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HandWiki. Outline of Green Politics. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 19 April 2024).
HandWiki. Outline of Green Politics. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed April 19, 2024.
HandWiki. "Outline of Green Politics" Encyclopedia, (accessed April 19, 2024).
HandWiki. (2022, November 28). Outline of Green Politics. In Encyclopedia.
HandWiki. "Outline of Green Politics." Encyclopedia. Web. 28 November, 2022.
Outline of Green Politics

The following outline is provided as an overview and topical guide to green politics, a political ideology that aims for the creation of an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, social liberalism, and grassroots democracy. It began taking shape in the western world in the 1970s; since then Green parties have developed and established themselves in many countries across the globe, and have achieved some electoral success.

political ideology sustainable society environmentalism

1. Nature of Green Politics

Green politics can be described as:

  • activism
  • an ideology
    • a political ideology
  • a social movement
    • a political movement
      • part of the environmental movement

1.1. Essence of Green Politics

  • Green party
  • Green state

1.2. Contributing Philosophies

  • Agrarianism
  • Environmentalism
  • Localism
  • Social liberalism

1.3. Overlapping Movements

Green politics shares many ideas with the following movements:

  • Animal rights movement
  • Anti-globalization movement
  • Alter-globalization movement
  • Climate movement
  • Conservation movement
  • Environmental movement
  • Feminist movement
  • Local food movement
  • Peace movement

2. Green Schools of Thought

2.1. Bright Green Environmentalism

  • Car-free movement
  • Climate movement
  • Conservation movement
  • Eco-modernism
    • Ecological modernization
    • Prometheanism
    • Technogaianism
  • Positive environmentalism

2.2. Deep Green Environmentalism

  • Anti-consumerism
    • Degrowth movement
  • Anti-globalization movement
    • Alter-globalization movement
    • Global justice movement
  • Anti-nuclear movement
  • Bioregionalism
  • Ecoauthoritarianism
  • Ecocentrism
  • Eco-fascism
  • Green anarchism
    • Anarcho-naturism
    • Anarcho-primitivism
      • Rewilding
    • Communalism
      • Eco-communalism
        • Back-to-the-land movement
      • Democratic confederalism
      • Green municipalism
      • Libertarian municipalism
      • Social ecology
    • Inclusive democracy
  • Neo-Luddism
  • Radical environmentalism
    • Animal rights movement
    • Deep Green Resistance
    • Earth liberation movement

2.3. Light Green Environmentalism

  • Free-market environmentalism
    • Eco-capitalism
      • Sustainable capitalism
    • Georgism
      • Geolibertarianism
    • Green libertarianism
  • Green conservatism
    • Fiscal environmentalism
  • Green liberalism

2.4. Other

  • Eco-feminism
  • Eco-nationalism
    • Green Zionism
  • Green left
    • Eco-socialism
  • Localism
  • Queer ecology
  • Green syndicalism

2.5. Opposition

  • Anti-environmentalism

2.6. Religious Variants

  • Christian environmentalism
    • Eco-theology
    • Evangelical environmentalism
  • Islamic environmentalism
  • Jewish environmentalism
  • Maori environmentalism
  • Spiritual ecology

3. Values and Principles

  • Four pillars of the Green Party
    • Ecological wisdom
    • Grassroots democracy
    • Nonviolence
      • Pacifism
      • Peace movement
    • Social justice
      • Human rights
        • Civil liberties
      • Social equality
        • Economic egalitarianism
          • Equal opportunity
      • Solidarity
  • Global Greens Charter

3.1. Democracy

  • Consensus democracy
  • Deliberative democracy
  • Direct democracy
  • Participatory democracy
  • Grassroots democracy
  • Bioregional democracy
  • Inclusive Democracy

3.2. Environment

  • Ecotheology
  • Environmentalism
  • Green building
  • Green technology
  • Human ecology
  • Political ecology
  • Social ecology
  • Sustainable development

3.3. Feminism

  • Ecofeminism
  • Feminist economics

3.4. Green Economics

  • Eco-capitalism
  • Ecological economics
  • Eco-socialism
  • Ecotax
  • Feminist economics
  • Free-market environmentalism
  • Georgism
  • Geolibertarianism

4. Policy Issues

A few issues affect most of the green parties around the world, and can often inhibit global cooperation. Some affect structure, and others affect policy:

  • Anti-nuclear
  • Bioregionalism
  • Biosafety
  • Biosecurity
  • Electoral reform
  • Fundamentalism vs. Realism
  • Green transport hierarchy
  • Greenwashing
  • Indigenous peoples
  • Land reform
  • Natural capitalism
  • Primate extinction
  • Prometheanism
  • Rainforest destruction
  • Safe trade
  • Sustainable transport

On matters of ecology, extinction, biosafety, biosecurity, safe trade and health security, "Greens" generally agree. There are very substantial policy differences between and among Green Parties in various countries and cultures, and a continuing debate about the degree to which natural ecology and human needs align. Agreement on particular issues is often reached using a consensus decision making process.

