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HandWiki. Plug-in Electric Vehicles in France. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/36831 (accessed on 17 June 2024).
HandWiki. Plug-in Electric Vehicles in France. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/36831. Accessed June 17, 2024.
HandWiki. "Plug-in Electric Vehicles in France" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/36831 (accessed June 17, 2024).
HandWiki. (2022, November 28). Plug-in Electric Vehicles in France. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/36831
HandWiki. "Plug-in Electric Vehicles in France." Encyclopedia. Web. 28 November, 2022.
Plug-in Electric Vehicles in France
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The adoption of plug-in electric vehicles in the France is actively supported by the French government through a bonus-malus system through which provides subsidies towards the purchase of all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids with low CO2 emissions. The government also provides non-monetary incentives; subsidies for the deployment of charging infrastructure; and long term regulations with specific targets. Additionally, France passed a law in December 2019 to phase out sales of cars that burn fossil fuels by 2040. (As of September 2021), there were 687,876 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in use in France, consisting of 453,143 all-electric passenger cars and commercial vans, and 234,733 plug-in hybrids. Of these, over 50,000 were fully electric light commercial vehicles. The split among type of powertrain is influenced by the rules of the government subsidies, which favors pure electric vehicles over plug-in hybrids. The plug-in passenger car segment attained a market share of 0.5% in 2013, rose to 1.2% in 2015, 2.2% in 2018, and climbed to 2.8% in 2019. Despite the global strong decline in car sales brought by the COVID-19 pandemic, plug-in electric car sales in France during the first six months of 2020 achieved a record sales volume of 65,267 units, and a market share of 9.1%. (As of December 2019), France listed as the world's second largest market after China for light-duty electric commercial vehicles, with a stock of 49,340 utility vans in circulation. The market share of all-electric utility vans attained 1.2% of new vans registered in 2014, rose to 1.8% in 2018, but declined to 1.7% in 2019. The Renault Zoe has led all-electric car sales in France since 2013, and is the country's all-time best selling plug-in electric car with more than 100,000 units registered through June 2020. The electric utility van segment has been led by the Renault Kangoo Z.E. with over 21,000 units sold through February 2019.

plug-in hybrids electric car sales pure electric vehicles

1. Government Policies and Incentives

Since 2008 France has a bonus-malus system offering a financial incentive, or bonus, for the purchase of cars with low carbon emissions, and a fee, or malus, for the purchase of high-emission vehicles. The bonus applies to private and company vehicles purchased on or after 5 December 2007 and is deducted from the purchase price of the vehicle. The malus penalty applies to all vehicles registered after 1 January 2008, and is added at the time of registration. Since 2009, every family with more than two children receives a deduction from the malus of 20 g of CO2 per km per child.[1]

Also a variety of policies have been established to promote the adoption of plug-in electric vehicles, such as non-monetary incentives, subsidies for the deployment of charging infrastructure, and long term regulations with specific targets.[2][3]

In particular, the EU regulation that set the mandatory targets for average fleet CO2 emissions for new cars has been effective in contributing to the successful uptake of plug-in cars in France in recent years.[2] Additionally, the Assemblée Nationale passed a law in December 2019 that aims to phase out sales of cars that burn fossil fuels by 2040.[2]

1.1. 2012-2014

Electric cars purchase under a battery leasing contract, such as the Renault Zoe, are eligible for the full €6300 bonus for zero CO2 emission vehicles. https://handwiki.org/wiki/index.php?curid=1902715

Until July 31, 2012, a premium up to €5,000, under the bonus-malus system, was granted for the purchase of new cars with CO2 emissions of 60 g/km or less which benefited all-electric cars and any plug-in hybrid with such low emissions. Vehicles emitting up to 125 g/km or less, such as conventional hybrids and natural gas vehicles, were granted up to €2,000.[4][5] The incentive could not exceed 20% of the sales price including VAT, increased with the cost of the battery if it is rented.[4]

Effective on August 1, 2012, the government increased the bonus for electric cars up to €7,000 but capped at 30% of the vehicle price including VAT. The price includes any battery leasing charges, and therefore, electric cars which need a battery leasing contract also are eligible for the bonus. For example, an electric car sold for €23 333 including VAT was eligible for the maximum bonus of €7000. The emission level for the maximum bonus was raised to 20 g/km or less. Cars with emission levels between 20 and 50 g/km were eligible to a bonus of up to €5,000, and between 50 and 60 g/km were eligible to a bonus of up to €4,500. After this limit, the bonus dropped to €550.[6]

The fee schedule for the bonus-malus was modified in 2013. Effective November 1, 2013, the bonus was reduced from €7,000 to €6300 for all-electrics and any other vehicle with CO2 emissions of less than 21 g/km. Vehicles emitting between 21 and 60 g/km, such as plug-in hybrids and conventional hybrids, were eligible to a bonus up to €4,000, and for emissions between 61 and 90 g/km up to €150, down from €550. Effective January 1, 2014, the fee schedule for the malus was increased to a maximum penalty of €8,000 from €6,300 for vehicles emitting over 200 g/km. A neutral class applied to vehicles emitting between 91 and 130 g/km.[1][7]

1.2. 2015-2016

From April 1, 2015, a super-bonus was introduced, increasing the financial incentive to a cumulative total of €10,000, consisting of the regular bonus of €6300 for purchasing a pure electric car, plus up to €3700 for customers scrapping a diesel-powered car in circulation before 1 January 2001. In the case of plug-in hybrids with CO2 emission levels between 21 and 60 g/km, the purchase bonus is €4000 plus the scrapping premium of €3700. Also a specific €500 grant was introduced for families which are below the income tax threshold who buy an ordinary new or second hand car below certain CO2 emission thresholds or a hybrid or electric car.[8]

