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Short Chronology

The short chronology is one of the chronologies of the Near Eastern Bronze and Early Iron Age, which fixes the reign of Hammurabi to 1728–1686 BC and the sack of Babylon to 1531 BC. The absolute 2nd millennium BC dates resulting from these reference points have very little academic support, and have essentially been disproved by recent dendrochronology research. The middle chronology (reign of Hammurabi 1792–1750 BC) is more commonly accepted in academic literature. For much of the period in question, middle chronology dates can be calculated by adding 64 years to the corresponding short chronology date (e.g. 1728 BC in short chronology corresponds to 1792 in middle chronology). After the so-called "dark age" between the fall of Babylon and the rise of the Kassite dynasty in Babylonia, absolute dating becomes less uncertain. While exact dates are still not agreed upon, the 64-year middle/short chronology gap ceases from the beginning of the Third Babylon Dynasty onward.

dendrochronology babylonia babylon

1. Early Bronze Age

Estimation of absolute dates becomes possible for the second half of the 3rd millennium BC. For the first half of the 3rd millennium, only very rough chronological matching of archaeological dates with written records is possible.

1.1. Kings of Ebla

The city-states of Ebla and Mari (in modern Syria) competed for power at this time. Eventually, under Irkab-Damu, Ebla defeated Mari for control of the region just in time to face the rise of Uruk and Akkad. After years of back and forth, Ebla was destroyed by the Akkadian Empire. Pottery seals of the Egyptian pharaoh Pepi I have been found in the wreckage of the city. [1]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Igrish-Halam c. 2300 BC  
Irkab-Damu   Contemporary of Iblul-Il of Mari
Ar-Ennum or Reshi-Ennum    
Ibrium or Ebrium   Contemporary of Tudiya of Assyria (treaty)
Ibbi-Sipish or Ibbi-Zikir   Son of Ibrium
Dubuhu-Ada   Ebla destroyed by Naram-Sin of Akkad or Sargon of Akkad

1.2. Sumer

Third Dynasty of Uruk

Lugal-zage-si of Umma rules from Uruk after defeating Lagash, eventually falling to the emerging Akkadian Empire.[2]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Lugal-zage-si 2295–2271 BC Defeats Urukagina of Lagash and is in turn defeated by Sargon of Akkad
Dynasty of Akkad

Since Akkad (or Agade), the capital of the Akkadian Empire, has not yet been found, available chronological data comes from outlying locations like Ebla, Tell Brak, Nippur, Susa and Tell Leilan. Clearly, the expansion of Akkad came under the rules of Sargon and Naram-sin. Its last king, Shar-kali-sharri barely held the empire together, but upon his death, it fragmented. Finally, the city of Akkad itself was destroyed by the Guti.[3][4][5]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Sargon 2270–2215 BC Defeated Lugal-zage-si
Rimush 2214–2206 BC Son of Sargon
Man-ishtishu 2205–2191 BC Son of Sargon
Naram-sin 2190–2154 BC Grandson of Sargon
Shar-kali-sharri 2153–2129 BC Son of Naram-sin
Igigi 2128-2127 BC  
Nanum 2127-2127 BC  
Imi 2127-2127 BC  
Ilulu 2127-2126 BC  
Dudu 2125–2104 BC  
Shu-Durul 2104–2083 BC City of Akkad falls to the Guti
Gutian Kings

First appearing in the area during the reign of Sargon of Akkad, the Guti became a regional power after the decline of the Akkadian Empire following Shar-kali-sharri. The dynasty ends with the defeat of the last king, Tirigan, by Uruk.

Only a handful of the Guti kings are attested to by inscriptions, aside from the Sumerian king list.[6]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Erridupizir 2141–2138 BC Royal inscription at Nippur
Imta or Nibia (There is no king for 3 or 5 years) 2138–2135 BC  
Inkishush 2135–2129 BC First Gutian ruler on the Sumerian king list
Sarlagab 2129–2126 BC  
Shulme 2126–2120 BC  
Elulmesh or Silulumesh 2120–2114 BC  
Inimabakesh 2114–2109 BC  
Igeshaush or Igeaus 2109–2103 BC  
Yarlagab or Yarlaqaba 2103–2088 BC  
Ibate 2088–2085 BC  
Yarlangab or Yarla 2085–2082 BC  
Kurum 2082–2081 BC  
Apilkin or Habil-kin or Apil-kin 2081–2078 BC  
La-erabum 2078–2076 BC Mace head inscription
Irarum 2076–2074 BC  
Ibranum 2074–2073 BC  
Hablum 2073–2071 BC  
Puzur-Suen 2071–2064 BC Son of Hablum
Yarlaganda 2064–2057 BC Foundation inscription at Umma
Si-um or Si-u 2057–2050 BC Foundation inscription at Umma
Tirigan 2050–2050 BC Contemporary of Utu-hengal of Uruk
Second Dynasty of Lagash

