Submitted Successfully!
Check Note
2000/2000
Ver. Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 handwiki -- 1997 2022-11-23 01:39:36
Lunar Outpost (NASA)

### 1.5. 2010/2011 Surface System Concept Review

The LSSPO was established at the Johnson Space Center in August 2007.[9] The LSSPO was studying lunar surface systems such as "habitation systems", ISRU, rovers, power production and storage, systems to meet science and exploration objectives and safety systems. The LSSPO was expected to conduct a surface system concept review in the 2010 or 2011 timeframe.

### 1.6. 2017/Present: Artemis Program

The Artemis program is a planned crewed spaceflight program carried out predominately by NASA, U.S. commercial spaceflight companies, and international partners such as the European Space Agency (ESA), JAXA, and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) with the goal of landing "the first woman and the next man" on the Moon, specifically at the lunar south pole region by 2024. NASA sees Artemis as the next step towards the long-term goal of establishing a sustainable presence on the Moon, laying the foundation for private companies to build a lunar economy, and eventually sending humans to Mars. One primary target is Shackleton crater. In 2028 NASA plans on launching the Lunar Surface Asset, a small habitat to the surface of the Moon on either an SLS Block 1B or through an Artemis Support Mission on a commercial launcher. This would be the first crewed lunar base.

## 2. Justification

In the words of former NASA Administrator, Michael D. Griffin,[10]

The goal isn't just scientific exploration. ... It's also about extending the range of human habitat out from Earth into the solar system as we go forward in time. ... In the long run a single-planet species will not survive. ... If we humans want to survive for hundreds of thousands or millions of years, we must ultimately populate other planets. Now, today the technology is such that this is barely conceivable. We're in the infancy of it. ... I'm talking about that one day, I don't know when that day is, but there will be more human beings who live off the Earth than on it. We may well have people living on the moon. We may have people living on the moons of Jupiter and other planets. We may have people making habitats on asteroids ... I know that humans will colonize the solar system and one day go beyond.

## 3. Lunar Gateway

A station in lunar orbit can serve as a communications hub, temporary habitation module, and holding area for rovers and other robots intended for an outpost on lunar ground.[11] NASA leads a proposal for such a station, titled Lunar Gateway. The omnibus spending bill passed by Congress in March 2018 provided NASA with $504 million for preliminary studies during the 2019 fiscal year.[12] The final funding amount enacted by Congress was slightly lower at$450 million.[13]

## 4. Criticism

Criticisms come from groups that want the human exploration money diverted to Mars, from those who prefer uncrewed exploration, and from those who simply want the money spent elsewhere. The criticisms listed here mostly predate the discovery of significant amounts of polar water ice. Jeff Foust, writing for The Space Review, called the six themes that NASA released too "broad" and the explanations supporting them "shallow." He also argues that a Moonbase is a poor use of resources, since "science can be done for far less money by robotic missions—which also don't put human lives at risk."[14] The Los Angeles Times seconded that in an editorial, saying "Manned moon flight may appeal to baby boomers, but it makes little scientific sense for most space missions these days. Robots can now perform or be developed to perform, most of the tasks people would do at a moon station."[15]

Columnist Gregg Easterbrook, who has reported on the space program for decades, has criticized the plans as a poor use of resources. He writes that

Although, of course, the base could yield a great discovery, its scientific value is likely to be small while its price is extremely high. Worse, moon-base nonsense may for decades divert NASA resources from the agency's legitimate missions, draining funding from real needs in order to construct human history's silliest white elephant.[16]

According to Easterbrook, the billions of dollars that a lunar colony might cost should instead be devoted to exploring the Solar System with space probes; space observatories; and protecting the Earth from near-Earth asteroids.