Electric cars equipped with a range extender, such as the BMW i3 REx, are entitled to the €6300 bonus if emitting between 21 and 60 g/km of CO2. https://handwiki.org/wiki/index.php?curid=1780090

Effective January 4, 2016, the €6300 purchase bonus limited to 27% of the purchase price for vehicles emitting up to 20 g/km was kept. This bonus corresponds to pure electric vehicles and those equipped with a range extender. Vehicles emitting between 21 and 60 g/km were entitled to a €1000 bonus. This bonus corresponds to the majority of plug-in hybrids. Conventional hybrid passenger cars emitting between 61 and 110 g/km with sufficient level of hybridization, with an electric motor with an output power of not be less than 10 kW, are entitle to a €750 bonus. The €10000 super-bonus for the purchase or lease of a new all-electric car was maintained. To be eligible for the additional scrappage bonus, the old diesel-powered car have to be owned for at least a year and in circulation before 1 January 2006. The new vehicle must not be sold within 6 months of acquisition or have traveled less than 6,000 km (3,700 mi).[9]

The scrappage bonus for the purchase of pure electric cars was maintained at €3700, while the bonus for plug-in hybrid car emitting between 21 and 60 g/km was set at €2500. Only individuals or professionals are eligible for the scrappage bonus. Commercial vehicles are not eligible. Neither demonstration vehicles are eligible to the superbonus unless the vehicles are sold or leased within one year following the date of first registration.[10] (As of September 2016), the scrappage bonus of €3700 for trading in old diesel-powered cars has been granted to more than 10,000 purchase transactions.[11]

1.3. 2017 Proposal

(As of September 2016), the government proposal to be in force from 1 January 2017 provides that the €10,000 super-bonus for scrapping a diesel vehicle over 10 years-old will be renewed. However, the bonus for the purchase of a pure electric car will drop to €6000 from €6300 in 2016, but to compensate, the additional scrappage bonus will be increased to €4000 from €3700 in 2016. Also, the government plans to introduce a purchase price cap to the vehicles eligible for the bonus, and to introduce a new bonus for two-wheeled motor vehicles. For the more polluting vehicles, the government intends to increase the maximum malus fee to €10000 from €8000 in 2016 for vehicles emitting more than 191 g/km, lowering the limit from 200 g/km in 2016.[12]

The government intends to maintain the €1000 purchase bonus for plug-in hybrids with a CO2 emission level between 21 and 60 g/km. However, the proposal does not include anything about the conversion premium for scrapping a 10-year-old diesel car for the purchase of a plug-in hybrid. The purchase bonus for non-rechargeable hybrid vehicles will be eliminated.[12]

1.4. 2020-2022

The French government has canceled any bonus for cars priced above €60,000. For cars sold for less than €45,000 the bonus will be gradually lowered, going from €6000 in 2020 to €5000 in 2021 and €4000 in 2022. For cars priced between €45,000 and €60,000, the bonus is reduced by 50%,[13] but the French government will certainly adapt if too many foreign cars are bought. The €45,000 limit target foreign cars and specially Tesla, since less expensive French EVs (Zoe, e208, C4 Cactus, DS 3 Crossback e-tense) remain fully supported.

1.5. Controversies

Piggyback on French subsidies

In September 2013, several French news outlets reported that according to the Norwegian newspaper Dagens Næringsliv, some car dealers in Norway have been buying electric cars in France and earning the €7,000 (~ US$9,465) government subsidy. These cars are then imported to Norway and after discounting the freight costs, they are sold at a discount. Dagens Næringsliv cited the case of one dealer near Oslo with 70% of its electric car sales corresponding to vehicles imported from France, and with at least 40 Leafs imported, totaling €280,000 ( ~ US$378,600) in benefits at a cost of the French taxpayers. These dealers took advantage of a loophole in the French law, which only requires to have an address in the country when buying a new car.[14][15]

2. Sales

Cumulative light-duty plug-in electric vehicle sales in France compared to the world's top-selling countries and regional markets (As of December 2020). https://handwiki.org/wiki/index.php?curid=1983635

(As of September 2021), a total of 687,876 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in France since 2010, consisting of 453,143 all-electric passenger cars and commercial vans, and 234,733 plug-in hybrids.[16] Of these, over 50,000 were all-electric light commercial vehicles.[2][17]

Until 2013, most plug-in cars registered in France were pure electric cars, but from 2015, sales of plug-in hybrid cars rose significantly. After the introduction of super-bonus for the scrappage of old diesel-power cars in April 2015, sales of both segments of plug-in cars surged, and for the first time the French plug-in market share passed the 1% mark, ending 2015 with a market share of 1.17% of total new car registrations that year.[18][19][20] The stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in France passed the 100,000 unit milestone in October 2016.[21][22] The 500,000 unit milestone was achieved in February 2021.[23]

The market share of all-electric passenger cars increased from 0.30% of new car registered in 2012, to 0.49% in 2013, and reached 0.59% in 2014.[18][24][25] The plug-in passenger car segment, including plug-in hybrids, climbed to 1.40% in 2016, and to 1.98% of new car registrations in 2017.[26][27] The segment attained a market share of 2.2% in 2018, and rose to 2.8% in 2019.[2]

