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HandWiki. Gioacchino Failla. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/37230 (accessed on 13 April 2024).
HandWiki. Gioacchino Failla. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/37230. Accessed April 13, 2024.
HandWiki. "Gioacchino Failla" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/37230 (accessed April 13, 2024).
HandWiki. (2022, November 30). Gioacchino Failla. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/37230
HandWiki. "Gioacchino Failla." Encyclopedia. Web. 30 November, 2022.
Gioacchino Failla
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radiobiology biophysics castelbuono

1. Introduction

Gioacchino Failla (19 July 1891 – 15 December 1961) was an Italian-born American physicist. A pioneer in both biophysics and radiobiology, he was particularly noted for his work on the role of radiation as a cause of cancer and genetic mutation. He was born in Castelbuono in the Province of Palermo and emigrated with his family to the United States in 1906. After his retirement from Columbia University's Center for Radiological Research in 1960, he was appointed Senior Scientist Emeritus in the Radiological Physics Division of the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois. He was killed in a car accident near the laboratory at the age of 70.[1][2]

2. Professional Service

  • Committee on Radiation Units, Standardization and Protection
  • International Commission on Radiation Protection, ICRP
  • National Commission on Radiation Protection, NCRP
  • National Defense Research Committee
  • Radiological Instrument Panel of the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project
  • Advisory Committee on Isotope Distributions
  • Advisory Committee on Biology and Medicine of the U.S. A.E.C. and the Genetics Committee
  • National Academy of Science Committee on Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation

3. Honorary Memberships

  • British Institute of Radiology
  • The James Ewing Society, American Society for the Control of Cancer, now known as the American Cancer Society
  • Radiological Society of North America

4. Awards and Honors

  • Pulitzer Scholarship, awarded to graduates of grammar school that were examined for eligibility to receive one of 10 scholarships offered annually by Joseph Pulitzer. The subjects included in the written examination were grammar, dictation, reading, composition, American history, geography, and arithmetic.
  • American Cancer Society Annual National Award
  • Caldwell Medal of the American Roentgen Ray Society
  • Leonard Prize of the American Roentgen Ray Society
  • James Ewing Society Medal
  • Gold Medal of the Radiological Society of North America
  • 1939, Janeway Medal[3] of the American Radium Society, "Some Aspects of the Biological Action of Ionizing Radiation"
  • Katherine Berkan Judd Cancer Award from MSKCC for cancer research for an investigator who has made major advances toward the control and cure of cancer.
  • He received an honorary doctorate degree from the University of Rochester.

4.1. Failla Memorial Lecture

  • Failla Memorial Lecture presented annually by the Greater New York Chapter of the Health Physics Society and the Radiological Medical Physics Society

5. Patents

  • Stopcock, 1925.[4]
  • Method and means for applying radium emanation, 1930.[5]
  • Method and means for treatment by radiations, 1934.[6]
  • Means for effecting therapeutic implantations, 1935.[7]
  • Methods and means for testing radiant energy, 1937.[8]
  • Testing method and apparatus, 1937.[9]
  • Radiation measuring device, 1953.[10]
  • Radiation meter, 1954.[11]
  • Radiation detection device, 1956.[12]
  • Method of using and manufacturing plastic equivalent to organic materials, 1961.[13]

