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HandWiki. High-Level Shading Language. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/35346 (accessed on 24 April 2024).
HandWiki. High-Level Shading Language. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/35346. Accessed April 24, 2024.
HandWiki. "High-Level Shading Language" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/35346 (accessed April 24, 2024).
HandWiki. (2022, November 20). High-Level Shading Language. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/35346
HandWiki. "High-Level Shading Language." Encyclopedia. Web. 20 November, 2022.
High-Level Shading Language
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The High-Level Shader Language or High-Level Shading Language (HLSL) is a proprietary shading language developed by Microsoft for the Direct3D 9 API to augment the shader assembly language, and went on to become the required shading language for the unified shader model of Direct3D 10 and higher. HLSL is analogous to the GLSL shading language used with the OpenGL standard. It is very similar to the Nvidia Cg shading language, as it was developed alongside it. Early versions of the two languages were considered identical, only marketed differently. HLSL shaders can enable profound speed and detail increases as well as many special effects in both 2D and 3D computer graphics. HLSL programs come in six forms: pixel shaders (fragment in GLSL), vertex shaders, geometry shaders, compute shaders, tessellation shaders (Hull and Domain shaders), and ray tracing shaders (Ray Generation Shaders, Intersection Shaders, Any Hit/Closest Hit/Miss Shaders). A vertex shader is executed for each vertex that is submitted by the application, and is primarily responsible for transforming the vertex from object space to view space, generating texture coordinates, and calculating lighting coefficients such as the vertex's normal, tangent, and bitangent vectors. When a group of vertices (normally 3, to form a triangle) come through the vertex shader, their output position is interpolated to form pixels within its area; this process is known as rasterization. Optionally, an application using a Direct3D 10/11/12 interface and Direct3D 10/11/12 hardware may also specify a geometry shader. This shader takes as its input some vertices of a primitive (triangle/line/point) and uses this data to generate/degenerate (or tessellate) additional primitives or to change the type of primitives, which are each then sent to the rasterizer. D3D11.3 and D3D12 introduced Shader Model 5.1 and later 6.0.

ray tracing d3d11.3 rasterization

1. Shader Model Comparison

GPUs listed are the hardware that first supported the given specifications. Manufacturers generally support all lower shader models through drivers. Note that games may claim to require a certain DirectX version, but don't necessarily require a GPU conforming to the full specification of that version, as developers can use a higher DirectX API version to target lower-Direct3D-spec hardware; for instance DirectX 9 exposes features of DirectX7-level hardware that DirectX7 did not, targeting their fixed-function T&L pipeline.