Despite the global strong decline in car sales brought by the COVID-19 pandemic, plug-in electric car sales in France during the first six months of 2020 achieved a record sales volume of 65,267 units, and a market share of 9.1%.[17][28] The surge in plug-in car sales is the result of French government pandemia stimulus incentives set in May 2020, which rose the electric car purchase bonus up to €12,000 for those owners scrapping their old diesel cars.[29]

(As of December 2019), France listed as the world's second largest market after China for light-duty electric commercial vehicles or utility vans, with a stock of 49,340 units in circulation.[2] Nearly half of the electric vans sold in the European Union are sold in France as a result of a national purchase incentive scheme, which French companies have embraced.[30] The market share of all-electric utility vans attained 1.2% of new vans registered in 2014, 1.3% in 2015, rose to 1.8% in 2018, but the market share declined to 1.7% in 2019.[2]

2.1. 2010-2012

Electric car registrations increased from 184 units in 2010 to 2,630 in 2011.[31] Sales in 2012 increased 115% from 2011 to 5,663 electric cars,[24] making France the world's fourth largest all-electric country market, with an 11% market share of global all-electric car sales in 2012.[32]

The Bolloré Bluecar, deployed for the Parisian Autolib' carsharing program, led highway legal electric car registrations in France in 2012.[33]

All-electric car sales in the French market for 2011 were led by the Citroën C-Zero with 645 units followed by the Peugeot iOn with 639 vehicles, and the Bolloré Bluecar with 399 units.[31] During 2012, all-electric car registrations in France were led by the Bluecar with 1,543 units, the C-Zero with 1,409, and the iOn with 1,335, together representing 76% of all electric car sales that year.[33] The Renault Kangoo Z.E. was the top selling utility electric vehicle with 2,869 units registered in 2012, capturing 82% of the segment sales.[34][35] The Renault Twizy electric quadricycle, launched in March 2012, sold 2,232 units during 2012, surpassing the Bolloré Bluecar, the top selling highway-capable electric car, and ranked as the second best selling plug-in electric vehicle after the Kangoo Z.E.[36]

2.2. 2013

Registrations reached 8,779 electric cars in 2013, up 55.0% from 2012,[37] and the all-electric market share of total new car sales went up to 0.49% from 0.3% in 2012.[24][25] In addition, 5,175 electric utility vans were registered in 2013, up 42% from 2012,[37] and representing a market share of 1.4% of all new light commercial vehicles sold in 2013.[25] Sales of electric passenger cars and utility vans totaled 13,954 units in 2013,[37] capturing a combined market share of 0.65% of these two segments new car sales.[38] When accounting together sales of pure electric cars and light utility vehicles, France was the leading European all-electric market in 2012 and 2013.[35][37][38]

A total of 666 plug-in hybrids were registered during 2012. The segment sales were led by the Toyota Prius PHV, with 413 registrations, followed by the Opel Ampera with 190.[39] During 2013 a total of 800 plug-in hybrids were sold, up 20% from 2012, with the Prius PHEV continuing as the segment leader with 393 units, followed by the Volvo V60 PHEV with 241 units and the Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid with 90 units.[40] When plug-in hybrids sales in 2013 are accounted for, a total of 14,762 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in France in 2013,[37][40] making the country to rank second in the plug-in European market after the Netherlands, which sold 28,673 plug-in electric vehicles in 2013.[38]

During 2013, registrations of pure electric cars were led by the Renault Zoe with 5,511 units representing 62.8% of total electric car sales, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 1,438 units.[37] Registrations of all-electric light utility vehicles were led by the Renault Kangoo Z.E. with 4,174 units, representing 80.7% of the segment sales.[37] During 2013 several electric cars from major manufacturers were launched in France. Tesla Model S deliveries to retail customers began in September 2013,[41] the BMW i3 was launched in October, and the Volkswagen e-Up! in November.[18]

2.3. 2014

A total of 15,045 all-electric cars and vans were registered in 2014, up 7.8% from 2013. With 10,560 cars registered in 2014, up 20.3% from the previous year, sales of all-electric vehicles passed the 10,000 unit milestone for the first time.[42] This figure rises to 10,968 units if the BMW i3 with range extender is accounted for.[43] All-electric utility vans continued to be a significant share of the all-electric segment, with 4,485 units registered in 2014, but down 13.3% from 2013.[42] All-electric cars captured a 0.59% market share of the 1.7 million new car registered in France in 2014,[18] while pure electric utility vans reached a 1.22% market share of their segment. Combined both segments represented a market share of 0.70% of new registrations in the country in 2014.[44]

Light-duty all-electric vehicle sales achieved its best monthly volume on record ever in December 2014, with 2,227 units registered, twice the volume registered the same month in 2013.[42] The slow down in sales that took place in the French EV market during the first half of 2014, allowed Norway, with 18,649 new all-electric vehicles registered, to end 2014 as the top selling European market in the all-electric segment, with France ranking second.[45][46]

Between 2012 and 2014, cumulative plug-in hybrid registrations reached 2,985 units, rising cumulative French registrations of plug-in electric vehicles since 2005 to 46,590 units,[39][40][46][47] just ahead of the Netherlands (45,020),[48] and making France the European country where there were more plug-in electric vehicles on the road (As of December 2014).[46]

The Renault Kangoo Z.E. is the country's all-time top selling all-electric utility vehicle with over 21,000 units sold through February 2019 [49]. https://handwiki.org/wiki/index.php?curid=1919767

The Zoe continued leading plug-in electric vehicle registrations in 2014, with 5,970 units registered, followed by the Kangoo Z.E. van with 2,657 registrations, and the Nissan Leaf ranked next with 1,600 units.[18][50] Plug-in hybrid car registrations totaled 1,527 units in 2014, almost doubling registrations from a year earlier.[19] Plug-in hybrid sales were driven by the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, with 820 units registered in 2014, representing 54% of the segment registrations in France that year.[51]