6. Publications

  • Failla, G. (1920), "Radium technique at the Memorial Hospital", Arch. Radiol. Electrotherapy (25): 3. Reprinted in Radium 16.
  • Failla, G. (1921a), "The physical basis of radium therapy", Arch. Dermatol. Syphilol. (3): 33.
  • Failla, G. (1921b), "Dosage in radium therapy", Am. J. Roentgenol. (8): 674.
  • Failla, G. (1921c), "The absorption of radium radiations by tissues", Am. J. Roentgenol. (8): 215.
  • Kunz, G.F., and Failla, G. (1921), "Radium - The supreme marvel of nature's storehouse", Nat. History (2): 520.
  • Sugiura, K., and Failla, G. (1922), "Some effects of radium radiations on white mice", J. Gen. Physiol." (4): 423.
  • Failla, G., Quimby, Edith H., and Dean, A.L. (1922), "Some problems of radiation therapy", Am. J. Roentgenol. (9): 479.
  • Failla, G. (1923), "Ionization measurements", Am. J. Roentgenol. (10): 48.
  • Failla, G., and Quimby, Edith H. (1923), "The economics of dosimetry in radiotherapy", Am. J. Roentgenol. (10): 944.
  • Failla, G. (1924), "A brief analysis of some important factors in the biological action of radiation", Am. J. Roentgenol. (12): 454.
  • Failla, G. (1925), "An objective method for the administration of X-rays", Acta Radiol. (4): 85.
  • Failla, G., Adair, F., Quimby, Edith H., Sugiura, K., Arnell, J.C., and Goldsmith, N.W. (1926), "Dosage study relative to the therapeutic use of unfiltered radon", Am. J. Roentgenol. (15): 1.
  • Failla, G. (1926a), "The question of a biological unit of radiation", Acta Radiol. (6): 413.
  • Failla, G. (1926b), "The development of filtered radon implants", Am. J. Roentgenol. (16): 507.
  • Failla, G. (1927), "Radium at the Memorial Hospital", Sci. Monthly (25): 568.
  • Failla, G. (1928), "Design of a well-protected radium 'Pack'", Am. J. Roentgenol. (20): 128.
  • Failla, G. (1929a), "Criteria for the design of a standard ionization chamber", Am. J. Roentgenol. (21): 47.
  • Failla, G. (1929b), "The measurement of X-ray dosage by physical means", Radiology (13): 293.
  • Failla, G. (1930a), "Filtration in radium therapy", Radiol. Rev. and Chicago Med. Recorder (March 1930).
  • Failla, G. (1930b), "A new instrument for measuring X-radiation", Radiology (15): 437.
  • Failla, G., and Henshaw, P.S. (1931), "The relative biological effectiveness of X-rays and gamma rays", Radiology (17): 1.
  • Schlundt, H., and Failla, G. (1931), "The detection and estimation of radium in living persons. III. The normal elimination of radium", Am. J. Roentgenol. (26): 265.
  • Failla, G. (1932), "Radium protection", Radiology (19): 12.
  • Failla, G., Quimby, Edith H., Marinelli, L.D., and Rose, J.E. (1933), "The relative effects produced by 200 kV roentgen rays, 700 kV roentgen rays, and gamma rays. I. The distribution of radiation in a water phantom", Am. J. Roentgenol. (29): 293.
  • Failla, G. (1933), "The relative effects produced by 200 kV roentgen rays, 700 kV roentgen rays and gamma rays. VII. Correlation of experimental results", Am. J. Roentgenol. (29): 352.
  • Failla, G. (1934a), "Radiotherapy at 700 kV", Fourth Intern. Congr. of Radiol. (2).
  • Failla, G. (1934b), "Identical physical measurements of the dose in X-ray and radium treatment", Fourth Intern. Congr. of Radiol. (2).
  • Urey, H. and Failla, G. (15 March 1935). "CONCERNING THE TASTE OF HEAVY WATER. Science. 81 (2098): 273.
  • Failla, G. (1936a), "Some physical characteristics of 400 kV, Roentgen rays Fortschr. Gebiete Rontgenstrahlen (53): 596.
  • Failla, G. (1936b), "Versuch einer neuartigen Therapie mit Uberharten Rontgenstraheln", Strahlentherapie (56): 594.
  • Failla, G., Twombly, G., and Marinelli, L. (1937), "A method for decreasing the ionization in the skin applicable to supervoltage X-ray therapy", Radiology (28): 693.
  • Failla, G. (1937a), "A theory of the biological action of ionizing radiations", Publ. Am. Assoc. Advance. Sci. (4): 202.
  • Failla, G., and Marinelli, L.D. (1937), "The measurement of the ionization produced in air by gamma rays", Am. J. Roentgenol. Radium Therapy (38): 312.
  • Failla, G. (1937b), "The measurement of tissue dose in terms of the same unit for all ionizing radiations", Radiology (29): 202.
  • Failla, G., et al. (1937), "Recommendations of the International Committee for Radiological Units", Radiology (29): 634.
  • Failla, G. (1940), "Some aspects of the biological action of ionizing radiations. Janeway Lecture, 1939", Am. J. Roentgenol. (44): 649.
  • White, T.N., Marinelli, L.D., and Failla, G. (1940), "A measurement of gamma radiation in roentgens", Am. J. Roentgenol. (44): 889.
  • Failla, G. (1941), "Biological effects of ionizing radiations", J. Appl. Phys. (12): 279.
  • Evans, T.C., Slaughter, J.C., Little, E.P., and Failla, G. (1942), "Influence of the medium on radiation injury of sperm", Radiology (39): 663.
