Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 + 1939 word(s) 1939 2020-12-10 03:14:13 |
2 format change Meta information modification 1939 2020-12-18 03:57:13 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?


Are you sure to Delete?
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Melini, V.; Melini, F.; Luziatelli, F.; Ruzzi, M. Agri-Food Waste. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 17 April 2024).
Melini V, Melini F, Luziatelli F, Ruzzi M. Agri-Food Waste. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed April 17, 2024.
Melini, Valentina, Francesca Melini, Francesca Luziatelli, Maurizio Ruzzi. "Agri-Food Waste" Encyclopedia, (accessed April 17, 2024).
Melini, V., Melini, F., Luziatelli, F., & Ruzzi, M. (2020, December 17). Agri-Food Waste. In Encyclopedia.
Melini, Valentina, et al. "Agri-Food Waste." Encyclopedia. Web. 17 December, 2020.
Agri-Food Waste

Agri-Food Waste (AFW) originates throughout the whole food supply chain, from production to post-harvesting, industrial processing, distribution, domestic processing, and consumption, with wastage volumes differing among phases and food commodities.

Conventional management of food waste encompasses production of renewable energy, animal feeds, and compost. Alternative pathways include the valorization of food waste as a source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds, to be used as functional food ingredients or nutraceuticals.

Drying and size reduction techniques, extraction methods, and fermentation are the main strategies to turn AFW into functional ingredients.

food waste phenolic compounds antioxidant capacity bread functional foods bioavailability bioactive compounds

1. Introduction

FAO estimated that 1.3 billion tons of food, about one-third of the annual production for human use, is globally lost or wasted every year[1]. Food loss and waste equal a major loss of earth resources, such as land, water, and energy, and lead to greater greenhouse gas emissions, so as to contribute to climate change.

Agri-Food Waste (AFW) originates throughout the whole food supply chain, from production to post-harvesting, industrial processing, distribution, domestic processing, and consumption, with wastage volumes differing among phases and food commodities. In Europe, households contribute the most to food waste, with a share of 53%, followed by processing, which accounts for 19% of total food waste. The remaining 28% comes from food service (12%), production (11%), and wholesale and retail (5%)[2].

So far, campaigns have been put in place to reduce food waste at the household level, while several strategies have been identified to reduce food waste from industrial processing and manufacturing. Conventional management of food waste encompasses production of renewable energy, animal feeds, and compost. Alternative pathways include the valorization of food waste as a source of bioactive compounds to be used as functional food ingredients or nutraceuticals[3].

2. Functional Ingredients from Agri-Food Waste: Recovery of Phenolic Compounds

Food industrial processing generates specific commodity by-products. Fruit and vegetables produce great amounts of peelings, pomace, trimmings, seeds, stones, stems, and leaves[4]. Cereal grain milling generates bran, which accounts for 3–30% of the kernel weight on a dry basis, hulls, husks (4–14%), germ, broken grains (6–13%), and powders (7–12%)[5]. The legume industry produces great amounts of husks, pods, and off-quality grains[4]. Hulls, husks, skins, shells, and shattered cotyledons are the main waste of primary processing of nuts and oilseeds[5].

Within the current bioeconomy and sustainability framework, alternative handling of these by-products encompasses the recovery of bioactive molecules, including phenolic compounds (PCs).

Drying and size reduction techniques, extraction methods, and fermentation are the main strategies to turn AFW into functional ingredients.

2.1. Drying and Size Reduction Techniques

Food powders and flours are the simplest form into which AFW can be processed to be incorporated as a functional ingredient into conventional foods. The unit operations to get food powders and flours from AFW generally depend on the form of waste, which can be either liquid, solid, or a paste. In case of liquid waste, powders and flours are produced by applying a drying technique, while in case of a solid material, size reduction by crushing and grinding, milling, pulverization, granulation, and mixing must be applied[6]. Other factors affecting the choice of AFW handling methods are the heterogeneity and the structural differences of the waste, the coexistence of edible/non-edible parts[7], the shelf-life, and the necessity to preserve compounds of nutritional interest or with antioxidant properties.

Waste from fruit, vegetable, and oilseed processing, such as pomace, commonly undergoes first drying, then size reduction. Conventional hot-air convection drying, low-temperature vacuum drying, freeze-drying, or microwave drying are among the conventional techniques applied to reduce water content in AFW. However, the choice of the drying method must be cautious, because application of high temperatures and/or presence of oxygen may degrade thermolabile compounds or molecules sensitive to oxidation. For instance, PCs may be degraded during air-drying due to polyphenol oxydase activity[8].