2.4. 2015

A total of 22,695 light-duty all-electric vehicles were sold in 2015. Sales during this period consisted of 17,779 all-electric cars, up 62.1% from 2014, and 4,916 all-electric utility vehicles, up 9.6% from 2014.[52][53] All-electric cars captured a 0.9% market share of new car sales in 2015, and electric utility vans a 1.30%.[20][44] Combining sales of the two segments, the market share of battery electric vehicles rises to 1.2%.[20]

Sales of plug-in hybrids surged in 2015, with 5,006 plug-in hybrids registered in France, up 228% from 2014.[19] The market share of the plug-in hybrid segment reached a market share of 0.26% of the 1.94 million new car registered in 2015.[18][19] Light-duty plug-in registrations totaled 27,701 units in 2015.[19][52][53] Plug-in passenger cars achieved a market share of 1.17% of total new car registrations in 2015.[18][19][20]

All-electric car registrations in 2015 continued to be led by the Renault Zoe, with 10,406 units, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 2,220 and the Bolloré Bluecar with 1,166 units.[18] The all-electric utility van segment was led by the Kangoo Z.E. with 2,836 units sold, up 6.7% from 2014.[53] The plug-in hybrid segment was led by the Volkswagen Golf GTE with 1,687 units, followed by the Audi A3 e-tron with 1,123, and the Mitsubishi Ourlander P-HEV with 907.[19]

2.5. 2016

The Volkswagen Golf GTE is the all-time top selling plug-in hybrid in France with about 2,500 units registered through September 2016 [21]. https://handwiki.org/wiki/index.php?curid=1591651

A total of 33,774 light-duty electric vehicles were registered in France in 2016, making the country the third largest in Europe in 2016 after Norway and the UK.[54] France was the top selling European market in the light-duty all-electric segment with 27,307 units registered, up 23% from 2015.[55] Total registrations in 2016 consisted of 21,751 all-electric cars, 5,556 electric utility vans and 6,467 plug-in hybrid cars. The plug-in car segment achieved a market share of 1.40% of new car registrations in the country in 2016.[26] The Renault Zoe, with 11,404 units registered in 2016, ranked as the top selling pure electric car for the fourth year on a row, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 3,887 units, and the BMW i3 with 1,347 (both variants). The top selling plug-in hybrids were the Volkswagen Golf GTE with about 1,060 units, followed by the Volvo XC90 with 742 units, and the Audi A3 e-tron with 659. The Renault Kangoo ZE again ranked as the top selling utility van with 2,389 units registered.[26]

2.6. 2017

A total of 41,724 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were registered in France in 2017 consisting of 24,910 all-electric cars, 6,011 electric utility vans and 10,803 plug-in hybrid cars.[27] The plug-in car segment achieved a market share of 1.98% of new car registrations in the country in 2017, with pure electric cars representing 1.47% and plug-in hybrids 0.51% of total registrations.[27] The all-electric Renault Zoe for the fifth year running, continued as the top selling plug-in electric car with 15,245 units registered in 2017.[18][27] The Renault Kangoo Z.E. ranked one more time as the top selling electric van with 2,546 units registered in 2017. The Mercedes Benz GLC, launched in the second semester of 2016, topped plug-in hybrid registrations with 2,112 units in 2017.[27]

(As of December 2017), the Renault Zoe is the all-time best-selling plug-in electric vehicle in the French market with 48,582 units registered since 2012.[18][27] Ranking second was the Kangoo Z.E. utility van with 15,032 units registered through September 2016.[34][37][44][56][57][58] (As of September 2016), the Nissan Leaf ranked third with 8,979 units, followed by the Bolloré Bluecar with 5,689 units.[18] Most units of the Bluecar are in operation for the Autolib' car sharing service in Paris, and similar schemes in Lyon and Bordeaux.[59]

2.7. 2018-2020

The Renault Zoe has led electric car sales in France since 2013, and is the country's all-time best selling plug-in with more than 100,000 units registered through June 2020 [60]. https://handwiki.org/wiki/index.php?curid=1647792

(As of February 2020), there were 305,061 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles on Frech roads, consisting of 240,032 all-electric passenger cars and utility vans, and 65,029 plug-in hybrids.[61] Despite the global strong decline in car sales brought by the COVID-19 pandemic, plug-in electric car sales in France during the first six months of 2020 achieved a record sales volume of 65,267 units, and a record market share of 9.1%.[17]

Plug-in electric car registrations have been led by the Renault Zoe for seven years running, from 2013 to 2019, with sales through June 2020 totaling 102,087 units since its inception in 2012.[62] The Renault Kangoo Z.E. is the all-time electric utility van with over 21,000 units sold through February 2019.[49]

3. Top Selling All-electric Models by Year

The following table presents registrations of light-duty highway-capable all-electric vehicles by type (all electric cars and vans, and plug-in hybrids) with detailed all-electric car registrations by model between 2010 and December 2015.