  • Failla, G., "Ionization and its bearing on the biological effects of radiation", In Biological Effects of Radiation by B. M. Duggar.
  • Failla, G. (1945), "Protection against high energy roentgen rays. Caldwell Lecture 1945", Am. J. Roentgenol. Radium Therapy (54): 553.
  • Failla, G. (1946), "Biophysical factors in X-ray use", Ind. Standardization (17): 112.
  • Failla, G. (1947), "Nuclear physics and medical research", Lancet (67): 68.
  • Failla, G. (1949a), "Personnel protection in the use of radioactive isotopes", J. Clin. Invest. (28): 1281.
  • Failla, G. (1949b), "Dosage measurement of ionizing radiations", Conference on Electronic Inst. in Nucleonics and Med. N. Y. (Oct. 31-Nov. 2): 1.
  • Failla, G., and Rossi, H.H. (1950), "Dosimetry of ionizing particles", Am. J. Roentgenol. Radium Therapy (64): 489.
  • Rossi, H.H., and Failla, G. (1950), "Neutrons: Dosimetry", Medical Physics (2): 603.
  • Failla, G. (1951), "Radiological units", Am. J. Roentgenol. Radium Therapy (65): 477.
  • Failla, G. (1952), "Irradiation through grids", Radiology (58): 424.
  • Ellis, R.H., Jr., Rossi, H.H., and Failla, G. (1952), "Stopping power of polystyrene and acetylene for alpha-particles", Phys. Rev. (86): 562.
  • Failla, G. (1954), "The influence of the medium on the radiosensitivity of a cell", Acta Radiol. Suppl. (116): 94.
  • Ellis, R.H., Jr., Rossi, H.H., and Failla, G. (1955), "Stopping power of water films", Phys. Rev. (97): 1043.
  • Failla, G. (1955), "Address of the retiring President", Radiation Research (2): 192.
  • Gross, W., Wingate, C., and Failla, G. (1956), "Average energy expended in producing ion pairs - S-35 absolute value for air", Radiology (66): 101.
  • Wingate, C., and Failla, G. (1956), "Extrapolation chamber measurements with Ni-63 beta rays", Radiology (66): 270.
  • Rossi, H.H., and Failla, G. (1956), "Tissue-equivalent ionization chambers", Nucleonics (14): 32.
  • Failla, G. (1956a), "The flux of secondary ionizing particles in a uniformly irradiated homogeneous medium of varying density: Application to walled ionization chambers", Radiation Research (4): 102.
  • Failla, G. (1956b), "The distribution of energy imparted to a homogeneous medium nonuniformly irradiated", Radiation Research (5): 205.
  • Failla, G. (1956c), "Dosimetry of ionizing radiation", Progress in Nuclear Energy Series VII, Medical Sciences, Vol. 1, Pergamon Press.
  • Wingate, C., Gross, W., and Failla, G. (1957), "Collection of ions produced by alpha particles in air", Phys. Rev. (105): 929.
  • Gross, W., Wingate, C., and Failla, G. (1957a), "Average energy lost by S-35 beta rays per ion pair produced in air", Radiation Research (7): 570.
  • Failla, G. (1957), "Considerations bearing on permissible accumulated radiation doses for occupational exposure", Radiology (69): 23.
  • Gross, W., Wingate, C., and Failla, G. (1957b), "Determination of disintegration rate for gamma-emitting isotopes", Radiology (69): 699.
  • Failla, G., and McClement, P. (1957), "The shortening of life by chronic whole-body irradiation", Am. J. Roentgenol. (78): 946.
  • Shonka, F. R., Rose, John E., & Failla, G. (1958). Conducting plastic equivalent to tissue, air, and polystyrene (No. A/CONF. 15/P/753). Saint Procopius Coll., Lisle, Ill.; Argonne National Lab., Lemont, Ill.; Columbia Univ., New York.
  • Failla, G. (1958), "The aging process and cancerogenesis", Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (71): 1124.
  • Wingate, C., Gross, W., and Failla, G. (1958), "Relative beta-ray energy loss per ion pair produced in water vapor and in air", Radiation Research (8): 411.
  • Gross, W., Catolla-Cavalcanti, R., Bell, W.B., and Failla, G. (1958), "Experimental determination of the absorbed dose in tissue from X-rays", Radiation Research (9): 124.
  • Failla, G., Chairman, Advisory Committee on Biology and Medicine, AEC (1958), "Statement on Radioactive Fallout", Am. Scientist (46): 138.
  • Shonka, F. R., Rose, J. E., & Failla, G. (1959). Progress in Nuclear Energy, Series XII. Health Physics. 160.
  • Failla, P., McClement, and Failla, G. (1960), "Measurement of the dose in small tissue volumes surrounding 'point' sources of radioisotopes", Radiation Research (13): 1.
  • Failla, G. (1960), "The aging process and somatic mutations", In The Biology of Aging Am. Inst. Biol. Sciences Washington D. C.
  • Failla, G. and McClement Failla, P. (1960), "Long term effects of radiation", In Ninth International Congress of Radiology, Munich 1959. (Vol. II): 1195. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany.
  • Shonka, F. R., Failla, G., & Rose, J. E. (1964). New electrometer of high sensitivity. Review of Scientific Instruments, 35(8), 1046-1049.
Further Reading
In this part, we encourage you to list the link of papers wrote by the character, or published reviews/articles about his/her academic contributions. Edit