Following the collapse of the Akkadian Empire after Shar-kali-sharri of Akkad under pressure from the invading Gutians, Lagash gradually regained prominence. As a client state to the Gutian Kings, Lagash was extremely successful, peaking under the rule of Gudea. After the last Gutian king, Tirigan, was defeated, by Utu-hengal, Lagash came under the control of Ur under Ur-Namma.[7] Note that there is some indication that the order of the last two rulers of Lagash should be reversed.[8]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Lugalushumgal 2166-2146 BC Contemporary of Naram-sin and Shar-kali-sharri
Kaku or Kakug ended 2093  
Ur-Bau or Ur-baba 2093–2080 BC  
Gudea 2080–2060 BC Son-in-law of Ur-baba
Ur-Ningirsu 2060–2055 BC Son of Gudea
Pirigme or Ugme 2055–2053 BC Grandson of Gudea
Ur-gar 2053–2049 BC  
Nammahani 2049–2046 BC Grandson of Kaku, defeated by Ur-Namma
Fifth Dynasty of Uruk

Uniting various Sumerian city-states, Utu-hengal frees the region from the Gutians. Note that the Sumerian king list records a preceding 4th Dynasty of Uruk which is as yet unattested.[9]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Utu-hengal 2055–2048 BC Appoints Ur-Namma as governor of Ur
Third Dynasty of Ur

In an apparently peaceful transition, Ur came to power after the end of the reign of Utu-hengal of Uruk, with the first king, Ur-Namma, solidifying his power with the defeat of Lagash. By the dynasty's end with the destruction of Ur by Elamites and Shimashki, the dynasty included little more than the area around Ur.[10][11][12]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Ur-Namma or Ur-Engur 2047–2030 BC Defeated Nammahani of Lagash; Son-in-law of Utu-hengal of Uruk
Shulgi 2029–1982 BC Possible lunar/solar eclipse 2005 BC[13]
Amar-Suena 1981–1973 BC Son of Shulgi
Shu-Suen 1972–1964 BC  
Ibbi-Suen 1963–1940 BC Son of Shu-Suen

2. Middle Bronze Age

The Old Assyrian / Old Babylonian period (20th to 15th centuries)

First Dynasty of Isin

After Ishbi-Erra of Isin breaks away from the declining Third Dynasty of Ur under Ibbi-Suen, Isin reaches its peak under Ishme-Dagan. Weakened by attacks from the upstart Babylonians, Isin eventually falls to its rival Larsa under Rim-Sin I.[14][15]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Ishbi-Erra 1953–1921 BC Contemporary of Ibbi-Suen of Ur III
Šu-ilišu 1920–1911 BC Son of Ishbi-Erra
Iddin-Dagan 1910–1890 BC Son of Shu-ilishu
Ishme-Dagan 1889–1871 BC Son of Iddin-Dagan
Lipit-Eshtar 1870–1860 BC Contemporary of Gungunum of Larsa
Ur-Ninurta 1859–1832 BC Contemporary of Abisare of Larsa
Bur-Suen 1831–1811 BC Son of Ur-Ninurta
Lipit-Enlil 1810–1806 BC Son of Bur-Suen
Erra-Imittī or Ura-imitti 1805–1799 BC  
Enlil-bāni 1798–1775 BC Contemporary of Sumu-la-El of Babylon
Zambīia 1774–1772 BC Contemporary of Sin-Iqisham of Larsa
Iter-piša 1771–1768 BC  
Ur-du-kuga 1767–1764 BC  
Suen-magir 1763–1753 BC  
Damiq-ilishu 1752–1730 BC Son of Suen-magir
Kings of Larsa