5. Organizations

5.1. Worldwide

  • Friends of the Earth (environmentalism)
  • Greenpeace – an environmentalist non-governmental organization
  • Global Greens (green politics)
  • World Ecological Parties (bright green environmentalism)

5.2. Green Federations

The member parties of the Global Greens (see for details) are organised into four continental federations:

  • Federation of Green Parties of Africa
  • Federation of the Green Parties of the Americas / Federación de los Partidos Verdes de las Américas
  • Asia-Pacific Green Network
  • European Federation of Green Parties

The European Federation of Green Parties formed itself as the European Green Party on 22 February 2004, in the run-up to European Parliament elections in June, 2004, a further step in trans-national integration.

5.3. Europe

  • European Green Party
  • European Federation of Green Parties/European Free Alliance (faction in the European Parliament)
  • European United Left–Nordic Green Left – socialist faction in the European Parliament

Green Parties in Europe

  • Austrian Green Party (Austria)
  • Green Party of Armenia (Armenia)
  • Groen! (Belgium)
  • Ecolo (Belgium)
  • Green Party (Czech Republic)
  • Estonian Greens
  • Vihreä Liitto (Finland)
  • Les Verts (France)
  • Alliance '90/The Greens (Germany)
  • Green Party faction (Bundestag) (Germany)
  • Left-Green Movement (Iceland)
  • Green Party (Ireland)
  • Federation of the Greens (Italy)
  • Latvian Green Party (Latvia)
  • Free List (Liechtenstein)
  • Environment Party The Greens (Norway)
  • The Greens (Poland)
  • The Greens (Portugal)
  • Partido da Terra (Galiza)
  • Partido da Terra (Portugal)
  • Miljöpartiet de Gröna (Sweden)
  • Green Party of Switzerland
  • Green Liberal Party of Switzerland
  • GroenLinks (The Netherlands)
  • The Greens (Netherlands) (The Netherlands)
  • Party of Greens of Ukraine (Ukraine)
  • United Kingdom
  • Green Party in Northern Ireland (Northern Ireland)
  • Green Party of England and Wales (England and Wales)
  • Scottish Greens (Scotland)
  • Initiative for Catalonia Greens (Spain, only in Catalonia)

5.4. Africa and Asia

  • Ha-Yerukim (Israel)
  • Green Party of Pakistan
  • ECOPEACE Party (South Africa)
  • Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
  • Mazingira Green Party of Kenya
  • Rainbow and Greens (Japan)
  • Green Party of Malaysia
  • Green Party Taiwan

5.5. Americas

  • Federation of Green Parties of the Americas

Green Parties in the Americas

  • Green Ecological Party of Mexico (Mexico)
  • Green Party of Canada (Canada)
    • Green Party of British Columbia (Canada)
    • Green Party of Ontario (Canada)
    • List of Green party leaders in Canada
    • List of Green politicians who have held office in Canada
  • Green Party (United States) (USA)
    • Green Committees of Correspondence
    • Greens/Green Party USA
    • Boston Proposal
    • Green Party Central Option (Colombia)

5.6. Oceania

  • Australian Greens Party (Australia)
  • United Tasmania Party (Australia)
  • Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand (New Zealand)
  • Values Party (New Zealand, historical)
  • Wild Greens (New Zealand Green Party youth movement)

5.7. Regional Variants


  • South Africa


  • United States


  • Bangladesh
  • China
  • India
  • Israel
  • South Korea
  • Taiwan
  • Pan-Green Coalition – politics of Taiwan