The effect of freeze-drying (FD), convective drying (CD; 50–90 °C), microwave vacuum (MWV; 120, 240, 360 and 480 W), and combination thereof on total polyphenol content in blackcurrant pomace was investigated[9]. FD determined a decrease in total polyphenols; upon CD, a linear decrease in total polyphenol content occurred at increasing temperature, except for drying at 50 °C, possibly due to inactivation of polyphenol oxidase. When MWV drying was applied, a lower degradation of polyphenolic compounds was observed thanks to a shorter processing time.

Hot air (HA) and microwave-assisted hot air (MWHA) drying were applied in combination with extrusion to bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) press cake[10]. It was observed that MWHA drying allowed a moisture content of 17 g 100 g-1 to be obtained in a shorter time (215 min) than HA (about 360 min); however, the phenolic compound content was not significantly different.

FD and oven-drying were applied to skins from two grape varieties and the effect on phenolic compound, anthocyanin, and flavonol content was investigated. FD enabled a higher preservation of bioactive molecules[11].

Different combinations of drying temperatures and times were tested on blueberry and grape pomace in order to preserve procyanidins and anthocyanins[12]. It was found that a temperature of 40 °C in a forced-convection oven did not affect the bioactive molecule content, drying at 60 °C caused a reduction in anthocyanins, while at 125 °C a significant loss (about 52%) was observed.

Some additional drying techniques (e.g., hot air convective drying, microwave vacuum drying, intermittent microwave convective drying, industrial rotary drying, radiofrequency, osmotic agents, etc.) have been so far applied in food processing[13][14][15][16][17][18][19], but their applicability in AFW drying and their effect on phenolic compound retention has not been yet explored.

The particle size of AFW also affects the recovery of PCs. For example, a reduction of black currant pomace particle size from 0.5–1 to <0.125 mm determined a 1.6–5-fold increase in PCs[20]. Particle size reduction prior to drying also affected the content in phenolic compounds in waste from carrots and white cabbage[7]. As to carrot residues, the chopping (<10 mm) and grinding (<5 mm) pre-treatments did not significantly influence the bioactive molecule content, while chopped samples of white cabbage residue better preserved the phenolic compounds.

2.2. Extraction Methods

Novel environmental-friendly methods, including ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), have been developed for sustainable recovery of PCs from AFW[21][22]. In addition, a new generation of sustainable solvents (i.e., deep eutectic solvents, DES) has been used.

UAE is based on the application of ultrasounds, which promote a greater diffusion of solvent into cellular materials, and thus improve mass transfer and cell wall disruption, so as to facilitate the release of bioactive components[22]. UAE prevents temperature increase and thermal degradation of bioactive compounds. It also allows a reduction of the extraction time, using lower quantities of solvent, cutting process costs, and benefiting from high-level automation[23][24]. UAE has been applied to the extraction of PCs from waste of the winemaking industry: anthocyanins from red grape pomace[25][26] and wine lees[27], trans-resveratrol from red grape waste[28], and polyphenols from red grape pomace[25][29]. As regards the supply chain of fruit and vegetables, UAE was applied to recover PCs from apple[30], Vaccinium berry[31], citrus[29][32][33], tomato[34], and onion wastes[35]. PCs were extracted by UAE also from olive waste (e.g., cake, leaves)[29][34]. The application of UAE to extraction of PCs from root and tuber wastes (e.g., potato peels), and (black) carrot pomace was also reported[36][37]. Among cereals and legumes, polyphenolic compounds were recovered by UAE from wheat bran[29] and mung bean hulls[38].

MAE is an extraction technique combining microwave and traditional solvent extraction. The principle that MAE is based on is dielectric heating, which consists in microwave electromagnetic radiation heating a dielectric material by molecular dipole rotation of the polar components present in the matrix[21]. Shorter extraction time, higher extraction rate, minor solvent requirements, higher selectivity towards added-value compounds, and lower costs over traditional extraction methods are some of the advantages that make MAE a favorable method in the extraction of bioactive compounds[22][23][21]. MAE has so far been used to recover different classes of PCs. Anthocyanins were recovered from grape juice[39], red grape[26], and black carrot wastes[40]. Polyphenols were extracted by MAE from red grape pomace[26] and red wine lees[41]. Flavonols were obtained from red grape waste. Hydroxytyrosol was recovered by MAE from olive pomace[42].