Registration of highway-capable all-electric vehicles by model
and total registrations by light-duty vehicle type in France
between January 2010 and December 2015[18]
Model Total
2010-2015
Market
share(1)
2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010
Renault Zoe 21,935 48.7% 10,406 5,970 5,511 48    
Nissan Leaf 5,865 13.0% 2,220 1,600 1,438 524 83  
Bolloré Bluecar 4,936 11.0% 1,166 1,170 658 1,543 399  
Peugeot iOn 3,144 7.0% 725 163 178 1,409 639 30
Citroën C-Zero 2,638 5.9% 397 154 80 1,335 645 27
Smart electric drive 1,475 3.3% 336 509 478 66 52 34
Tesla Model S[18][63] 1,071 2.4% 708 328 35      
Mia electric 843 1.9% 0 9 201 384 249  
Renault Fluence Z.E. 727 1.6% 0 5 18 295 396 13
Kia Soul EV 548 1.2% 485 63        
BMW i3(2) 540 1.2% 279 193 68      
Volkswagen e-Up! 495 1.1% 166 265 64      
Volkswagen e-Golf 214 0.5% 125 89        
Mitsubishi i MiEV 165 0.4% 53   38 24 42 8
Th!nk City 121 0.3%         110 11
Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive 108 0.2% 93 15        
Nissan e-NV200 passenger van 88 0.2% 76 12        
Mini E 50 0.1%           50
Tesla Roadster 31 0.1%     1 10 9 11
Volkswagen Golf blue-e-motion 15 0.03%       15    
Ford Focus Electric 13 0.03% 1 8 4      
BMW ActiveE 10 0.02%       10    
Volvo C30 Electric 6 0.01%         6  
Lumeneo Neoma 3 0.007%     3      
BYD e6 2 0.004% 2          
Total registrations electric cars[18][52] 45,595 68.8% 17,779 10,560 8,779 5,663 2,630 184
Renault Kangoo Z.E.[34][37][50][53][57] 13,319 64.3% 2,836 2,657 4,174 2,869 768 15
Nissan e-NV200 cargo van[53] 585 2.8% 343 242        
Total registrations utility vans[42][53][64][65] 20,705 31.2% 4,916 4,485 5,175 3,651 1,682 796
Total registrations
all-electric cars and vans
66,300 100% 22,695 15,045 13,954 9,314 4,312 980
                 
Total registrations plug-in hybrids[19][39][40] 7,999 10.8% 5,006 1,527 800 666    
Total registrations
plug-in electric cars and vans
74,299 100% 27,701 16,572 14,754 9,980 4,312 980
Note: (1) By model, is the market share as percentage of the 45,041 electric cars(2) and 20,705 vans registered between
2010 and 2015, and by type, the share of each type of vehicle (car or van) as percentage of the 66,300 electric
vehicles registered between 2010 and 2015.[18][42][52][53][64][65] (2) BMW i3 figures exclude units with REx option.

