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From Triboelectric Nanogenerator to Uninterrupted Power Supply System
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Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) was invented in 2012 and is undergoing fast progress in tandem with the notion of switching to cleaner forms of energy, such as thermal, mechanical, biochemical, and solar, as well as any other forms of environmental energy. Based on the coupled effects of contact electrification and electrostatic induction, TENG represents a significant technological advance in converting various mechanical energies present in the ambient environment into electrical energy. Because of its benefits for environmental friendliness, low cost, sound efficiency, and a wide range of material alternatives, it has been extensively employed in several varieties of self-powered electronic gadgets, such as wireless sensors, implanted medical equipment, chemical sensors, electrochemical processes, household appliances, security detection systems, human-machine interfaces (HMIs), and artificial intelligence (AI).

uninterrupted power supply triboelectric nanogenerator batteries
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Table of Contents

    1. Triboelectric Nanogenerators (TENGs) and Uninterrupted Power Supply Systems

    1.1. Working Principle of TENG

    The connection of the triboelectric effect and the electrostatic induction effect may be used to explain how the TENG produces electric energy. Two insulating polymers are in close contact when the device is affected by an external force. Due to their different positions in the friction sequence, the surfaces they contact will generate static charges of equal size and opposite polarity. Electrons will then begin to migrate back and forth between the two electrodes attached to the backs of the two materials as soon as the two surfaces are mechanically separated [1][2]. TENG’s performance has consistently increased since it was created in 2012. There are currently four operating modes for this device: vertical contact separation type, sliding type, single electrode type, and independent type. Vertical-contact separation type and sliding type are the most fundamental; the latter two are expansions of the former two forms [3][4].
    The primary use of a TENG is to generate electricity for small electronic devices or to collect energy from the environment and use it to generate power for larger electronic devices [5][6]. The TENG sensor can eventually gather a lot of energy from the environment, such as vibration energy produced by people walking, mechanical vibration energy, water energy and so on. This energy can be captured using the four operating modes of the TENG mentioned above or by combining them. TENG has promising future application opportunities in self-powered active sensing [7][8].

    1.2. Working Principle of TENG-UPS

    Directly driving most electrical equipment is challenging because of TENG’s erratic, alternating current (AC) output characteristics. To offer a controllable and adjustable continuous output for electronic equipment, the alternating current produced by TENG is transformed into a direct current after being coupled with the rectifier bridge and stored in the electrochemical energy storage unit (such as supercapacitors and batteries) [9][10][11]. The battery or supercapacitor will be able to store more energy as the TENG-UPS is regularly squeezed by an external force. The TENG-UPS may be concurrently charged and drained when linked to an external load. TENG-UPS is a steady direct current (DC) power source because it can transform erratic and unreliable AC output into consistent DC output.

    2. TENG-UPS

    The efficient collection of lost mechanical energy to create a sustainable power supply may be accomplished by integrating TENG and energy storage equipment (supercapacitor or battery) into the uninterrupted power supply system. This section will primarily introduce the most recent developments in TENG-based TENG-UPS.

    2.1. Integration with Supercapacitors for the Construction of TENG-UPSs

    After more than 20 years of intensive development, supercapacitors are now a possible energy storage technology [12][13][14]. Supercapacitors outperform batteries in terms of mobility, safety, operational temperature range, power density, and lifecycle. They offer a lot of promise as a choice for portable electrical devices because of these benefits. SCs and TENG can be used to create a sustainable TENG-UPS that harvests mechanical energy from daily activities [15][16]. The main topic of discussion in this part will be the development of SC and TENG-integrated TENG-UPS.