SFE is based on the use of fluids at pressure and temperature values above or near their critical points. In particular, SFE uses renewable solvents, such as CO2, and offers some advantages, such as easy recovery, selectivity, compound stability, reduced time, and an overall total energy saving. Apart from the unnecessity of solvent removal from the final product, the degradation process of bioactive compounds is also lower because of light and air absence[43]. SFE is especially suitable to recover extracts from solid matrices[22][23][21]. It has been applied to extract PCs from pomace of grape, apple, and orange[43][44][45] and from black walnut husks and hazelnut waste[43][46].

DES extraction is one more analytical approach to recover PCs from AFW. DESs are prepared by mixing two or more components (e.g., hydrogen bond acceptors or hydrogen bond donors) able to interact by hydrogen bonds. Compounds used for DES preparation comprise choline chloride, DL-malic acid, citric acid, glycerol, D-(+)-glucose, D-(−)-fructose, sucrose, D-(+)-galactose, D-(+)-maltose, maltitol, and D-(−)-ribose. DES exhibit the same extraction properties than organic solvents but have negligible environmental and economic impact. Moreover, they have a GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status. They have been applied to the extraction of several classes of PCs from grape waste: phenolic acids from grape skins and red grape pomace[47][48]; anthocyanin pigment derivatives from grape waste[27][47][48], and flavonol glycosides from red grape pomace[27]. DES were also used to extract PCs from onion waste[34][49]. Natural DES have been applied to extract polyphenols from olive pomace, in combination with homogenization, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high hydrostatic pressure[50], and from olive leaves, kernels, and cake[34][51][52].

2.3. Fermentation and Enzymatic Treatments

Bioprocesses, such as fermentation and enzyme technology, are further approaches for the transformation of AFW into value-added products.

Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and sub-merged fermentation have mostly been used[53]. SSF by Rhizopus oligosporus and Aspergillus niger was applied to apricot pomace. The use of R. oligosporus as a starter determined an increase in the total phenolic content (TPC) by 70% and in the total flavonoid content (TFC) by 38%. SSF by A. niger increased TPC by more than 30% and TFC by 12%[54]. SSF with A. niger was also applied to pomace from black and dwarf elderberries, and an increase in extractable phenolics by 11.11% and 18.82% was observed, respectively[55]. SSF was also applied to grape pomace, and the production of xylanase allowed the release of PCs from the substrate[56].

As regards the application of SSF to cereal by-products, A. niger was used to ferment wheat bran, and higher PC content was obtained thanks to the activity of β-glucosidase enzymes[56]. Wheat bran was also fermented by a strain of Aspergillus oryzae and the TPC of ethanolic and methanolic extracts was higher in fermented samples than in the non-fermented ones[57]. The application of a strain of Lactobacillus brevis and Candida humilis to wheat bran enabled the release of PCs, thanks to the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes[58].

Enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) of PCs from AFW has also been reported[21]. It is based on the ability of enzymes, such as cellulase, β-glucosidase, xylanase, β-gluconase, and pectinase, to degrade cell wall structure and depolymerize plant cell wall polysaccharides, so as to prompt the release of bound compounds[59]. The specificity of enzymes for their substrate also determines an increase in the bioactivity of extracts, thanks to the hydrolysis of high-molecular-weight compounds to a lower molecular weight[60]. The use of water as a solvent in EAE, instead of organic chemicals, also makes EAE an eco-friendly technology for extraction of bioactive compounds. Applications of EAE to extraction of PCs from grape waste, pistachio green hulls, and pomegranate peels have been reported[61][62][63].