The chronology of the Kingdom of Larsa is based mainly on the Larsa King List (Larsa Dynastic List), the Larsa Date Lists, and a number of royal inscriptions and commercial records. The Larsa King List was compiled in Babylon during the reign of Hammurabi, conqueror of Larsa. It is suspected that the list elevated the first several Amorite Isinite governors of Larsa to kingship so as to legitimize the rule of the Amorite Babylonians over Larsa. After a period of Babylonian occupation, Larsa briefly breaks free in a revolt ended by the death of the last king, Rim-Sin II.[16][17][18]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Naplanum 1961–1940 BC Contemporary of Ibbi-Suen of Ur III
Emisum 1940–1912 BC  
Samium 1912–1877 BC  
Zabaia 1877–1868 BC Son of Samium, First royal inscription
Gungunum 1868–1841 BC Gained independence from Lipit-Eshtar of Isin
Abisare 1841–1830 BC  
Sumuel 1830–1801 BC  
Nur-Adad 1801–1785 BC Contemporary of Sumu-la-El of Babylon
Sin-Iddinam 1785–1778 BC Son of Nur-Adad
Sin-Eribam 1778–1776 BC  
Sin-Iqisham 1776–1771 BC Contemporary of Zambiya of Isin, Son of Sin-Eribam
Silli-Adad 1771–1770 BC  
Warad-Sin 1770–1758 BC Possible co-regency with Kudur-Mabuk his father
Rim-Sin I 1758–1699 BC Contemporary of Irdanene of Uruk, Defeated by Hammurabi of Babylon, Brother of Warad-Sin
Hammurabi of Babylon 1699–1686 BC Official Babylonian rule
Samsu-iluna of Babylon 1686–1678 BC Official Babylonian rule
Rim-Sin II 1678–1674 BC Killed in revolt against Babylon
First Babylonian dynasty (Dynasty I)

Following the fall of the Ur III Dynasty, the resultant power vacuum was contested by Isin and Larsa, with Babylon and Assyria later joining the fray. In the second half of the reign of Hammurabi, Babylon became the preeminent power, a position it largely maintained until the sack by Mursili I in 1531 BC. Note that there are no contemporary accounts of the sack of Babylon. It is inferred from much later documents.[19][20]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Sumu-abum or Su-abu 1830–1817 BC Contemporary of Ilushuma of Assyria
Sumu-la-El 1817–1781 BC Contemporary of Erishum I of Assyria
Sabium or Sabum 1781–1767 BC Son of Sumu-la-El
Apil-Sin 1767–1749 BC Son of Sabium
Sin-muballit 1748–1729 BC Son of Apil-Sin
Hammurabi 1728–1686 BC Contemporary of Zimri-Lim of Mari, Siwe-palar-huppak of Elam and Shamshi-Adad I
Samsu-iluna 1686–1648 BC Son of Hammurabi
Abi-eshuh or Abieshu 1648–1620 BC Son of Samsu-iluna
Ammi-ditana 1620–1583 BC Son of Abi-eshuh
Ammi-saduqa or Ammisaduqa 1582–1562 BC Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa
Samsu-Ditana 1562–1531 BC Sack of Babylon
1st Sealand Dynasty (2nd Dynasty of Babylon)

When the names of Sealand Dynasty kings were found on cuneiform records like the Babylonian Kings Lists, Chronicle 20, Chronicle of the Early Kings, and the Synchronistic King List, it was assumed that the dynasty slotted in between the First Dynasty of Babylon and the Kassites.[21] Later discoveries changed this to the assumption that the dynasty ran entirely in parallel to the others. Modern scholarship has made it clear that the Sealand Dynasty did in fact control Babylon and the remnants of its empire for a time after its sack by the Hittites in 1531 BC.[22][23]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Ilumael or Ilum-ma-ilī c. 1700 BC Contemporary of Samsu-iluna and Abi-eshuh of the First Dynasty of Babylon
Damqi-ilišu II    
mDIŠ+U-EN (reading unknown)    
Pešgaldarameš   Son of Gulkishar
Ayadaragalama   Son (=descendant) of Gulkishar
Ea-gâmil ca. 1460 BC Contemporary of Ulamburiash of the Kassite dynasty of Babylon
Hittite Old Kingdom

The absolute chronology of the Hittite Old Kingdom hinges entirely on the date of the sack of Babylon. In 1531 BC, for reasons that are still extremely unclear, Mursili I marched roughly 500 miles from Aleppo to Babylon, sacked it, and then promptly returned home, never to return. Other than that event, all the available chronological synchronisms are local to the region in and near Anatolia.

