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Xu, H. George C. Marshall Institute. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 30 November 2023).
Xu H. George C. Marshall Institute. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed November 30, 2023.
Xu, Handwiki. "George C. Marshall Institute" Encyclopedia, (accessed November 30, 2023).
Xu, H.(2022, November 30). George C. Marshall Institute. In Encyclopedia.
Xu, Handwiki. "George C. Marshall Institute." Encyclopedia. Web. 30 November, 2022.
George C. Marshall Institute

The George C. Marshall Institute (GMI) was a nonprofit conservative think tank in the United States. It was established in 1984 with a focus on science and public policy issues and was initially active mostly in the area of defense policy. Since the late 1980s, the Institute put forward environmental skepticism views, and in particular has promoted fringe views regarding the scientific consensus on climate change. The think tank received extensive financial support from oil companies. It closed in 2015, morphing somewhat into the CO2 Coalition.

environmental skepticism public policy think tank

1. History

The George C. Marshall Institute was founded in 1984 by Frederick Seitz (former President of the United States National Academy of Sciences), Robert Jastrow (founder of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies), and William Nierenberg (former director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography). The Institute's primary aim, initially, was to play a role in defense policy debates, defending Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI, or "Star Wars"). In particular, it sought to defend SDI "from attack by the Union of Concerned Scientists, and in particular by the equally prominent physicists Hans Bethe, Richard Garwin, and astronomer Carl Sagan."[1] The Institute argued that the Soviet Union was a military threat.[1] A 1987 article by Jastrow[2] argued that in five years the Soviet Union would be so powerful that it would be able to achieve world domination without firing a shot.[1] When the Cold War instead ended in the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union, the Institute shifted from an emphasis on defense to a focus on environmental skepticism, including global warming denial.[1]

The Institute's shift to environmental skepticism began with the publication of a report on global warming by William Nierenberg. During the 1988 United States presidential election, George H. W. Bush had pledged to meet the "greenhouse effect with the White House effect."[1] Nierenberg's report, which blamed global warming on solar activity, had a large impact on the incoming Bush presidency, strengthening those in it opposed to environmental regulation.[1] In 1990 the Institute's founders (Jastrow, Nierenberg and Seitz) published a book on climate change.[3] The appointment of David Allan Bromley as presidential science advisor, however, saw Bush sign the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992, despite some opposition from within his administration.[1]

In 1994, the Institute published a paper by its then chairman, Frederick Seitz, titled Global warming and ozone hole controversies: A challenge to scientific judgment. Seitz questioned the view that CFCs "are the greatest threat to the ozone layer".[4] In the same paper, commenting on the dangers of secondary inhalation of tobacco smoke, he concluded "there is no good scientific evidence that passive inhalation is truly dangerous under normal circumstances."[5]

In 2012, the institute took over the responsibility for running the website from the Claremont Institute. aims to inform the American people of missile threats, thereby encouraging the deployment of a ballistic missile defense system. Since the closure of the institute, the website has been maintained by the Center for Strategic and International Studies.[6][7]

2. Publications

Politicizing Science: The Alchemy of Policymaking is a book by the George C. Marshall Institute, edited by Michael Gough. The book, published in 2003, encourages a disinterested objectivity on the part of scientists and policymakers: Ideally, the scientists or analysts who generate estimates of harm that may result from a risk would consider all the relevant facts and alternative interpretations of the data, and remain skeptical about tentative conclusions. Ideally, too, the agency officials and politicians, who have to enact a regulatory program, would consider its costs and benefits, ensure that it will do more good than harm, and remain open to options to stop or change the regulation in situations where the underlying science is tentative.[8][9]

3. Global Warming

Since 1989 GMI has been involved in what it terms "a critical examination of the scientific basis for global climate change policy." [10] The Institute was described by Sharon Begley as a "central cog in the denial machine" in a 2007 Newsweek cover story on climate change denial.[11]

In Requiem for a Species, Clive Hamilton is critical of the Marshall Institute and contends that the conservative backlash against global warming research was led by three prominent physicists -- Frederick Seitz, Robert Jastrow, and William Nierenberg, who founded the Institute in 1984. According to Hamilton, by the 1990s the Marshall Institute's main activity was attacking climate science.[12] Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway reach a similar conclusion in Merchants of Doubt (2010), where they identified a few contrarian scientists associated with conservative think-tanks who fought the scientific consensus and spread confusion and doubt about global warming.[13] The book Climate Change: An Encyclopedia of Science and History, noting that GMI has received funding from the automobile and fossil fuel industries and espouses "a mix of conservative, neoliberal, and libertarian ideological positions", states that GMI has

... supported authors opposed to the hypothesis of anthropogenic warming and proposed mitigation policies ... stressing the free-market and the dangers of government regulation, which they said would hurt the US economy.[14]

GMI is one of only a few conservative environmental-policy think tanks to have natural scientists on staff.[15] Noted climate change deniers Sallie Baliunas and (until his death in 2008) Frederick Seitz (a past president of the National Academy of Sciences from 1962–1969) have served on its board of directors. Patrick Michaels is a visiting scientist and Stephen McIntyre, Willie Soon and Ross McKitrick are contributing writers.[16] Richard Lindzen served on the Institute's Science Advisory Board.[17]