  1. FAO. The State of Food and Agriculture 2019. Moving forward on Food Loss and Waste Reduction; FAO: Rome, Italy, 2019.
  2. Stenmarck, Å.; Jensen, C.; Quested, T.; Moates, G.; Bukst, M.; Cseh, B.; Juul, S.; Parry, A.; Politano, A.; Redlingshofer, B.; et al. FUSIONS: Estimates of European Food Waste Levels; IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute: Stockholm, Sweden, 2016.
  3. Sana Ben-Othman; I. Jõudu; Rajeev Bhat; Bioactives from Agri-Food Wastes: Present Insights and Future Challenges. Molecules 2020, 25, 510, 10.3390/molecules25030510.
  4. Nguyen, V.T. Potential, uses and future perspectives of agricultural wastes. In Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Agricultural Wastes; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: Chichester, UK, 2017; pp. 1–32.
  5. Campos-Vega, R.; Oomah, B.D.; Vergara-Castañeda, H.A. Food Wastes And By-Products: Nutraceutical and Health Potential; John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2020; ISBN 9781119534105.
  6. Bhandari, B.; Bansal, N.; Zhang, M.; Schuck, P. Handbook of Food Powders: Processes and Properties; Woodhead Publishing Ltd.: Sawston, UK, 2013; ISBN 9780857098672.
  7. Bas-Bellver, C.; Barrera, C.; Betoret, N.; Seguí, L. Turning agri-food cooperative vegetable residues into functional powdered ingredients for the food industry. Sustainability 2020, 12, 1284.
  8. Ratti, C. Freeze drying for food powder production. In Handbook of Food Powders: Processes and Properties; Woodhead Publishing Ltd.: Sawston, UK, 2013; pp. 57–84. ISBN 9780857098672.
  9. Anna Michalska-Ciechanowska; Aneta Wojdyło; Krzysztof Lech; Grzegorz P. Łysiak; Adam Figiel; Effect of different drying techniques on physical properties, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of blackcurrant pomace powders. LWT 2017, 78, 114-121, 10.1016/j.lwt.2016.12.008.
  10. Evelina Höglund; Lovisa Eliasson; Gabriel Oliveira; Valérie L. Almli; Nesli Sozer; Marie Alminger; Effect of drying and extrusion processing on physical and nutritional characteristics of bilberry press cake extrudates. LWT 2018, 92, 422-428, 10.1016/j.lwt.2018.02.042.
  11. C. De Torres; M.C. Díaz-Maroto; I. Hermosín-Gutiérrez; M.S. Pérez-Coello; Effect of freeze-drying and oven-drying on volatiles and phenolics composition of grape skin. Analytica Chimica Acta 2010, 660, 177-182, 10.1016/j.aca.2009.10.005.
  12. Struck, S.; Rohm, H. Fruit processing by-products as food ingredients. In Valorization of Fruit Processing By-Products; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2020; pp. 1–16.
  13. Zielinska, M.; Michalska, A. Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: Drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture. Food Chem. 2016, 212, 671–680.
  14. Pham, N.D.; Khan, M.I.H.; Karim, M.A. A mathematical model for predicting the transport process and quality changes during intermittent microwave convective drying. Food Chem. 2020, 325, 126932.
  15. Azman, E.M.; House, A.; Charalampopoulos, D.; Chatzifragkou, A. Effect of dehydration on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) pomace. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2020.
  16. Shen, Y.; Zheng, L.; Gou, M.; Xia, T.; Li, W.; Song, X.; Jiang, H. Characteristics of pitaya after radio frequency treating: Structure, phenolic compounds, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activity. Food Bioprocess Technol. 2020, 13, 180–186.
  17. Horuz, E.; Bozkurt, H.; Karataş, H.; Maskan, M. Effects of hybrid (microwave-convectional) and convectional drying on drying kinetics, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, color and rehydration capacity of sour cherries. Food Chem. 2017, 230, 295–305.
  18. Yılmaz, F.M.; Yüksekkaya, S.; Vardin, H.; Karaaslan, M. The effects of drying conditions on moisture transfer and quality of pomegranate fruit leather (pestil). J. Saudi Soc. Agric. Sci. 2017, 16, 33–40.
  19. Kumari, V.; Yadav, B.S.; Yadav, R.B.; Nema, P.K. Effect of osmotic agents and ultasonication on osmo-convective drying of sweet lime (Citrus limetta) peel. J. Food Process Eng. 2020, 43, e13371.