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Labarna I    
Hattusili I or Labarna II 1586–1556 BC Grandfather of Mursili I
Mursili I 1556–1526 BC Sacked Babylon in reign of Samsu-Ditana of Babylon
Hantili I 1526–1496 BC  
Zidanta I 1496–1486 BC  
Ammuna 1486–1466 BC Son of Hantili I
Huzziya I 1466–1461 BC Son of Ammuna
telepinu began 1460 BC  

3. Late Bronze Age

The Middle Assyrian period (14th to 12th centuries)

Third Babylon Dynasty (Kassite)

The Kassites first appeared during the reign of Samsu-iluna of the First Babylonian dynasty and after being defeated by Babylon, moved to control the city-state of Mari. Some undetermined amount of time after the fall of Babylon, the Kassites established a new Babylonian dynasty. The Babylonian king list identifies 36 kings reigning 576 years, however, only about 18 names are legible. A few more were identified by inscriptions. There is some confusion in the middle part of the dynasty because of conflicts between the Synchronistic Chronicle and Chronicle P. The later kings are well attested from kudurru steles. Relative dating is from sychronisms with Egypt, Assyria and the Hittites. The dynasty ends with the defeat of Enlil-nadin-ahi by Elam.[24][25][26][27]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Agum II or Agum-Kakrime    
Burnaburiash I   Treaty with Puzur-Ashur III of Assyria
Kashtiliash III    
Ulamburiash   Conquers the first Sealand dynasty
Agum III    
Karaindash   Treaty with Ashur-bel-nisheshu of Assyria
Kadashman-harbe I   Campaign against the Sutû
Kurigalzu I ended 1375 BC Founder of Dur-Kurigalzu and contemporary of Thutmose IV
Kadashman-Enlil I 1374–1360 BC Contemporary of Amenophis III of the Egyptian Amarna letters
Burnaburiash II 1359–1333 BC Contemporary of Akhenaten and Ashur-uballit I
Kara-hardash 1333 BC Grandson of Ashur-uballit I of Assyria
Nazi-Bugash or Shuzigash 1333 BC Usurper "son of a nobody"
Kurigalzu II 1332–1308 BC Son of Burnaburiash II, Fought Battle of Sugagi with Enlil-nirari of Assyria
Nazi-Maruttash 1307–1282 BC Contemporary of Adad-nirari I of Assyria
Kadashman-Turgu 1281–1264 BC Contemporary of Hattusili III of the Hittites
Kadashman-Enlil II 1263–1255 BC Contemporary of Hattusili III of the Hittites
Kudur-Enlil 1254–1246 BC Time of Nippur renaissance
Shagarakti-Shuriash 1245–1233 BC "Non-son of Kudur-Enlil" according to Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria
Kashtiliashu IV 1232–1225 BC Contemporary of Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria
Enlil-nadin-shumi 1224 BC Assyria installed vassal king
Kadashman-Harbe II 1223 BC Assyria installed vassal king
Adad-shuma-iddina 1222–1217 BC Assyria installed vassal king
Adad-shuma-usur 1216–1187 BC Contemporary of Ashur-nirari III of Assyria
Meli-Shipak II 1186–1172 BC Correspondence with Ninurta-apal-Ekur confirming foundation of Near East chronology
Marduk-apla-iddina I 1171–1159 BC  
Zababa-shuma-iddin 1158 BC Defeated by Shutruk-Nahhunte of Elam
Enlil-nadin-ahi 1157–1155 BC Defeated by Kutir-Nahhunte of Elam