  • Switzerland


  • Australia
  • New Zealand

6. Alliances

  • Red-green alliance

7. Notable Persons

  • Adolfo Aguilar Zínser (Mexico; Green Senate 1997-2000)
  • Lord Beaumont of Whitley (United Kingdom; former member of the Houses of Parliament)
  • Natalie Bennett (United Kingdom; current leader of the Green Party of England and Wales)
  • Ingrid Betancourt (Colombia; presidency candidate 2002, kidnapped 2002-2008)
  • Sergio Fajarado (Colombia, ex mayor of Medellin and presidential candidate of 2018)
  • Claudia Lopez Hernandez (Colombia, first woman and LGTBQ+ mayor of bogota)
  • Joseph Beuys (Germany; artist and founder member of the German Green Party)
  • Jello Biafra (USA; singer-songwriter and runner-up in the US Green Party's Presidential nomination 2000)
  • Bob Brown (Australia; former leader of the Australian Greens and Senator 1996-2012)
  • Martin Bursík (The Czech Republic; former leader of the Czech Green Party and Minister of the Environment)
  • Peter Camejo (USA; three-time Green Californian gubernatorial candidate and independent vice-presidential candidate 2004)
  • David Cobb (USA; US Green Party's presidential candidate 2004)
  • Daniel Cohn-Bendit (France / Germany; former student leader in 1968 and member of the European Parliament 1994-2014)
  • Robert Cramer (Switzerland; Green representative in the Swiss Council of States)
  • Felix Dodds (United Kingdom; environmental author, futurist, and activist)
  • Vera Dua (Belgium; former Flemish Green Party leader and Minister of Agriculture and Environment 1999-2003)
  • René Dumont (France; first Green presidential candidate 1974, forefather of the French Green Party Les Verts and founding member of ATTAC)
  • Indulis Emsis (Latvia; Prime Minister of Latvia for ten months in 2004, first Green politician to lead a country)
  • Joschka Fischer (Germany; leading figure in the German Greens and Vice Chancellor of Germany and Foreign Minister 1998-2005)
  • Monica Frassoni (Italy; co-chair of the European Greens group in the European Parliament 2002-2009)
  • Liaquat Ali Khan (Pakistan; first Prime Minister of the modern Pakistan)
  • Jim Harris (Canada; former leader of the Canadian Green Party 2003-2006)
  • Femke Halsema (Netherlands; leader of the Dutch GreenLeft parliamentary party 2002-2010)
  • Petra Kelly (Germany; founding member of the German Greens)
  • Winfried Kretschmann (Germany; Ministerpräsident Baden-Württemberg)
  • Fritz Kuhn (Germany; former chair of German Green's parliamentary group 2005-2009 and first Green mayor of Stuttgart since 2012)
  • Renate Künast (Germany; German Minister of Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture 2001-2005 and chair of the German Green's parliamentary group 2005-2013)
  • Winona LaDuke (USA; Native American activist and environmentalist; US Green Party's vice-presidential candidate 1996 and 2000)
  • Brice Lalonde (France; French Minister of the Environment 1991-1992 and founder of the green party Génération Ecologie)
  • Alain Lipietz (France; Green engineer and economist; member of the European Parliament 1999-2009)
  • Caroline Lucas (United Kingdom; co-leader of the Green Party of England and Wales 2016-Present and first Green member of the Houses of Commons since 2010)
  • Ulrike Lunacek (Austria; Vice President of the European Parliament since 2014)
  • Wangari Maathai (Kenya; environmental and political activist; Nobel Peace Prize winner 2004)
  • Noël Mamère (France; Green Party's presidential candidate 2002 and former member of the European Parliament)
  • Elizabeth May (Canada; current leader of the Green Party of Canada and first Green member of the Canadian Parliament)
  • Ralph Nader (USA; US Green Party's Presidential Candidate 1996 and 2000 as well as independent Presidential Candidate in 2004 and 2008)
  • Jonathon Porritt (United Kingdom; environmentalist and advocate of the Green Party of England and Wales)
  • Åsa Romson (Sweden; Swedish Minister for the Environment and Deputy Prime Minister since 2014)
  • Claudia Roth (Germany; German Green Party leader from 2004 to 2013 and Vice President of the Bundestag since 2013)
  • Paul Rosenmöller (Netherlands; leader of the Dutch GreenLeft Party 1994-2002)
  • Otto Schily (Germany; German Interior Minister 1998-2005; later switched to SPD)
  • E. F. Schumacher (Germany / United Kingdom; Green economic thinker)
  • Peter Singer (Australia; moral philosopher and Green candidate for the Australian Senate in 1996)
  • Charlene Spretnak (USA; ecofeminist and cofounder of the US Green Party)
  • Bart Staes (Belgium; Green member of the European Parliament since 1999)
  • Jill Stein (USA; US Green Party's Presidential Candidate for 2012, 2016 and suspected 2020 run)
  • Jaromír Štětina (Czech Republic; Green Senator 2004-2014 and member of the European parliament since 2014)
  • Jürgen Trittin (Germany; German Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety 1998-2005 and chair of the Green parliamentary group 2009-2013)
  • Alexander Van der Bellen (Austria; leader of the Austrian Green Party 1997-2008; President of Austria since 2017, making him the second green head of state worldwide, the first directly elected by popular vote)
  • Raimonds Vējonis (Latvia; President of Latvia since 2015, making him the first green head of state worldwide)
  • Jason West (USA; former mayor of New Paltz, New York and same-sex marriage activist)
  • Blair Wilson (Canada; former liberal member of the Canadian Parliament, later became member of the Green Party)

8. Publications

  • List of environmental books
    • List of Australian environmental books
    • List of books about energy issues
    • List of books about nuclear issues
  • List of environmental journals
    • List of scholarly journals in environmental economics
    • List of environmental law reviews and journals
      • List of environmental lawsuits
    • List of ornithology journals
    • List of wildlife magazines
  • List of environmental periodicals
  • List of environmental agreements
  • List of environmental reports
  • List of environmental websites
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Update Date: 28 Nov 2022