Boca Chica (Texas) § Starbase
  2. Despite making an intact landing and beginning the detanking procedures, the vehicle suffered an explosion several minutes later destroying the vehicle in the process. SpaceX called it a successful landing but later acknowledged a problem with lower-than-expected engine thrust causing a hard landing[44] way past leg loads[58] and the vehicle exploded.[39]

3. Future Orbital Flights

Based on diverse sources over the past several years, SpaceX has on various occasions made a few public statements about preliminary ideas for future operational orbital flights using the Starship system. All dates for future flights are speculative, and therefore approximate and "no earlier than" dates. Moreover, it is difficult to compare the dates in the tables since they have come from different sources and at different times over the past three years.

Date Vehicle Mission Notes
NET July 2021 Starship Prototype Orbital Test Flight As of March 2021, SpaceX is aiming to launch its first orbital test flight as early as July 2021.[59][60] During the initial flight, the upper stage will attempt a soft ocean landing 100 km (62 mi) northwest of Kauai, and the Super Heavy booster will attempt to land 30 km (19 mi) offshore out in the Gulf of Mexico.[61][62]
NET 2022((As of 2019))[63] Starship Cargo Lunar Test Flight Earliest potential flight to the Moon as of 2019, according to journalist Mike Wall.[2]
NET 2023[64] Starship Crew dearMoon Plan for a flyby loop around the Moon, (As of 2018). Known as dearMoon project.[65]
2022-2024 "planned"[66] Starship HLS HLS Demo NASA demonstration mission for the Human Landing System prior to Artemis 3, announced in April 2021. Includes refueling and landing vehicles.
Starship Cargo (refueling)
NET 2024/5[67] Starship HLS Artemis 3 Human Landing System vehicle for Artemis Program. Date is dependent on many NASA Artemis program and SpaceX Starship development contingencies.
Starship Cargo (refueling)
NET 2024/5 Starship Cargo   Earliest potential cargo flight to Mars.[68]
NET 2026/7 Starship Crew
(Heart of Gold)[69]
  Earliest potential crewed flight to Mars, (As of 2020).[68]

3.1. Other Flights

The HLS variant of Starship was selected by NASA in April 2021 to be the lander for the Artemis missions to the Moon. Artemis 3 is intended to be the first human mission to the Moon to use Starship for long-duration crewed lunar landings as part of the Artemis program.

Elon Musk has stated that Starship would fly hundreds of times before launching with humans.[70] A likely use of some of these flights would be to launch Starlink satellites.[71]

According to space journalist Mike Wall in 2020, Musk is said to envision that eventually more than 1,000 Starships could be needed to depart for Mars every 26 months, which could lead to the development of a sustainable Martian city in 50–100 years.[72]