  20. Venskutonis, P.R. Berries. In Valorization of Fruit Processing By-Products; Galanakis, C.M., Ed.; Elsevier—Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2019; pp. 95–125.
  21. Lucia Panzella; Federica Moccia; Rita Nasti; Stefania Marzorati; Luisella Verotta; Alessandra Napolitano; Bioactive Phenolic Compounds From Agri-Food Wastes: An Update on Green and Sustainable Extraction Methodologies. Frontiers in Nutrition 2020, 7, 60, 10.3389/fnut.2020.00060.
  22. Galanakis, C.M. Food Waste Recovery: Processing Technologies and Industrial Techniques; Elsevier—Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2015; ISBN 9780128004197.
  23. Kumar, K.; Yadav, A.N.; Kumar, V.; Vyas, P.; Dhaliwal, H.S. Food waste: A potential bioresource for extraction of nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds. Bioresour. Bioprocess. 2017, 4, 1–14.
  24. Pinela, J.; Prieto, M.A.; Barreiro, M.F.; Carvalho, A.M.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Curran, T.P.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R. Valorisation of tomato wastes for development of nutrient-rich antioxidant ingredients: A sustainable approach towards the needs of the today’s society. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 2017, 41, 160–171.
  25. Trasanidou, D.; Apostolakis, A.; Makris, D.P. Development of a green process for the preparation of antioxidant and pigment-enriched extracts from winery solid wastes using response surface methodology and kinetics. Chem. Eng. Commun. 2016, 203, 1317–1325.
  26. Drosou, C.; Kyriakopoulou, K.; Bimpilas, A.; Tsimogiannis, D.; Krokida, M. A comparative study on different extraction techniques to recover red grape pomace polyphenols from vinification byproducts. Ind. Crops Prod. 2015, 75, 141–149.
  27. Bosiljkov, T.; Dujmić, F.; Cvjetko Bubalo, M.; Hribar, J.; Vidrih, R.; Brnčić, M.; Zlatic, E.; Radojčić Redovniković, I.; Jokić, S. Natural deep eutectic solvents and ultrasound-assisted extraction: Green approaches for extraction of wine lees anthocyanins. Food Bioprod. Process. 2017, 102, 195–203.
  28. Babazadeh, A.; Taghvimi, A.; Hamishehkar, H.; Tabibiazar, M. Development of new ultrasonic–solvent assisted method for determination of trans-resveratrol from red grapes: Optimization, characterization, and antioxidant activity (ORAC assay). Food Biosci. 2017, 20, 36–42.
  29. Mouratoglou, E.; Malliou, V.; Makris, D.P. Novel glycerol-based natural eutectic mixtures and their efficiency in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of antioxidant polyphenols from agri-food waste biomass. Waste and Biomass Valorization 2016, 7, 1377–1387.
  30. Malinowska, M.; Śliwa, K.; Sikora, E.; Ogonowski, J.; Oszmiański, J.; Kolniak-Ostek, J. Ultrasound-assisted and micelle-mediated extraction as a method to isolate valuable active compounds from apple pomace. J. Food Process. Preserv. 2018, 42, e13720.
  31. Klavins, L.; Kviesis, J.; Nakurte, I.; Klavins, M. Berry press residues as a valuable source of polyphenolics: Extraction optimisation and analysis. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 2018, 93, 583–591.
  32. Papoutsis, K.; Pristijono, P.; Golding, J.B.; Stathopoulos, C.E.; Bowyer, M.C.; Scarlett, C.J.; Vuong, Q.V. Screening the effect of four ultrasound-assisted extraction parameters on hesperidin and phenolic acid content of aqueous citrus pomace extracts. Food Biosci. 2018, 21, 20–26.
  33. Rodsamran, P.; Sothornvit, R. Extraction of phenolic compounds from lime peel waste using ultrasonic-assisted and microwave-assisted extractions. Food Biosci. 2019, 28, 66–73.
  34. Fernández, M.; de los, Á.; Espino, M.; Gomez, F.J.V.; Silva, M.F. Novel approaches mediated by tailor-made green solvents for the extraction of phenolic compounds from agro-food industrial by-products. Food Chem. 2018, 239, 671–678.
  35. Photene Katsampa; Evdokea Valsamedou; Spyros Grigorakis; Dimitris P. Makris; A green ultrasound-assisted extraction process for the recovery of antioxidant polyphenols and pigments from onion solid wastes using Box–Behnken experimental design and kinetics. Industrial Crops and Products 2015, 77, 535-543, 10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.09.039.