    2.1.1. Flexible/Wearable TENG-UPSs via Integration of TENG with SC

    With the development of personal electronic products, the pursuit of wear resistance has become more and more important. Smart electronic textiles cannot use traditional energy storage technology because they are not wearable and have low power. On the other hand, because of its softness, extensibility, and even washability, TENG in fibers, yarns, woven, or knitted textiles is often reported [17][18]. Therefore, it is essential to develop a wearable TENG-UPS that is functional to open the door for wearable electronic items. By combining a TENG with SC of heterostructure air-placed paper, Yang et al. developed a paper-based UPS that was permeable and resistant to wear. For P-TENG and P-SCS, coated CNT-WPU is employed as a current collector and paper-based electrode, respectively. The P-TENG triboelectric couple uses a highly porous and mechanically solid air-laid paper with a felt surface and thread surface that exhibits exceptional flexibility and cloth-like permeability (333 mm s−1) and good wet stability (85% voltage retention after four soaking cycles). Additionally, P-SCS constructed from a gel electrolyte, and paper-based electrode may efficiently store triboelectricity [19]. Liu et al. developed a TENG-UPS fabric in 2019 that consists of an energy storage yarn-type asymmetric SC and a complete yarn-based energy harvesting TENG. An electrode in TENG and a one-dimensional current collector in Y-ASC were created from a common polyester yarn with a conformal Ni/Cu coating. The positive and negative electrodes of the yarn SC are coated with Ni-Co bimetallic hydroxide (NiCoBOH), and the negative electrode has a hydrothermally self-assembled RGO/CNT coating. High area and power densities, outstanding cycle performance, and adaptability are all characteristics of solid-state Y-ASC. TENG yarns may be woven into regular textiles with the necessary fashion design to harness a high yield of energy from daily human activity (60 V open circuit voltage and 3 A short circuit current). The built-in uninterrupted power supply cloth can power the electronic watch without extra battery charge [20].
    Yang et al. used a one-dimensional exterior TENG and an SC to simultaneously harvest mechanical energy and store energy to create a flexible coaxial fiber. Carbon fiber bundles are utilized in such coaxial fibers as active and electrode materials for the SC and as electrode materials for the TENG. In addition to serving as the triboelectric substance of TENG, silicone rubber also functions as a diaphragm between the SC and TENG. The energy storage device (specific capacitance is 31.25 mF g−1) exhibits good capacitance performance and stability. Fabric that serves as the power source for wearable electronic devices may easily be woven using coaxial fiber as the foundation. The internal SC can be charged by repeatedly pressing the external TENG, and then the electronic devices can be driven [21]. A very stretchy and machine-washable complete yarn uninterrupted power supply textile (UPST) was demonstrated by Kai et al. It can simultaneously gather biomechanical energy and store it by fusing a TENG and SC into a fabric. The yarn is created by covering three-layer twisted stainless steel/polyester fiber yarn with silicone rubber. Carbon nanofibers (CNF) and poly (3,4-ethyldioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) are dips coated on bundles of carbon fiber (CF) to create the all-solid symmetric yarn SC, which is made constantly. Knitted TENG fabric has a maximum instantaneous peak power density of 85 mW m−2, sufficient to power at least 124 light-emitting diodes (LED). It demonstrates that the suggested design is a viable, long-term power source for worn electronic devices [22].
    Chen and colleagues used the conventional weaving method to alternately braid wires to create an integrated self-powering/self-charging power textile. It has been demonstrated that the TENG-UPS can generate energy from routine everyday activities (such as walking and running) and provide power for wearable electronic devices [23]. An inflexible, unpleasant, and hostile rectifier bridge is required by most textile TENG utilized for energy collecting to convert AC to DC to power electronic devices. This severely restricts both its potential for use and further study. Thus, using DC fabric TENG and symmetric fiber SCs, Chen et al. developed an uninterrupted power supply textile. DC-TENG has a plain weave structure and is constructed of PA non-conductive fibers separated by PA non-conductive fibers used as warp yarns and PA conductive fibers used as weft yarns. 416 serially linked LEDs may be lit up with ease via F-TENG. Additionally, a calculator and water pressure gauge powered by a solid-state yarn SC made of carbon fiber and poly (3,4-ethyldioxythiophene): sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) was developed [24]. Mao et al. reported a whole yarn-type uninterruptible power supply system connecting TENG and SC to harvest and store biological movement energy continuously.
    Han et al. developed a multipurpose coaxial energy fiber for energy storage and harvesting. The energy fiber comprises an SC, a pressure sensor with coaxial geometry, and an all-fiber form TENG. The outside sheath is made of fiber TENG operating in single electrode mode, while the core is made of fibrous SC, which stores energy using a green activation method. A self-powering pressure sensor comprises the inner layer (covered with Ag) and the outside friction layer. Each energy source’s electrical performance is extensively investigated. The fiber SC has excellent cycle stability (96.6% retention), a decent charge/discharge rate capability, and a length-specific capacitance density of 13.42 mF cm−1. At its peak, a fiber TENG may produce 2.5 W of power. It can power electric watches and temperature sensors [25].
    Generally, there is a gap between the optical fiber TENG and SC, which will prevent them from interacting with each other. However, this will lead to larger and more inconvenient optical fiber equipment in operation and thus reduce mechanical stability. Given this, Zhao et al. have developed a self-mixing smart fiber with an asymmetric coaxial structure, which can simultaneously capture and store the mechanical energy obtained. Due to the strong mechanical and chemical resistivity of P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) polymer on the surface of hybrid smart fiber devices, self-charging smart fibers show high mechanical durability under repeated stress, and the use of commercial detergents also has high washing resistance. The progress in the field of smart fiber electronics provides a huge opportunity to build a new device platform based on fiber/textiles. It enables people to freely overcome the limitations that previously hindered the development of self-powered wearable electronic products. The development of self-charging technology provides a great opportunity to establish a new equipment platform based on fiber/textile electronics [26].
    The fact that many TENG-UPSs based on SCs are constructed from a mass of fibers or threads puts TENG and SC at risk for deformation damage. Therefore, putting diverse conductive and active elements on a common fabric substrate is the most straightforward method for building uninterrupted power supply fabric. Cong et al. demonstrated using elastic coplanar uninterruptible power supply cloth in 2020. The fabric electrode still has good conductivity when the transverse and longitudinal tensile strains are 600% and 200%, respectively. Depending on the fabric, the maximum surface capacitance is 50.6 mF cm−1. Stretchable TENG made of fabric can provide an open circuit voltage of 49 V and a peak power density of 94.5 mW m−2. Small electrical gadgets can also be powered sporadically using it without the need for extra charging [27]. Therefore, the basic fabric structure provides UPST with an efficient and adaptable design carrier and implementation platform.