Perhaps because the capital of Mitanni, Washukanni, has not yet been found, there are no available king lists, year lists, or royal inscriptions. Fortunately, a fair amount of diplomatic, Hittite, and Assyrian sources exist to firm up the chronology. Having become powerful under Shaushtatar, Mitanni eventually falls into the traditional trap of dynasties, the contest for succession. Tushratta and Artatama II both claim the kingship and the Hittites and Assyrians take advantage of the situation. After that, Mitanni was no longer a factor in the region.[28][29]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Kirta ca. 1500 BC  
Parshatatar or Parrattarna   Son of Kirta
Shaushtatar   Contemporary of Idrimi of Alalakh, Sacks Ashur
Artatama I   Treaty with Pharaoh Thutmose IV of Egypt, Contemporary of Pharaoh Amenhotep II of Egypt
Shuttarna II   Daughter marries Pharaoh Amenhotep III of Egypt in his year 10
Artashumara   Son of Shutarna II, brief reign
Tushratta ca. 1350 BC Contemporary of Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites and Pharaohs Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV of Egypt, Amarna letters
Artatama II   Treaty with Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites, ruled same time as Tushratta
Shuttarna III   Contemporary of Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites
Shattiwaza   Mitanni becomes vassal of the Hittite Empire
Shattuara I   Mittani becomes vassal of Assyria under Adad-nirari I
Wasashatta   Son of Shattuara I
Assyrian Middle Kingdom
Main page: Place:Assyria

Long a minor player, after the defeat of its neighbor Mitanni by the Hittites, Assyria rises to the ranks of a major power under Ashur-uballit I. The period is marked by conflict with rivals Babylon and the Hittites as well as diplomatic exchanges with Egypt, in the Amarna letters. Note that after the excavation, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, of various Neo-Assyrian documents, such as the Assyrian king list, scholars assumed that the chronological data for earlier Assyrian periods could be taken as accurate history. That view has changed over the years and the early Assyrian chronology is being re-assessed. Since there is yet no consensus, the traditional order and regnal lengths will be followed.[30][31][32]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Eriba-Adad I 1380–1353 BC  
Ashur-uballit I 1353–1318 BC Contemporary of Burnaburiash II of Babylon and Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites
Enlil-nirari 1317–1308 BC Fought Battle of Sugagi with Kurigalzu II of Babylon, Son of Ashur-uballit I
Arik-den-ili 1307–1296 BC  
Adad-nirari I 1295–1264 BC Contemporary of Shattuara I and Wasashatta of Mitanni
Shalmaneser I 1263–1234 BC Son of Adad-nirari I
Tukulti-Ninurta I 1233–1197 BC Contemporary of Kashtiliashu IV of Babylon
Ashur-nadin-apli 1196–1194 BC Son of Tukulti-Ninurta I
Ashur-nirari III 1193–1188 BC Contemporary of Adad-shuma-usur of Babylon and Son of Ashur-nadin-apli
Enlil-kudurri-usur 1187–1183 BC Son of Tukulti-Ninurta I
Ninurta-apal-Ekur 1182–1180 BC  
Hittite New Kingdom

Beginning under his father, Suppiluliuma I brought the Hittites from obscurity into an empire that lasts for almost 150 years. The Hittite New Kingdom reaches its height after the defeat of Mitanni, an event which ironically leads to the rise of Assyria. The dynasty ends with the destruction of Hattusa by parties undetermined but which may have included the Sea People and the Kaskians.[33][34][35][36]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Tudhaliya III 1360–1344 BC Son of Tudhaliya II
Suppiluliuma I 1344–1322 BC Son of Tudhaliya III, Contemporary of Tushratta of Mitanni
Arnuwanda II 1322–1321 BC Son of Suppiluliuma I
Mursili II 1321–1295 BC Son of Suppiluliuma I; Mursili's eclipse
Muwatalli II 1295–1272 BC Son of Mursili II, Battle of Kadesh in year 5 of Ramses II of Egypt,
Mursili III or Urhi-Teshub 1272–1267 BC Son of Muwatalli II
Hattusili III 1267–1237 BC Son of Mursili II, Treaty in year 21 of Ramses II of Egypt, Contemporary of Shalmaneser I of Assyria & Kadashman-Turgu of Babylon
Tudhaliya IV 1237–1209 BC Son of Hattusili III, Battle of Nihriya
Arnuwanda III 1209–1207 BC Son of Tudhaliya IV
Suppiluliuma II 1207–1178 BC Son of Tudhaliya IV, Fall of Hattusa
Kings of Ugarit