Buzz Aldrin, the second of twelve men to have walked on the Moon, disagrees with NASA's current goals and priorities, including their plans for a lunar outpost. While not necessarily opposed to sending people back to the Moon, Aldrin argues that NASA should concentrate on a human mission to Mars and leave further lunar exploration and the establishment of a base there to a consortium of other countries under U.S. leadership.[17] In a July 2009 editorial in the Washington Post, he said that NASA's Vision for Space Exploration "is not visionary; nor will it ultimately be successful in restoring American space leadership. Like its Apollo predecessor, this plan will prove to be a dead-end littered with broken spacecraft, broken dreams, and broken policies." He continued by saying that:

the lunar surface ... is a poor location for homesteading. The moon is a lifeless, barren world, its stark desolation matched by its hostility to all living things. And replaying the glory days of Apollo will not advance the cause of American space leadership or inspire the support and enthusiasm of the public and the next generation of space explorers.[18]

### References

1. Please refer to Saturn (rocket family).
2. Dale, Shana (2006-12-04). "Exploration Strategy and Architecture". NASA. http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/163896main_LAT_GES_1204.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-12.
3. "NASA Authorization Act of 2008 - Section 404 - Lunar Outpost". Library of Congress. 2008-09-27. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c110:H.R.6063:.
4. "NASA Unveils Global Exploration Strategy and Lunar Architecture". 2006-12-04. http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2006/dec/HQ_06361_ESMD_Lunar_Architecture.html. Retrieved 2007-01-12.
5. Colaprete, A.; Schultz, P.; Heldmann, J.; Wooden, D.; Shirley, M.; Ennico, K.; Hermalyn, B.; Marshall, W et al. (22 October 2010). "Detection of Water in the LCROSS Ejecta Plume". Science 330 (6003): 463–468. doi:10.1126/science.1186986. PMID 20966242. Bibcode: 2010Sci...330..463C.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1126%2Fscience.1186986
6. Microsoft Word - lunar_architecture.DOC http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/164021main_lunar_architecture.pdf
7. Moonbase: In the Dark On Lunar Ice | Space.com | 26 December 2006 http://www.space.com/aol/061226_lunar_ice.html
8. "Exploration Systems Mission Directorate - Lunar Surface Systems Concepts Study". NASA. 2008-06-06. Archived from the original on 2008-09-17. https://web.archive.org/web/20080917120619/http://procurement.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/eps/sol.cgi?acqid=130133.
9. "Lunar Surface Systems Concepts Study - Compilation of Briefings". NASA ESMD. http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/240373main_06-06-08-LSS%20BAA%20Compilation%20of%20briefings%20teammb.pdf.
10. "NASA's Griffin: 'Humans Will Colonize the Solar System'". Washington Post: pp. B07. September 25, 2005. https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/09/23/AR2005092301691.html.
11. Jackson, Shanessa (11 September 2018). "Competition Seeks University Concepts for Gateway and Deep Space Exploration Capabilities". NASA. https://www.nasa.gov/feature/competition-seeks-university-concepts-for-gateway-and-deep-space-exploration-capabilities. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
12. Foust, Jeff (June 12, 2018). "Senate bill restores funding for NASA science and technology demonstration missions" (in en-US). Space News. https://spacenews.com/senate-bill-restores-funding-for-nasa-science-and-technology-demonstration-missions/. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
13. Dreier, Casey (February 15, 2019). "NASA just got its best budget in a decade" (in en). http://www.planetary.org/blogs/casey-dreier/2019/0215-fy2019-nasa-gets-its-best-budget-in-decades.html.
14. Foust, Jeff (December 11, 2006). "Moonbase Why". The Space Review. http://www.thespacereview.com/article/764/1.
15. "Don't colonize the moon". Los Angeles Times. December 10, 2006. http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/la-ed-moon10dec10,0,2327043.story?coll=la-opinion-leftrail.
16. Gregg Easterbrook. "Moon Baseless: NASA can't explain why we need a lunar colony". Slate. Dec. 8, 2006. http://www.slate.com/id/2155164
17. Buzz Aldrin and David Noland. "Buzz Aldrin to NASA: U.S. Space Policy Is on the Wrong Track ." Popular Mechanics August 2009. http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/air_space/4322647.html?page=1
18. Buzz Aldrin. "Time to Boldly Go Once More. Washington Post. July 16, 2009. https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/07/15/AR2009071502940.html
More
Information
Subjects:
Contributor MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register :
View Times: 11
Entry Collection:
Revision: 1 time (View History)
Update Time: 23 Nov 2022
1000/1000

# Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?