In February 2005 GMI co-sponsored a congressional briefing at which Senator James Inhofe praised Michael Crichton's novel State of Fear and attacked the "hockey stick graph".[18]

William O'Keefe, chief executive officer of the Marshall Institute, questions the methods used by advocates of new government restrictions to combat global warming: "We have never said that global warming isn't real. No self-respecting think tank would accept money to support preconceived notions. We make sure what we are saying is both scientifically and analytically defensible."[19]

3.1. Accusation of Conflict of Interest

Matthew B. Crawford was appointed executive director of GMI in September 2001.[20] He left the GMI after 5 months, saying that the institute was "fonder of some facts than others". He contended a conflict of interest existed in the funding of the institute.[21] In Shop Class as Soulcraft, he stated about the Institute:

{{quote|... the trappings of scholarship were used to put a scientific cover on positions arrived at otherwise. These positions served various interests, ideological or material. For example, part of my job consisted of making arguments about global warming that just happened to coincide with the positions taken by the oil companies that funded the think tank.[22]

In 1998 Jeffrey Salmon, then executive director of GMI, helped develop the American Petroleum Institute's strategy of stressing the uncertainty of climate science.[18]

Naomi Oreskes states that the institute has, in order to resist and delay regulation, lobbied politically to create a false public perception of scientific uncertainty over the negative effects of second-hand smoke, the carcinogenic nature of tobacco smoking, the existence of acid rain, and on the evidence between CFCs and ozone depletion.[23]

4. Funding Sources

Exxon-Mobil was a funder of the GMI until it pulled funding from it and several similar organizations in 2008.[24] From 1998-2008, the institute received a total of $715,000 in funding from Exxon-Mobil.[25]


  1. Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway, 10 August 2010, "Distorting Science While Invoking Science ", Science Progress
  2. Robert Jastrow, "America has Five Years Left!", National Review, Vol. 39, February 13, 1987
  3. Robert Jastrow, William Aaron Nierenberg, Frederick Seitz, Scientific perspectives on the greenhouse problem, Marshall Press, 1990
  4. "A Conversation with Dr. Frederick Seitz". The Marshall Institute. 1997-09-03. Archived from the original on 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2010-09-28. 
  5. Hirschhorn, Norbert; Aguinaga Bialous, Stella. "Second hand smoke and risk assessment: what was in it for the tobacco industry?". Retrieved 2 December 2019. 
  6. "Announcing". Claremont Institute. 23 March 2004. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013. 
  7. "About". George C. Marshall Institute. Retrieved 8 February 2013. 
  8. Gough, Michael (January 1, 2003). "Politicizing Science: The Alchemy of Policymaking". Hoover Institution. Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  9. "New Books from Hoover Press, Politicizing Science: The Alchemy of Policymaking, Edited by Michael Gough". Business Wire. July 7, 2003. Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  10. 'Climate Change' webpage of George C. Marshall Institute website, Accessed March 2, 2008.
  11. Begley, Sharon (13 August 2007). "The Truth About Denial". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 21 October 2007.  (MSNBC single page version, archived 20 August 2007)
  12. Hamilton, Clive (2010). Requiem for a Species: Why We Resist the Truth about Climate Change. Earthscan. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-84971-081-7. 
  13. Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway (2010). Merchants of Doubt, Bloomsbury Press, pp. 8-9.
  14. Black, Brian (2013). Climate Change: An Encyclopedia of Science and History. ABC-CLIO. p. 1239.,+neoliberal&hl=ja&sa=X&ei=-il2VbGeLYSumAWa3oHwAQ&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=%22%22George%20C.%20Marshall%20Institute%22%2C%20neoliberal&f=false. 
  15. Jacques, P.J.; Dunlap, R.E.; Freeman, M. (June 2008). "The organisation of denial: Conservative think tanks and environmental scepticism". Environmental Politics 17 (3): 349–385. doi:10.1080/09644010802055576.
  16. website Environmental Defense.
  17. McCright, Aaron M.; Dunlap, Riley E. (2003). "Defeating Kyoto: The Conservative Movement’s Impact on U.S. Climate Change Policy". Retrieved 2 December 2019. 
  18. Mooney, Chris (May–June 2005). "Some Like It Hot". Mother Jones. Retrieved March 2, 2008. 
  19. "Global-warming skeptics cite being 'treated like a pariah'". 11 February 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2019. 
  20. "The appointment of Matthew B. Crawford to the position of Executive Director". Retrieved 2 December 2019. 
  21. Mooney, Carolyn (7 June 2009). "A Hands-On Philosopher Argues for a Fresh Vision of Manual Work". Retrieved 2 December 2019. 
  22. Crawford, Matthew B. (2009). Shop Class as Soulcraft. Penguin Press. ISBN 1594202230. 
  23. Oreskes, Naomi (2007). The American Denial of Global Warming (starting at 30:30 minutes into speech) (Speech). Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  24. Anjana Ahuja and Mark Henderson "Times Cheltenham Science Festival celebrates scientific heresy ", The Times, May 30, 2009.
  25. Ed Pilkington (2008-09-30). "Palin fought safeguards for polar bears with studies by climate change sceptics". The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-09-28. 
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