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  10. Association Nationale pour le Développement de la Mobilité Électrique- AVERE France (2016-01-04). "Superbonus & prime à la conversion : mode d'emploi" (in French). AVERE. http://www.avere-france.org/Site/Article/?article_id=6110&from_espace_adherent=0. Retrieved 2016-10-08. 
  11. Schwoerer, Philippe (2016-10-06). "Les aides pour les 2, 3 et 4 roues électriques en 2017 annoncées par Ségolène Royal" (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). http://www.avem.fr/actualite-les-aides-pour-les-2-3-et-4-roues-electriques-en-2017-annoncees-par-segolene-royal-6223.html. Retrieved 2016-10-08. 
  12. Leurent, Tiphaine (2016-09-29). "Projet de loi de finances 2017 : décryptage" (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). http://www.avem.fr/actualite-projet-de-loi-de-finances-2017-decryptage-6212.html. Retrieved 2016-10-08. 
  13. Rochain 18.12.2019 (2019-12-18). "Voitures électriques: le bonus écologique revu à la baisse à partir de 2021" (in fr-FR). https://www.lemondedelenergie.com/voitures-electriques-bonus-2021/2019/12/18/. 
  14. Agence France-Presse (AFP) (2013-09-19). "Comment la France subventionne des voitures en Norvège" (in French). Challenges (France). http://www.challenges.fr/economie/20130919.CHA4550/la-france-subventionne-des-voitures-electriques-qui-roulent-en-norvege.html. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  15. Maxime Amiot (2013-09-20). "Quand l'Etat français subventionne les voitures électriques en Norvège" (in French). Les Échos (France). http://www.lesechos.fr/entreprises-secteurs/auto-transport/actu/0203016269296-quand-l-etat-francais-subventionne-les-voitures-electriques-en-norvege-607341.php. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  16. France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2021-10-06). "En septembre 2021, les véhicules électriques et hybrides rechargeables ont représenté près de 18 % du marché français" (in French). AVERE France. http://www.avere-france.org/Site/Article/?article_id=8035&from_espace_adherent=0.  See infograh "Barometre mensuel de la mobilité électrique Chiffres clés du mois de septembre 2021 - Evolution du Parc Roulant Automobiles Depuis Janvier 2010" - As of September 2021, a total of 687,876 plug-in electric passenger cars and vans have been registered in France, consisting of 453,143 all-electric cars and vans, and 234,733 plug-in hybrids in circulation.
  17. France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2020-07-08). "Baromètre mensuel : un mois de juin 2020 record pour les immatriculations de véhicules électriques et hybrides rechargeables" (in French). AVERE France. http://www.avere-france.org/Site/Article/?article_id=7877&from_espace_adherent=0. Retrieved 2020-07-19.  See infograh "Parc Roulant et Immatriculations Annuelles depuis Janvier 2010" - As of June 2020, there were 344,725 plug-in electric cars and utility vans, consisting of 267,120 all-electric cars and vans, and 77,605 plug-in hybrids registered since 2010.
  18. Automobile Propre (October 2016). "Chiffres de vente & immatriculations de voitures électriques en France" (in French). Automobile Propre. http://www.automobile-propre.com/dossiers/voitures-electriques/chiffres-vente-immatriculations-france/. Retrieved 2016-10-09.  See "Ventes de voitures électriques en 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011 and 2010" It shows all electric car registrations between 2010 and 2016.
  19. France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2016-01-08). "Immatriculations des hybrides rechargeables : La barre des 5.000 est franchie !" (in French). AVERE. http://www.avem.fr/actualite-immatriculations-des-hybrides-rechargeables-la-barre-des-5-000-est-franchie-5924.html. Retrieved 2016-07-03.  A total of 5,006 plug-in hybrids were registered in France in 2015, up from 1,527 in 2014.
  20. Cobb, Jeff (2016-01-18). "Top Six Plug-in Vehicle Adopting Countries – 2015". HybridCars.com. http://www.hybridcars.com/top-six-plug-in-vehicle-adopting-countries-2015/. Retrieved 2016-02-12.  About 520,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were sold worldwide in 2014, with cumulative global sales reaching 1,235,000. The United States is the leading market with 411,120 units sold since 2008, followed by China with 258,328 units sold since 2011.
  21. Cobb, Jeff (2016-10-10). "France Becomes Fifth Nation To Buy 100,000 Plug-in Vehicles". HybridCars.com. http://www.hybridcars.com/france-becomes-fifth-nation-to-buy-100000-plug-in-vehicles/. Retrieved 2016-10-10. 
  22. Foucaud, Isabelle (2016-10-01). "Plus de 100.000 véhicules électriques circulent aujourd'hui en France" (in French). Le Figaro. http://www.lefigaro.fr/societes/2016/10/01/20005-20161001ARTFIG00105-plus-de-100000-vehicules-electriques-circulent-aujourd-hui-en-france.php. Retrieved 2016-10-10.  Environment Minister, Ségolène Royal, said there are more than 100,000 electric vehicles currently on the road in France.
  23. France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2021-03-04). "Baromètre, février 2021 - Les immatriculations d'électriques et d'hybrides rechargeables se maintiennent" (in French). AVERE France. http://www.avere-france.org/Site/Article/?article_id=7972&from_espace_adherent=0. Retrieved 2021-03-04.  See infograh "Parc Roulant et Immatriculations Annuelles depuis Janvier 2010" - As of February 2021, a total of 504,354 plug-in electric passenger cars and commercial vans were registered in France, consisting of 354,729 all-electric cars and vans, and 149,625 plug-in hybrids in circulation.
  24. Yoann Nussbaumer (2013-01-16). "+115% pour les ventes de voitures électriques en France pour 2012" (in French). Automobile Propre. http://www.automobile-propre.com/215-pour-les-ventes-de-voitures-electriques-en-france-pour-2012/. Retrieved 2015-02-03. 
  25. Mark Kane (2014-01-15). "Sales of Battery Electric Cars In France Rose By 50% in 2013". InsideEVs.com. http://insideevs.com/sales-of-battery-electric-cars-in-france-rose-by-50-in-2013-year-on-year/. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  26. France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2017-01-09). "Plus de 27 000 véhicules électriques immatriculés en 2016, après un mois de décembre record" (in French). AVERE. http://www.avere-france.org/Site/Article/?article_id=6826&from_espace_adherent=0. Retrieved 2017-01-09.  A total of 33,774 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were registered in France in 2016 consisting of 27,751 all-electric cars, 5,556 electric utility vans and 6,467 plug-in hybrid cars. The plug-in car segment achieved a market share of 1.40% of new car registrations in the country in 2016.