A client state of Mitanni and later the Hittites, Ugarit was nonetheless a significant player in the region. While regnal lengths and an absolute chronology for Ugarit are not yet available, the known order of kings and some firm synchronisms make it reasonably placeable in time. The fall of Ugarit has been narrowed down to the range from the reign of Pharaoh Merneptah to the 8th year of Pharaoh Rameses III of Egypt. This is roughly the same time that Hattusa is destroyed.[37][38]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Ammittamru I ca. 1350 BC  
Niqmaddu II   Contemporary of Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites
Niqmepa   Treaty with Mursili II of the Hittites, Son of Niqmadu II,
Ammittamru II   Contemporary of Bentisina of Amurru, Son of Niqmepa
Niqmaddu III    
Ammurapi ca. 1200 BC Contemporary of Chancellor Bay of Egypt, Ugarit is destroyed


  1. A Victory over Mari and the Fall of Ebla, Alfonso Archi, Maria Giovanna Biga, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vol. 55, 2003, pp. 1-44
  2. Sumerian and Akkadian Royal Inscriptions: Presargonic Inscriptions, Jerold S. Cooper, Eisenbrauns, 1986, ISBN:0-940490-82-X
  3. The Genesis and Collapse of Third Millennium North Mesopotamian Civilization, H. Weiss et al., Science, Aug 20, pp. 995-1004, 1993
  4. Historical Perception in the Sargonic Literary Tradition. The Implication of Copied Texts, Rosetta 1, pp 1-9, 2006
  5. The Sargonic and Gutian Periods (2334-2113), Douglas R. Frayne, University of Toronto Press, 1993, ISBN:0-8020-0593-4
  6. Reallexikon der Assyriologie by Erich Ebling, Bruno Meissner, 1993, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN:3-11-003705-X
  7. Gudea and His Dynasty, Dietz Otto Edzard, 1997, University of Toronto Press ISBN:0-8020-4187-6
  8. The Calendar of Neo-Sumerian Ur and Its Political Significance, Magnus Widell, University of Chicago, 2004
  9. A Sumerian reading-book, C.J Gadd, The Clarendon Press, 1924
  10. The Ancient Near East: C.3000-330 B.C. By Amélie Kuhrt, Routledge, 1995, ISBN:0-415-16762-0
  11. Ur III Period (2112-2004 BC) by Douglas Frayne, University of Toronto Press, 1997, ISBN:0-8020-4198-1
  12. The ruling family of Ur III Umma. A Prosopographical Analysis of an Elite Family in Southern Iraq 4000 Years ago , J.L. Dahl, UCLA dissertation, 2003
  13. "Ancient Eclipses and Dating the Fall of Babylon", Boris Banjevic, Publ. Astron. Obs. Belgrade No. 80 (2006), 251 – 257
  14. Kings of Isin Year Names
  15. The Old Babylonian Period (2003-1595), Douglas R. Frayne, University Of Toronto Press, 1990, ISBN:0-8020-5873-6
  16. The Rulers of Larsa , M. Fitzgerald, Yale University Dissertation, 2002
  17. Larsa Year Names, Marcel Segrist, Andrews University Press, 1990, ISBN:0-943872-54-5
  18. Chronology of the Larsa Dynasty, E.M. Grice, C.E. Keiser, M. Jastrow, AMS Press, 1979, ISBN:0-404-60274-6
  19. Chronicle of early kings at
  20. The Proclamation of Telipinu
  21. Albert Kirk Grayson, Assyrian and Babylonian chronicles, Eisenbrauns, 2000 ISBN:1-57506-049-3
  22. W. G. Lambert, The Home of the First Sealand Dynasty, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 208-210, 1974
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  24. The Collapse of a Complex State, A Reappraisal of the End of the First Dynasty of Babylon 1683–1597 B.C., Seth Richardson, dissertation, Columbia University, 2002
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  26. The Kassites of Ancient Mesopotamian: Origins, Politics, and Culture, Walter Sommerfield, vol 2 of J. M. Sasson ed. Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1995
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  31. Assyrian Rulers of the Third and Second Millennia BC, A.K. Grayson, University of Toronto Press, 1987, ISBN:0-8020-2605-2
  32. "The Chronology of Ancient Assyria Re-assessed," B. Newgrosh, JACF, vol. 08, pp. 78–106, 1999
  33. Bryce, T., 'The 'Eternal Treaty' from the Hittite perspective', BMSAES 6 (2006), 1–11
  34. Sürenhagen, D., 'Forerunners of the Hattusili-Ramesses treaty', BMSAES 6 (2006), 59–67
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