References

  1. Marinelli, L. M. (1962). "Gioacchino Failla (1891–1961)". Radiation Research, Vol. 16, pp. 619–622 http://hpschapters.org/gnychps/Failla/RadiationResearch-Obituary-Failla.pdf
  2. Columbia University Center for Radiological Research. "Gioacchino Failla" http://www.cumc.columbia.edu/crr/about-us/history/directors/failla
  3. "Janeway Lectures". http://www.americanradiumsociety.org/past-meetings/janeway-lectures/. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  4. Failla, Gioacchino. (14 April 1925). Stopcock. U.S. Patent No. 1,533,793. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  5. Failla, Gioacchino. (8 April 1930). Method and means for applying radium emanation. U.S. Patent No. 1,753,287. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  6. Rose, John Ernest & Gioacchino Failla. (17 April 1934). Method and means for treatment by radiations. U.S. Patent No. 1,954,868. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  7. Failla, Gioacchino. (30 July 1935). Means for effecting therapeutic implantations. U.S. Patent No. 2,009,393. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  8. Failla, Gioacchino. (29 September 1937). Methods and means for testing radiant energy. U.S. Patent No. 2,094,318. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  9. Failla, Gioacchino. (2 November 1937). Testing method and apparatus. U.S. Patent No. 2,097,760. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  10. Failla, Gioacchino. (17 November 1953). Radiation measuring device. U.S. Patent No. 2,659,826. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  11. Failla, Gioacchino. (6 July 1954). Radiation meter." U.S. Patent No. 2,683,222. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  12. Failla, Gioacchino. (17 January 1956). Radiation detection device. U.S. Patent No. 2,731,568. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  13. Rose, John Ernest, Failla, Gioacchino, & Francis Rudolph Shonka. (24 October 1961). Method of using and manufacturing plastic equivalent to organic materials. U.S. Patent No. 3,005,794. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Filed: 8 August 1958.
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Name: Gioacchino Failla
Born: Jul 1891
Died: Dec 1961
Birth
Location:
Castelbuono Palermo, Sicily, Italy
Title: Physicist
Affiliations: Memorial Hospital (New York City, New York) Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Argonne National Laboratory
Honors: Pulitzer Scholarship Leonard Prize Janeway Medal Caldwell Medal Gold Medal of the Radiological Society of North America Ewing Society Medal American Cancer Society Annual National Award Judd Cancer Award
Information
Subjects: Others
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