References

  1. Henry, Caleb (28 June 2019). "SpaceX targets 2021 commercial Starship launch". SpaceNews. https://spacenews.com/spacex-targets-2021-commercial-starship-launch/. 
  2. Spaceflight, Mike Wall 2019-11-19T12:18:41Z. "SpaceX's Starship May Start Flying Moon Missions in 2022". https://www.space.com/spacex-starship-moon-missions-2022.html. 
  3. Arevalo, Evelyn (14 July 2020). "SpaceX aims to launch the first Starship with cargo to Mars by 2022". Tesmanian. https://www.tesmanian.com/blogs/tesmanian-blog/mars-2022. 
  4. (in en) SpaceX Boca Chica - SN20 Leg Skirt Spotted - BN1 Booster Double Section Lifted Onto New Stand, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R7i3tTjGJkw, retrieved 2021-03-08 
  5. Brendan [@_brendan_lewis]. "The current status of SpaceX's Starship & Superheavy prototypes. 27th February 2021". https://twitter.com/_brendan_lewis/status/1365440302207541248.  Missing or empty |date= (help)
  6. Clark, Stephen. "After second hop, SpaceX preps for next phase of Starship testing – Spaceflight Now" (in en-US). https://spaceflightnow.com/2020/09/09/after-second-hop-spacex-preps-for-next-phase-of-starship-testing/. 
  7. "With ‘Starbase’ and a new Starlink factory, Musk deepens foray into Texas". 3 March 2021. https://www.theverge.com/2021/3/3/22309889/elon-musk-city-texas-starbase-starlink. 
  8. @elonmusk (2 March 2021). "Creating the city of Starbase, Texas". https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1366848696298561536. 
  9. "Starship SN8 12.5-Kilometer hop". https://everydayastronaut.com/starship-sn8-12-5-kilometer-hop/. 
  10. All launches are from the same Boca Chica site. SpaceX started calling this Starbase from March 2021 after discussions called a "casual inquiry". See Boca Chica (Texas) § Starbase
  11. Musk, Elon [@elonmusk]. "Starhopper completed tethered hop. All systems green.". https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1113613409767964673.  Missing or empty |date= (help)
  12. Gebhardt, Chris (3 April 2019). "Starhopper conducts Raptor Static Fire test". NASASpaceFlight.com. https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2019/04/starhopper-first-flight-starship-superheavy-updates/. 
  13. Grush, Loren (3 April 2019). "SpaceX just fired up the engine on its test Starship vehicle for the first time". The Verge. https://www.theverge.com/2019/4/3/18271547/spacex-starship-starhopper-raptor-engine-ignition-hop-static-fire-test. 
  14. Baylor, Michael (2 June 2019). "SpaceX readying Starhopper for hops in Texas as Pad 39A plans materialize in Florida". NASASpaceFlight.com. https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2019/06/spacex-starhopper-hops-texas-pad-39a-plans-materialize-florida/. 
  15. Berger, Eric (26 July 2019). "SpaceX's Starship prototype has taken flight for the first time". Ars Technica. https://arstechnica.com/science/2019/07/spacexs-starship-prototype-has-taken-flight-for-the-first-time/. 
  16. Burghardt, Thomas (25 July 2019). "Starhopper successfully conducts debut Boca Chica Hop". NASASpaceFlight.com. https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2019/07/spacex-resume-starhopper-tests/. 
  17. Baylor, Michael (27 August 2019). "SpaceX's Starhopper completes 150 meter test hop". NASASpaceFlight. https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2019/08/faa-spacexs-starhopper-hop/. 
  18. "SpaceX Starhopper Rocket Prototype Aces Highest (and Final) Test Flight". https://www.space.com/spacex-starhopper-aces-final-test-launch-landing.html. 
  19. 150 Meter Starhopper Test. SpaceX. 27 August 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2019 – via YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bYb3bfA6_sQ
  20. Mosher, Dave (7 August 2019). "SpaceX may cannibalize its first Mars rocket-ship prototype in Elon Musk's race to launch Starship". Business Insider. https://www.businessinsider.com/spacex-starhopper-rocket-ship-final-launch-starship-plans-2019-8. 
  21. Ralph, Eric (27 August 2019). "SpaceX scrubs Starhopper's final Raptor-powered flight as Elon Musk talks finicky igniters". Teslarati. https://www.teslarati.com/spacex-scrubs-final-starhopper-flight-test-elon-musk/. 
  22. Ralph, Eric (4 August 2020). "SpaceX Starship leaps towards Mars with picture-perfect hop debut". Teslarati. https://www.teslarati.com/spacex-starship-sn5-hop-debut-success-mars/. 
  23. Baylor, Michael (3 August 2020). "Starship SN5 conducts successful 150-meter flight test". NASASpaceFlight.com. https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2020/08/starship-sn5-set-150-meter-flight-test/. 
  24. Baylor, Michael (4 August 2020). "Starship SN5 conducts successful 150-meter flight test". NASASpaceflight. https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2020/08/starship-sn5-set-150-meter-flight-test/. 