  36. Riciputi, Y.; Diaz-de-Cerio, E.; Akyol, H.; Capanoglu, E.; Cerretani, L.; Caboni, M.F.; Verardo, V. Establishment of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from industrial potato by-products using response surface methodology. Food Chem. 2018, 269, 258–263.
  37. Agcam, E.; Akyıldız, A.; Balasubramaniam, V.M. Optimization of anthocyanins extraction from black carrot pomace with thermosonication. Food Chem. 2017, 237, 461–470.
  38. Singh, B.; Singh, N.; Thakur, S.; Kaur, A. Ultrasound assisted extraction of polyphenols and their distribution in whole mung bean, hull and cotyledon. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2017, 54, 921–932.
  39. Venkatramanan Varadharajan; Sethupathi Shanmugam; Arulvel Ramaswamy; Model generation and process optimization of microwave-assisted aqueous extraction of anthocyanins from grape juice waste. Journal of Food Process Engineering 2016, 40, e12486, 10.1111/jfpe.12486.
  40. Manoj Kumar; Anil Dahuja; Archana Sachdev; Charanjit Kaur; Eldho Varghese; Supradip Saha; K. V. S. S. Sairam; Valorisation of black carrot pomace: microwave assisted extraction of bioactive phytoceuticals and antioxidant activity using Box–Behnken design. Journal of Food Science and Technology 2019, 56, 995-1007, 10.1007/s13197-018-03566-9.
  41. Jaime Alberto Arboleda Meija; Giuseppina Paola Parpinello; Andrea Versari; Carmela Conidi; Alfredo Cassano; Microwave-assisted extraction and membrane-based separation of biophenols from red wine lees. Food and Bioproducts Processing 2019, 117, 74-83, 10.1016/j.fbp.2019.06.020.
  42. Jurmanović, S.; Jug, M.; Safner, T.; Radić, K.; Domijan, A.-M.; Pedisić, S.; Šimić, S.; Jablan, J.; Čepo, D.V.; Utilization of olive pomace as a source of polyphenols: Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and characterization of spray-dried extract. J. Food Nutr. Res. 2019, 58, 51–62.
  43. Luigi Manna; Cristiano Agostino Bugnone; Mauro Banchero; Valorization of hazelnut, coffee and grape wastes through supercritical fluid extraction of triglycerides and polyphenols. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 2015, 104, 204-211, 10.1016/j.supflu.2015.06.012.
  44. Ferrentino, G.; Morozova, K.; Mosibo, O.K.; Ramezani, M.; Scampicchio, M. Biorecovery of antioxidants from apple pomace by supercritical fluid extraction. J. Clean. Prod. 2018, 186, 253–261.
  45. Espinosa-Pardo, F.A.; Nakajima, V.M.; Macedo, G.A.; Macedo, J.A.; Martínez, J. Extraction of phenolic compounds from dry and fermented orange pomace using supercritical CO2 and cosolvents. Food Bioprod. Process. 2017, 101, 1–10.
  46. Jonathan Wenzel; Cheryl Storer Samaniego; Lihua Wang; Laron Burrows; Evan Tucker; Nathan Dwarshuis; Michelle Ammerman; Ali Zand; Antioxidant potential ofJuglans nigra,black walnut, husks extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide with an ethanol modifier. Food Science & Nutrition 2016, 5, 223-232, 10.1002/fsn3.385.
  47. Patsea, M.; Stefou, I.; Grigorakis, S.; Makris, D.P. Screening of natural sodium acetate-based low-transition temperature mixtures (LTTMs) for enhanced extraction of antioxidants and pigments from red vinification solid wastes. Environ. Process. 2017, 4, 123–135.
  48. Radošević, K.; Ćurko, N.; Gaurina Srček, V.; Cvjetko Bubalo, M.; Tomašević, M.; Kovačević Ganić, K.; Radojčić Redovniković, I. Natural deep eutectic solvents as beneficial extractants for enhancement of plant extracts bioactivity. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 2016, 73, 45–51.
  49. Ifigenia Stefou; Spyros Grigorakis; Sofia Loupassaki; Dimitris P. Makris; Development of sodium propionate-based deep eutectic solvents for polyphenol extraction from onion solid wastes. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 2019, 21, 1563-1574, 10.1007/s10098-019-01727-8.
  50. Sofia Chanioti; Constantina Tzia; Extraction of phenolic compounds from olive pomace by using natural deep eutectic solvents and innovative extraction techniques. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 2018, 48, 228-239, 10.1016/j.ifset.2018.07.001.