    2.1.2. Film-Based TENG-UPS

    The production of flexible electronic products requires high standards of lightness, thinness, and flexibility. Paper is a common material for TENG-UPS unit construction due to its lightweight, low cost, environmental protection, and ease of manufacture. Inspired by paper electronic devices, thin film structures are gradually being used to develop wearable and flexible electronic products. By combining paper TENG (P-TENG) with paper SC, Shi et al. manufactured portable and long-lasting TENG-UPS. As the electrode and positive triboelectric layer of P-TENG, cellulose paper/PPy composite was utilized; nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) served as the negative triboelectric layer. The power density displayed by P-TENG was 0.83 W m−1, and the high output load voltage was 60 V. The P-SC composed of cellulose paper/Ppy and gel electrolyte also performed well. TENG-UPS generated by a combination of P-TENG and P-SC can supply power for various electrical equipment [28].
    Sun et al. showed an electrostatic spinning paper-based supercapacitor (EP-SC) as an energy storage unit and an electrospinning paper-based triboelectric nanogenerator (EP-TENG) as an energy trap. In the arcuate EP-TENG, conductive carbon paper serves as the electrode, non-conductive pan paper serves as the triboelectric layer, and both conductive carbon paper and non-conductive pan paper are employed as the EP-SC’s capacitive material. Electronic watches and calculators can be powered using fully flexible electrospinning paper [29]. Additionally, accelerating the transition to transparent, flexible, and portable electronic devices is the development trend of portable wearable personal electronic devices and intelligent security systems. Luo et al. constructed a transparent and flexible self-charging power film (SCPF), which can be used as an information input matrix or a self-energy supply system coupled with an energy storage device. TENG’s electrode was composed of 3DAu-MnO film. An all-solid-state interdigital TFSC array completed energy storage. The whole apparatus can harvest mechanical energy from the quick movement of the finger and has a high transmittance of 67.1%. More importantly, the device can identify personal characteristics by capturing electronic data related to bioelectricity, applied pressure, sliding speed, etc., during sliding movement [30]. Additionally, a self-charging SC power cell was recently presented by Kumar Shrestha et al. In addition to an ionic liquid electrolyte and an electrode made of cobalt nanoporous carbon, laser-induced graphene, and copper (Co NPC/LIG/Cu), the device employs poly (vinylidene fluoride co hexafluoropropylene) P(VDF-HFP) as a polymer separator. The TENG’s positive and negative triboelectric layers are made of nylon 6*6 nanofiber and Co NPC/LIG/P(VDF-HFP) film, respectively. With a 2.5 mW power output, TENG can effectively charge SPC to 210 mV in 9 s. To control T-Rex’s “leap” and “duck” motions in the gaming interface, dynamic and static signals from SPC devices are employed, and various SPC charge levels are utilized as smart switches to turn on intelligent appliances [31].
    Qin et al. demonstrated an intelligent uninterruptible power pack that combines a hybrid TENG with an electrochromic micro uninterruptible power array to change the color to display the charging state. AgNW/NiO is the electrode material of electrochromic SC, with high capacitance (3.47 mF cm−2) and reliable cycle performance (80.7% of 10,000 cycles). To meet the self-charging standard, the hybrid TENG can provide a high output voltage of 150 V and a high output current of 20 A. Under the periodic mechanical deformation caused by human hand impact, the integrated electrochromic uninterruptible power supply array can self-charge to 3V and light the LED. The charging level can be determined during self-charging by comparing the color with the naked eye [32]. Song et al. established an integrated sandwich-shaped TENG-UPS unit that can effectively convert mechanical energy into electrochemical energy and collect and store energy by combining a wrinkled PDMS-based TENG and a CNT/paper-based solid-state SC [33]. Furthermore, three TENG-UPS linked in series are utilized as the power supply, which may drive commercial calculators to function continually and act as electrochromic devices for smart windows in the coloring and bleaching processes.
    Elastic and sponge structures are also common in energy storage and harvesting systems, as well as thin film structures. For example, Li et al. demonstrated a copper-doped PDMS sponge as a flexible supercapacitor and a flexible and robust TENG electrode. The SC shows good energy storage capacity and excellent mechanical and long-term stability. It retains functionality when folded 180 degrees and squeezed to 50% of its original thickness. The LED may be lit in around 50 min by charging the three series-connected SCS to 2.4 V using S-TENG at 3 Hz. The development of wearable personal electronic devices and integrated devices may benefit from this porous metal sponge [34]. Ma et al. established a paper-based TENG-UPS to capture the mechanical energy produced by hand movement and store it in an MSC. The TENG-UPS is significantly simplified by integrating the TENG with an independent structure and the MSCs on the flat surface on a single sheet of paper, reducing the need for extra wire bonding, circuit bonding pads, and packaging operations. Power can be supplied to the wireless location sensor [35].
    Biplab K. Deka et al. developed a multipurpose TENG-UPS using woven carbon fiber as the basis. The WCF electrode is improved by growing P-doped Cu-Mn selenide nanowires on the surface. The positive electrode of TENG is made of the polydimethylsiloxane-coated nanowire WCF, while the negative electrode is made of the SC’s polyester-based outer surface. The equipment can adapt to various external climatic conditions and has good mechanical performance. The TENG-UPS can be used for various electronic devices, including autonomous cars and unmanned aircraft [36].