  25. Clark, Stephen (5 August 2020). "SpaceX clears big hurdle on next-gen Starship rocket program". Spaceflight Now. https://spaceflightnow.com/2020/08/05/spacex-clears-big-hurdle-on-next-gen-starship-rocket-program/. 
  26. "Starship SN6 maiden hop complete - Super Heavy is coming". NASASpaceFlight.com. 3 September 2020. https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2020/09/starship-sn6-hop-super-heavy-coming/. 
  27. "SN6 begins test campaign as future Starships hatch plans for SpaceX's next leap". 16 August 2020. https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2020/08/sn6-campaign-future-starships-hatch-next-leap/. 
  28. "NOTAM". https://tfr.faa.gov/save_pages/detail_0_0092.html. 
  29. Bergin, Chris (9 December 2020). "From hops to hopes - Starship SN8 advances test program into the next phase". NASASpaceFlight.com. https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2020/12/from-hops-hopes-starship-sn8-test-program-next-phase/. 
  30. Bergin, Chris (18 October 2020). "Starship SN8 pressing to Static Fire and nosecone installation firsts". NASASpaceflight. https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2020/10/starship-sn8-static-fire-nosecone-firsts/. 
  31. Cotton, Ethan. "Starship SN9: 10 kilometer flight". https://everydayastronaut.com/starship-sn9-10-km-test-flight/. 
  32. What's really going on with Elon Musk, the FAA, and Starship? , Eric Berger, Ars Technica, 29 January 2021, retrieved 30 January 2021. https://arstechnica.com/science/2021/01/whats-really-going-on-with-elon-musk-the-faa-and-starship/
  33. Starship SN9 High-Altitude Flight Test (YouTube). SpaceX. 2 February 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_zZ7fIkpBgs
  34. Baylor, Michael. "Starship SN9 History". https://nextspaceflight.com/starship/hardware/12. 
  35. What's holding up the next test of SpaceX's Starship? Elon Musk blames the FAA. , Washington Post, 28 January 2021, accessed 30 January 2021. https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2021/01/28/elon-musk-spacex-starship-faa/
  36. Bergin, Chris (28 January 2021). "Starship SN9 fails to gain FAA green light for Friday attempt". https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2021/01/starship-sn9-speedy-recovery-static-fire-launch/. 
  37. Hollister, Sean (21 February 2021). "The FAA is no longer concerned with SpaceX’s Starship SN9 and SN8" (in en). The Verge. https://www.theverge.com/2021/2/21/22294060/spacex-starship-sn9-sn8-faa-investigations-over. 
  38. Cotton, Ethan (22 February 2021). "When will SN10 launch? Live Updates". Everyday Astronaut. https://everydayastronaut.com/sn10-launch-live-updates/. 
  39. Baylor, Michael. "Starship SN10 History". https://nextspaceflight.com/starship/hardware/14. 
  40. Wall, Mike (4 March 2021). "SpaceX's SN10 Starship prototype lands after epic test launch — but then explodes" (in en). space.com. https://www.space.com/spacex-starship-sn10-test-launch-landing-explosion. 
  41. Starship SN10 High-Altitude Flight Test. SpaceX (YouTube). 3 March 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ODY6JWzS8WU
  42. Despite making an intact landing and beginning the detanking procedures, the vehicle suffered an explosion several minutes later destroying the vehicle in the process. SpaceX called it a successful landing but later acknowledged a problem with lower-than-expected engine thrust causing a hard landing[46] way past leg loads[47] and the vehicle exploded.[43]
  43. Etherington, Darrell. "SpaceX’s Starship prototype flies to 32,000 feet and sticks the landing in third flight test". TechCrunch. https://techcrunch.com/2021/03/03/spacexs-starship-prototype-flies-to-32000-feet-and-sticks-the-landing-in-third-flight-test/. 
  44. @elonmusk (9 March 2021). "SN10 engine was low on thrust due (probably) to partial helium ingestion from fuel header tank. Impact of 10m/s crushed legs & part of skirt. Multiple fixes in work for SN11.". https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1369379914139451406. 
  45. (in en) Starship | SN11 | High-Altitude Flight Test, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gjCSJIAKEPM, retrieved 2021-03-30 
  46. Baylor, Michael [@nextspaceflight]. "SpaceX is targeting March 26 for Starship SN11's static fire and flight test, per a county road and beach clsoure notice.". https://twitter.com/nextspaceflight/status/1375204254818787328.  Missing or empty |date= (help)
  47. Musk, Elon (30 March 2021). "Looks like engine 2 had issues on ascent & didn’t reach operating chamber pressure during landing burn, but, in theory, it wasn’t needed." (in en-US). https://mobile.twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1376891464333017090. 