  27. France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2018-01-09). "Près de 31 000 véhicules électriques immatriculés en France en 2017 !" (in French). AVERE. http://www.avere-france.org/Site/Article/?article_id=7188&from_espace_adherent=0. Retrieved 2018-01-17.  A total of 41,724 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were registered in France in 2017 consisting of 24,910 all-electric cars, 6,011 electric utility vans and 10,803 plug-in hybrid cars. The plug-in car segment achieved a market share of 1.98% of new car registrations in the country in 2017.
  28. Jose, Pontes (2020-07-14). "France June 2020". EVSales.com. http://ev-sales.blogspot.com/2020/07/renault-zoe-shines-in-record-month-dog.html. Retrieved 2020-07-19. 
  29. Segal, Peter (2020-05-28). "France's new $13,000 EV incentive is the most generous in Europe". Automotive News Europe. https://europe.autonews.com/automakers/frances-new-13000-ev-incentive-most-generous-europe. Retrieved 2020-07-19. 
  30. Fergusson, Malcolm (October 2016). "Electric Vehicles in Europe - 2016: Approaching adolescence". Transport & Environment. https://www.transportenvironment.org/sites/te/files/publications/TE%20EV%20Report%202016%20FINAL.pdf. Retrieved 2016-10-13.  See pp. 15-16.
  31. Laurent Meillaud (2012-01-14). "2630 voitures électriques immatriculées en 2011" (in French). MSN France. http://www.autodeclics.com/voiture_bio/38315-le_marche_s_est_accelere_en_fin_d_annee.html. Retrieved 2015-02-03. 
  32. International Energy Agency, Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (April 2013). "Global EV Outlook 2013 - Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020". International Energy Agency. http://www.iea.org/publications/globalevoutlook_2013.pdf. Retrieved 2013-04-20.  See pp. 4, 6-8, and 11-12.
  33. Michaël Torregrossa (2013-01-09). "Voitures électriques – Le bilan des immatriculations 2012 en France" (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). http://www.avem.fr/actualite-voitures-electriques-le-bilan-des-immatriculations-2012-en-france-3770.html. Retrieved 2013-02-16. 
  34. Joseph Beretta (2013-01-09). "Les ventes de voitures électriques et hybrides décollent enfin" (in French). Économie matin. http://www.economiematin.fr/news-ventes-voitures-electriques-hybrides-2012. Retrieved 2015-02-04.  A total of 2,869 Kangoo Z.E. electric vans were registered in France in 2012.
  35. "2012, une année record pour les véhicules électriques" (in French). Atlante & Cie. 2013-02-07. http://www.atlante.fr/2012-une-annee-record-pour-les-vehicules-electriques-en-france/. Retrieved 2015-02-04. 
  36. Renault (2013-01-18). "Ventes Mensuelles" (in French). Renault.com. http://www.renault.com/fr/finance/chiffres-cles/pages/ventes-mensuelles.aspx. Retrieved 2013-01-18.  Click on "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2012) (xls, 294 Ko)" to download the file, and open the tab TWIZY.
  37. AVERE-France (2014-01-08). "Baromètre Avere-France des ventes de véhicules électriques et hybrides - bilan 2013" (in French). France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France. http://www.avere-france.org/Site/Article/?article_id=5211&from_espace_adherent=0. Retrieved 2014-01-14. 
  38. Jeff Cobb (2014-01-16). "Top 6 Plug-In Vehicle Adopting Countries". HybridCars.com. http://www.hybridcars.com/top-6-plug-in-car-adopting-countries/. Retrieved 2014-01-18. "Over 172,000 highway-capable passenger vehicles have been sold in the U.S. between 2008 and December 2013." 
  39. Michaël Torregrossa (2013-01-15). "Voitures hybrides – Le bilan des immatriculations 2012 en France" (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). http://www.avem.fr/actualite-voitures-hybrides-le-bilan-des-immatriculations-2012-en-france-3789.html. Retrieved 2013-01-15. 
  40. Michaël Torregrossa (2014-01-19). "Hybride rechargeable – Le marché français stagne en 2013" (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). http://www.avem.fr/actualite-hybride-rechargeable-le-marche-francais-stagne-en-2013-4713.html. Retrieved 2014-01-19. 
  41. Michaël Torregrossa (2013-09-28). "Tesla– Premières livraisons françaises pour le Model S" (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). http://www.avem.fr/actualite-tesla-premieres-livraisons-francaises-pour-le-model-s-4433.html. Retrieved 2013-10-12. 
  42. AVERE-France (2015-01-05). "Le marché du véhicule électrique maintient sa progression en 2014" (in French). AVERE France. http://www.avere-france.org/Site/Article/?article_id=5954. Retrieved 2015-02-02.  A total of 10,560 electric cars were registered in 2014, up from 8,779 in 2013. A total of 4,485 all-electric utility vehicles were registered in 2014, down from 5,175 in 2013.
  43. Philippe Schwoerer (2015-01-09). "Quel marché espérer en 2015 pour le véhicule électrique ?" (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). http://www.avem.fr/actualite-quel-marche-esperer-en-2015-pour-le-vehicule-electrique-5498.html. Retrieved 2015-02-01.  The BMW i3 with range extender is often excluded of the count of all-electric cars because in France it is classified and accounted together with conventional hybrids.
  44. Automobile Propre (August 2016). "Chiffres de vente & immatriculations d'utilitaires électriques en France" (in French). Automobile Propre. http://www.automobile-propre.com/dossiers/utilitaires-electriques/ventes-utilitaires-electriques-france/. Retrieved 2016-10-02.  See "Ventes d’utilitaires électriques en 2016/2015/2014 for all-electric utility van registrations. Light-duty electric vehicles reached a 1.22% market share of new van sales in the country in 2014, and rose to 1.30% in 2015.
  45. Zachary Shahan (2014-08-07). "Europe Electric Car Sales Up 77% In 2014". EV Obsesion. http://evobsession.com/europe-electric-car-sales-77-2014/. Retrieved 2014-08-26. 
  46. France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2015-01-30). "Immatriculations de véhicules électriques en Europe : +60% en 2014 !" (in French). AVERE. http://www.avere-france.org/Site/Article/?article_id=5985&from_espace_adherent=0. Retrieved 2015-02-02. 
  47. AVERE-France (2015-01-08). "Hybride : un marché en recul en 2014, l'hybride essence tient le coup" (in French). France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France. http://www.avere-france.org/Site/Article/?article_id=5961&from_espace_adherent=0. Retrieved 2015-02-02.  A total of 1,519 plug-in hybrids were registered in France in 2014.