    2.1.3. Packaged TENG-UPSs

    The above TENG-UPS combines TENG and SC into one piece of equipment; however, their waterproof performance is limited. Because of this, it is a good choice to encapsulate them in polymers. An integrated form adaptable uninterrupted power supply pack was shown by Guo et al. in 2016. A proportionate stretch of up to 215% may be achieved with the kirigami paper-based supercapacitor (KP-SC), which also has a 5000 charge/discharge cycle reliability rating and outstanding mechanical durability (2000 stretch/release cycles). Silicone rubber and Ag nanowires are the ingredients of TENG. It has a tensile state of 100%, an output charge of 160 nC, and an open circuit voltage of 250 V. This power unit has the ability to power the electronic meter while also collecting hand energy continually. TENG-UPS may also be cleaned because the parts are silicone rubber-sealed [37].
    Jiang et al. developed a very compact TENG-UPS that combines an MSC based on Mxene with a TENG in a wearable, flexible monolithic device. The device can use and store random energy from human actions in standby mode, and when active, it can power electrical devices [38]. Zhou et al. built FC-TENG and FC-SC based on folded carbon (FC) paper, which is used as energy collectors and storage devices. This high Young’s modulus carbon paper has a geometric design and super tensile properties. It can make the power unit work normally even in severe deformation, such as bending, twisting, or rolling. The packaged equipment also performs well in terms of waterproofing. The self-charging unit may successfully charge electrical gadgets by extracting mechanical energy via hand tapping, foot stomping, and arm contact [39]. Yang et al. developed a completely flexible TENG-UPS that integrates MSC with TENG using oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes and polymer electrodes [40]. In 10,000 tensile test cycles, the completely stretchy MSC with oxidized single-walled carbon nanotube/polyvinyl alcohol electrode demonstrated a double-layer capacitance of 20 mF cm−2 at 0.1 mA cm−2, as well as increased mechanical flexibility and stretchability. Silver nanoparticles embedded with oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes were used to create a stretchable current collector based on polydimethylsiloxane. Furthermore, the TENG can charge the MSC of the completely extendable TENG-UPS unit from 0 to 2.2 V in 1200 s and power the commercial digital clock for roughly 10 s. Chun et al. suggested a clear and adaptable multi-functional electronic system using an integrated TENG-UPS and a touch sensor. For the electrodes of TENG, touch sensors, and SC, they utilized single-layer graphene (SLG) sheets. A separator made of a PVA-LiCl impregnated electrospinning polyacrylonitrile (PAN) pad was inserted between two symmetric SLG electrodes on a polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate to create the first transparent, capacitive and flexible electronic devices. The device constitutes the top panel of multi-functional electronic equipment. It is a sensitive, fast-response touch sensor and a supercapacitor based on an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) [41].