  51. Chakroun, D.; Grigorakis, S.; Loupassaki, S.; Makris, D.P. Enhanced-performance extraction of olive (Olea europaea) leaf polyphenols using L-lactic acid/ammonium acetate deep eutectic solvent combined with β-cyclodextrin: Screening, optimisation, temperature effects and stability. Biomass Convers. Biorefinery 2019, 1–12.
  52. Alañón, M.E.; Ivanović, M.; Gómez-Caravaca, A.M.; Arráez-Román, D.; Segura-Carretero, A. Choline chloride derivative-based deep eutectic liquids as novel green alternative solvents for extraction of phenolic compounds from olive leaf. Arab. J. Chem. 2020, 13, 1685–1701.
  53. Pardeep Kumar Sadh; Suresh Kumar; Prince Chawla; Joginder Singh Duhan; Fermentation: A Boon for Production of Bioactive Compounds by Processing of Food Industries Wastes (By-Products). Molecules 2018, 23, 2560, 10.3390/molecules23102560.
  54. Francisc Dulf; Dan Cristian Vodnar; Eva H. Dulf; Adela Pintea; Phenolic compounds, flavonoids, lipids and antioxidant potential of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) pomace fermented by two filamentous fungal strains in solid state system. Chemistry Central Journal 2017, 11, 1-10, 10.1186/s13065-017-0323-z.
  55. Francisc Vasile Dulf; Dan Cristian Vodnar; Eva-Henrietta Dulf; Monica Ioana Toşa; Total Phenolic Contents, Antioxidant Activities, and Lipid Fractions from Berry Pomaces Obtained by Solid-State Fermentation of TwoSambucusSpecies withAspergillus niger. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2015, 63, 3489-3500, 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b00520.
  56. Aline S.C. Teles; Davy W.H. Chávez; Raul A. Oliveira; Elba P.S. Bon; Selma C. Terzi; Erika F. Souza; Leda Maria Fortes Gottschalk; Renata V. Tonon; Use of grape pomace for the production of hydrolytic enzymes by solid-state fermentation and recovery of its bioactive compounds. Food Research International 2019, 120, 441-448, 10.1016/j.foodres.2018.10.083.
  57. Singh Duhan Joginder; Mehta Kamal; Kumar Sadh Pardeep; Saharan Pooja; Surekha; Joginder Singh Duhan; Kamal Mehta; Pardeep Kumar Sadh; Pooja Saharan; Bio-enrichment of phenolics and free radicals scavenging activity of wheat (WH-711) fractions by solid state fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae. African Journal of Biochemistry Research 2016, 10, 12-19, 10.5897/ajbr2015.0854.
  58. Elisa Arte; Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello; Michela Verni; Emilia Nordlund; Kati Katina; Rossana Coda; Impact of Enzymatic and Microbial Bioprocessing on Protein Modification and Nutritional Properties of Wheat Bran. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2015, 63, 8685-8693, 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b03495.
  59. Rojas, R.; Castro-López, C.; Sánchez-Alejo, E.J.; Niño-Medina, G.; Martínez-Ávila, G.C.G. Phenolic compound recovery from grape fruit and by- products: An overview of extraction methods. In Grape and Wine Biotechnology; InTech: London, UK, 2016.
  60. Isabela M. Martins; Bruna S. Roberto; Jeffrey Blumberg; C.Y. Oliver Chen; Gabriela Alves Macedo; Enzymatic biotransformation of polyphenolics increases antioxidant activity of red and white grape pomace. Food Research International 2016, 89, 533-539, 10.1016/j.foodres.2016.09.009.
  61. Gómez-García, R.; Martínez-Ávila, G.C.G.; Aguilar, C.N. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenolics from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) residues. 3 Biotech 2012, 2, 297–300.
  62. Ghandahari Yazdi, A.P.; Barzegar, M.; Sahari, M.A.; Ahmadi Gavlighi, H. Optimization of the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of phenolic compounds from pistachio green hull. Food Sci. Nutr. 2019, 7, 356–366.
  63. Mushtaq, M.; Sultana, B.; Akram, S.; Adnan, A.; Owusu-Apenten, R.; Nigam Singh, P. Enzyme-assisted extraction of polyphenols from pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel. Res. Rev. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2016, 5, 27–34.
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to : , , ,
View Times: 2.5K
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 18 Dec 2020