  48. Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (January 2015). "Cijfers elektrisch vervoer - Aantal geregistreerde elektrische voertuigen in Nederland - Top 5 geregistreerde modellen plug-in hybride elektrische voertuigen (31-12-2014) - Top 6 geregistreerde modellen volledig elektrische voertuigen (31-12-2014)" (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). http://www.rvo.nl/onderwerpen/duurzaam-ondernemen/energie-en-milieu-innovaties/elektrisch-rijden/stand-van-zaken/cijfers. Retrieved 2015-01-27.  See under the heading "31-12-2014" for total registrations figures at the end of December 2014.
  49. Laurent, Alexandre (2019-02-26). "100,000: Electric Vehicles: Renault Races Ahead in France". Groupe Renault. https://easyelectriclife.groupe.renault.com/en/outlook/markets/electric-vehicles-renault-races-ahead-in-france/. Retrieved 2020-07-21. 
  50. Automobile Propre. "Chiffres de vente & immatriculations d'utilitaires électriques en France" (in French). Automobile Propre. http://www.automobile-propre.com/dossiers/utilitaires-electriques/ventes-utilitaires-electriques-france/. Retrieved 2016-07-04.  See "Ventes d’utilitaires électriques en 2016/2015/2014/2013 for all-electric utility van registrations. Light-duty electric vehicles reached a 1.22% market share of new van sales in the country in 2014, and rose to 1.30% in 2015.
  51. Philippe Schwoerer (2015-01-16). "Mitsubishi mise et gagne sur l'hybride rechargeable" (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). http://www.avem.fr/actualite-mitsubishi-mise-et-gagne-sur-l-hybride-rechargeable-5508.html. Retrieved 2015-02-02. 
  52. France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2016-01-07). "Immatriculations des voitures électriques : + 62,1% en 2015" (in French). AVERE. http://www.avem.fr/actualite-immatriculations-des-voitures-electriques-62-1-en-2015-5923.html. Retrieved 2016-05-14.  A total of 17,779 all-electric cars were registered in France in 2015. This figure accounts of 822 BMW i3s, including the model with a range extender.
  53. France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2016-01-12). "Immatriculations des utilitaires électriques : + 9,6% en 2015" (in French). AVERE. http://www.avem.fr/actualite-immatriculations-des-utilitaires-electriques-9-6-en-2015-5927.html. Retrieved 2016-05-14.  A total of 4,916 all-electric utility vans were registered in France in 2015.
  54. Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-17). "Top 10 Plug-in Vehicle Adopting Countries of 2016". HybridCars.com. http://www.hybridcars.com/top-10-plug-in-vehicle-adopting-countries-of-2016/. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  55. France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2017-01-30). "La France s'impose comme le leader des ventes de véhicules 100% électriques en Europe en 2016" (in French). AVERE. http://www.avere-france.org/Site/Article/?article_id=6847&from_espace_adherent=0. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  56. Association Nationale pour le Développement de la Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2016-10-07). "Le marché du véhicule électrique dépasse les 20 000 immatriculations pour l'année 2016 !" (in French). AVERE. http://www.avere-france.org/Site/Article/?article_id=6720&from_espace_adherent=0. Retrieved 2016-10-09.  During the first nine months of 2016 a total of 16,091 all-electric cars, 3,991 electric vans, and 4,858 plug-in hybrids were registered in France. During September 2016 a total of 80 range-extended vehicles (BMW i3 REx) were registered.
  57. Justin Aschard (2012-11-30). "Inmatriculations VP et VUL France à fin Oct. 2012 (2010-2012)" (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Archived from the original on October 20, 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20131020041435/http://www.france-mobilite-electrique.org/IMG/pdf/12_FRANCE.pdf. Retrieved 2012-12-13.  14 Kangoo ZEs were registered in 2010 and 768 in 2011.
  58. Association Nationale pour le Développement de la Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2016-09-05). "Le marché du véhicule électrique rebondit en août 2016" (in French). AVERE. http://www.avere-france.org/Site/Article/?article_id=6679&from_espace_adherent=0. Retrieved 2016-10-02. 
  59. Michaël Torregrossa (2013-10-19). "Paris – Autolib' passe le seuil des 3 millions de locations" (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). http://www.avem.fr/actualite-paris-autolib-passe-le-seuil-des-3-millions-de-locations-4493.html. Retrieved 2013-10-21. 
  60. Kane, Mark (2020-07-03). "Renault EV Sales In France Is Booming: 17,650 ZOE Sold In H1 2020". InsideEVs.com. https://insideevs.com/news/432216/renault-ev-sales-france-zoe-h1-2020/. Retrieved 2020-07-20. 
  61. France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2020-03-06). "Baromètre mensuel : la France passe le cap des 300 000 véhicules électrifiés en circulation !" (in French). AVERE. http://www.avere-france.org/Site/Article/?article_id=7798&from_espace_adherent=0. Retrieved 2020-05-12. 
  62. Automobile Propre (2020-07-12). "Chiffres de vente & immatriculations de voitures électriques en France" (in French). Automobile Propre. https://www.automobile-propre.com/dossiers/chiffres-vente-immatriculations-france/. Retrieved 2020-07-21.  See "Ventes de voitures électriques en 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011 and 2010" It shows all electric car registrations between 2010 and June 2020.
  63. Michaël Torregrossa (2014-01-15). "Tesla Model S - Plus de 22.000 ventes dans le monde en 2013" (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). http://www.avem.fr/actualite-tesla-model-s-plus-de-22-000-ventes-dans-le-monde-en-2013-4703.html. Retrieved 2014-01-18.  A total of 35 Model S cars were registered in France in 2013.
  64. Justin Aschard (2012-11-07). "Novembre 2012 - Ventes de véhicules électriques (CCFA)" (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Archived from the original on October 14, 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20131014064601/http://www.france-mobilite-electrique.org/novembre-2012,4064.html?lang=fr. Retrieved 2013-02-16. See table Bilan annuel des ventes de véhicules électriques (Annual sales of electric vehicles) for detailed sales by category during 2010 and 2011: a total of 184 electric cars and 796 electric utility vans were registered in 2010, and 2,630 electric cars and 1,682 all-electric utility vehicles were registered in 2011.
  65. France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2013-01-07). "Bilan des Immatriculations pour l'Année 2012" (in French). AVERE. Archived from the original on October 20, 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20131020041437/http://www.france-mobilite-electrique.org/bilan-des-immatriculations-pour-l-annee-2012,4147.html?lang=fr. Retrieved 2013-02-16.  A total of 5,663 electric cars and 3,651 electric vans were registered in France in 2012.
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