1.2. Pixel Shader Comparison

Pixel shader version 1.0 to 1.3[1] 1.4[1] 2.0[1][2] 2.0a[1][2][3] 2.0b[1][2][4] 3.0[1][5] 4.0[6]
4.1[7]
5.0[8]
Dependent texture limit 4 6 8 Unlimited 8 Unlimited Unlimited
Texture instruction limit 4 6*2 32 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Position register No No No No No Yes Yes
Instruction slots 8+4 8+4 32 + 64 512 512 ≥ 512 ≥ 65536
Executed instructions 8+4 6*2+8*2 32 + 64 512 512 65536 Unlimited
Texture indirections 4 4 4 Unlimited 4 Unlimited Unlimited
Interpolated registers 2 + 4 2 + 6 2 + 8 2 + 8 2 + 8 10 32
Instruction predication No No No Yes No Yes No
Index input registers No No No No No Yes Yes
Temp registers 2 6 12 to 32 22 32 32 4096
Constant registers 8 8 32 32 32 224 16×4096
Arbitrary swizzling No No No Yes No Yes Yes
Gradient instructions No No No Yes No Yes Yes
Loop count register No No No No No Yes Yes
Face register (2-sided lighting) No No No No Yes Yes Yes
Dynamic flow control No No No No No Yes (24) Yes (64)
Bitwise Operators No No No No No No Yes
Native Integers No No No No No No Yes
  • PS 1.0 — Unreleased 3dfx Rampage, DirectX 8.
  • PS 1.1 — GeForce 3, DirectX 8.
  • PS 1.2 — 3Dlabs Wildcat VP, DirectX 8.0a.
  • PS 1.3 — GeForce 4 Ti, DirectX 8.0a.
  • PS 1.4 — Radeon 8500-9250, Matrox Parhelia, DirectX 8.1.
  • Shader Model 2.0 — Radeon 9500-9800/X300-X600, DirectX 9.
  • Shader Model 2.0a — GeForce FX/PCX-optimized model, DirectX 9.0a.
  • Shader Model 2.0b — Radeon X700-X850 shader model, DirectX 9.0b.
  • Shader Model 3.0 — Radeon X1000 and GeForce 6, DirectX 9.0c.
  • Shader Model 4.0 — Radeon HD 2000 and GeForce 8, DirectX 10.
  • Shader Model 4.1 — Radeon HD 3000 and GeForce 200, DirectX 10.1.
  • Shader Model 5.0 — Radeon HD 5000 and GeForce 400, DirectX 11.
  • Shader Model 5.1 — GCN 1+, Fermi+, DirectX 12 (11_0+) with WDDM 2.0.
  • Shader Model 6.0 — GCN 1+, Kepler+, DirectX 12 (11_0+) with WDDM 2.1.
  • Shader Model 6.1 — GCN 1+, Kepler+, DirectX 12 (11_0+) with WDDM 2.3.
  • Shader Model 6.2 — GCN 1+, Kepler+, DirectX 12 (11_0+) with WDDM 2.4.
  • Shader Model 6.3 — GCN 1+, Kepler+, DirectX 12 (11_0+) with WDDM 2.5.
  • Shader Model 6.4 — GCN 1+, Kepler+, Skylake+, DirectX 12 (11_0+) with WDDM 2.6.
  • Shader Model 6.5 — GCN 1+, Kepler+, Skylake+, DirectX 12 (11_0+) with WDDM 2.7.
  • Shader Model 6.6 — GCN 1+, Kepler+, Skylake+, DirectX 12 (11_0+) with WDDM 2.9.

"32 + 64" for Executed Instructions means "32 texture instructions and 64 arithmetic instructions."

1.3. Vertex Shader Comparison

Vertex shader version VS 1.1[9] VS 2.0[2][3][9] VS 2.0a[2][3][9] VS 3.0[5][9] VS 4.0[6]
VS 4.1[7]
VS 5.0[8]
# of instruction slots 128 256 256 ≥ 512 ≥ 65536
Max # of instructions executed 128 1024 65536 65536 Unlimited
Instruction predication No No Yes Yes Yes
Temp registers 12 12 16 32 4096
# constant registers ≥ 96 ≥ 256 256 ≥ 256 16×4096
Static flow control No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Dynamic flow control No No Yes Yes Yes
Dynamic flow control depth N/A N/A 24 24 64
Vertex texture fetch No No No Yes Yes
# of texture samplers N/A N/A N/A 4 128
Geometry instancing support No No No Yes Yes
Bitwise operators No No No No Yes
Native integers No No No No Yes

References

  1. "Pixel Shader Differences". Microsoft Docs. https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/win32/direct3dhlsl/dx9-graphics-reference-asm-ps-differences. 
  2. Peeper, Craig; Mitchell, Jason L. (July 2003). "Introduction to the DirectX 9 High-Level Shader Language". Microsoft Docs. https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/previous-versions/ms810449(v=msdn.10). 
  3. Shimpi, Anand Lal. "NVIDIA Introduces GeForce FX (NV30)". AnandTech. https://www.anandtech.com/show/1034/4. 
  4. Wilson, Derek. "ATI Radeon X800 Pro and XT Platinum Edition: R420 Arrives". AnandTech. https://www.anandtech.com/show/1314/4. 
  5. Shader Model 3.0, Ashu Rege, NVIDIA Developer Technology Group, 2004.
  6. The Direct3D 10 System, David Blythe, Microsoft Corporation, 2006.
  7. "Registers - ps_4_1". https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/win32/direct3dhlsl/dx-graphics-hlsl-sm4-registers-ps-4-1. 
  8. "Registers - ps_5_0". https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/win32/direct3dhlsl/registers---ps-5-0. 
  9. "Vertex Shader Differences". Microsoft Docs. https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/win32/direct3dhlsl/dx9-graphics-reference-asm-vs-differences. 
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