  48. Bergin, Chris (30 March 2021). "Ended in a RUD." (in en-US). https://mobile.twitter.com/NASASpaceflight/status/1376884533841170432. 
  49. @thesheetztweetz (2 April 2021). "SpaceX’s Starship SN11 captured hurtling back down, with debris seen flying". https://twitter.com/thesheetztweetz/status/1378041709293146113. 
  50. Ralph, Eric (2021-04-05). "Musk blames SpaceX’s latest Starship explosion on Raptor engine leak". teslarati.com. https://www.teslarati.com/spacex-starship-sn11-explosion-raptor-leak-elon-musk/. 
  51. "SpaceX launches Starship SN15 rocket and sticks the landing in high-altitude test flight". Space.com. 5 May 2021. https://www.space.com/spacex-starship-sn15-launch-landing-success. 
  52. "Starship SN15" (in en). http://nextspaceflight.com/starship/hardware/16. 
  53. Kettley, Sebastian (2021-04-09). "SpaceX Starship launch: Will Starship SN15 launch this weekend?" (in en). https://www.express.co.uk/news/science/1421119/spacex-starship-launch-will-starship-sn15-launch-this-weekend-evg. 
  54. Timmer, John (5 May 2021). "SpaceX successfully lands a Starship test flight". Ars Technica. https://arstechnica.com/science/2021/05/spacex-successfully-lands-a-starship-test-flight/. Retrieved 7 May 2021. 
  55. Template:Cite Tweet
  56. Ralph, Eric (7 May 2021). "Elon Musk says SpaceX might refly Starship after historic landing". Teslarati. https://www.teslarati.com/elon-musk-spacex-to-refly-starship-sn15/. 
  57. "https://mobile.twitter.com/bocachicagal/status/1392124872617250817" (in en). https://mobile.twitter.com/bocachicagal/status/1392124872617250817. 
  58. @elonmusk (6 March 2021). "This was way past leg loads. They got squashed hard.". https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1368048822534868997. 
  59. Musk, Elon [@elonmusk]. "That’s our goal". https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1371995012825763842.  Missing or empty |date= (help)
  60. Bergin, Chris (2021-03-15). "Starship SN11 prepares to fly as SpaceX pushes for Orbital flight this summer" (in en-US). https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2021/03/starship-sn11-spacex-orbital-flight-summer/. 
  61. It is unknown if the booster will land on an ocean platform to attempt recovery, or soft land on the waters of the Gulf.
  62. "Starship Orbital—First Flight FCC Exhibit". FCC. https://apps.fcc.gov/els/GetAtt.html?id=273481. 
  63. "SpaceX wants to land Starship on the moon within three years, president says, with people soon after". CNBC. 27 October 2019. https://www.cnbc.com/2019/10/27/spacex-president-we-will-land-starship-on-moon-before-2022.html. 
  64. "Japanese billionaire to fly eight members of the public on SpaceX moon flight". CNBC. 2 March 2021. https://www.cnbc.com/2021/03/02/yusaku-maezawa-opens-up-public-seats-on-spacex-starship-moon-flight.html. 
  65. First Private Passenger on Lunar BFR Mission Press conference streamed live at YouTube by SpaceX 17 September 2018 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zu7WJD8vpAQ
  66. "(HLS) Source Selection Statement". NASA. 16 April 2021. https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/option-a-source-selection-statement-final.pdf. 
  67. "Acting NASA chief says 2024 Moon landing no longer a “realistic” target". Ars Technica. 18 February 2021. https://arstechnica.com/science/2021/02/acting-nasa-chief-says-2024-moon-landing-no-longer-a-realistic-target/. 
  68. "Elon Musk says SpaceX's 1st Starship trip to Mars could fly in 4 years". 16 October 2020. https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/technology/elon-musk-says-spacexs-1st-starship-trip-to-mars-could-fly-in-4-years/ar-BB1a72Tq. 
  69. Brandom, Russell (2016-09-27). "Elon Musk might name his first Mars-bound spaceship after Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy" (in en). https://www.theverge.com/2016/9/27/13081036/spacex-mars-spaceship-hitchhikers-guide-to-the-galaxy. 
  70. "Elon Musk says SpaceX’s Starship rocket will launch ‘hundreds of missions’ before flying people". 1 September 2020. https://www.cnbc.com/2020/09/01/elon-musk-spacex-starship-to-fly-hundreds-of-missions-before-people.html. 
  71. "SpaceX wants to land Starship on the moon within three years, president says, with people soon after". 27 October 2019. https://www.cnbc.com/2019/10/27/spacex-president-we-will-land-starship-on-moon-before-2022.html. 
  72. Wall, Mike (March 2020). "SpaceX's Starship will soon be made of different stuff". Space.com. https://www.space.com/spacex-starship-new-stainless-steel-alloy.html. 
More
Information
Contributor MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register :
View Times: 474
Entry Collection: HandWiki
Revision: 1 time (View History)
Update Date: 02 Dec 2022
1000/1000