    2.2. TENG-UPSs via Integration of TENG with Batteries

    Thanks to their high-rate discharge capability and extended lifecycle, batteries are common in many portable electronic devices, including Bluetooth headsets, smart wristbands, mobile phones, tablets, and laptop computers. The integration of batteries and TENG will highlight TENG-UPS in this part.
    Wang’s research team originally developed the TENG-UPS combined with TENG and LIB, which can concurrently harvest and store ambient mechanical energy. External triggers will cause mechanical movement to generate alternating currents, and LIB can store rectified electric energy. In this sustainable mode, TENG-UPS can supply a constant and long-lasting 2 A direct current that may be utilized to power the UV sensor [96] continually. To store the energy produced by the TENG, Li et al. designed a flexible LIB that resembled a sheet and was constructed of a quasi-solid gel electrolyte. The flexibility of gel electrolytes enables them to withstand various deformations, including bending, twisting, and even being compressed into balls, without losing their function. The flexible battery's mechanical strength, flexibility, and puncture resistance are very good. The flexible LIB stores the rectification energy from TENG, enabling the watch to operate continuously. [42]. Tian et al. reported a FeSe2 carbon nanotube (FeSe2-CNT) hybrid microsphere as the anode material of LIB. FeSe2-CNT hybrid LIB can withstand high-voltage TENG pulses and can be directly charged by TENG to gather energy [98] steadily. Li et al. developed and built a high-performance flexible lithium-ion battery utilizing LiMn0.6Fe0.4PO4/C(LMFP/C) as the positive electrode material [43]. The battery is very adaptable and recyclable. After 300 bends, there is no discernible performance reduction in the battery. A flexible TENG is linked with a flexible battery to build a wearable self-charging power pack. TENG can harvest mechanical energy and transfer it to electrical energy, which can charge the battery and power the flexible electrochromic film. LiMn0.6Fe0.4PO4 is the cathode material of flexible lithium-ion batteries and the electrochemical component of self-charging power packs. More intriguingly, Hong et al. designed an energy collection and storage system of a wireless power transmission coil, TENG, SC, and LIB. The coil is LIB and SC wireless in the combined system, while TENG accelerates the charging process. The flexible and elastic structure of the system allows integration with the human skin [44].
    TENG-UPS may also gather mechanical energy from sources other than human motion. For instance, Luo et al. developed a TENG based on a 0.94(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-0.06Ba(0.25Ti0.75)O3/polyvinylidene fluoride (BNT-BZT/PVDF) composite film that was utilized to capture wind energy and employs an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery (ASS-LIB) as an energy storage device. TENG can provide output voltage and current of 400 V and 45 A, respectively. In addition, the ASS-LIB can be quickly charged to 3.8 V in 58 min utilizing wind-driven TENG. It can constantly operate 12 white LEDs in parallel or pH meters [45]. Wang et al., developed a combination of TENG and flexible ZIB integrated into a specifically designed flexible 3D spacer fabric, which can concurrently harvest mechanical energy from human motion and store electrical energy through batteries. Using external mechanical energy, fabric TENG may produce Voc of around 10-15 V and Isc of 3-4 A. The flexible ZIB attained its highest specific capacity of 265 mAh g−1 [46]. Lu et al. developed a self-powered device that can effectively store pulse current and has excellent cycle stability using a flexible quasi-solid sodium battery and TENG. Combining a complex and flexible battery with TENG shows its potential as a powerful and flexible self-power supply system and proves its ability as a feasible energy storage component [47].
    Various other battery technologies are also under development, including lithium-sulfur batteries, sodium-ion batteries, zinc-ion batteries, etc. However, the above TENG-UPS solutions have high prices, high costs, and large volume disadvantages. The future development of TENG-UPS based on TENG may also be towards the next generation of batteries using magnesium, calcium, or aluminum, which are cheaper, heavier, and smaller. According to the above research, a multi-functional fabric structure can be used as a reliable and adaptable design carrier and implementation platform for self-charging power textiles.

    2.3. Hybrid TENG-UPS

    The output power of a single TENG may be limited, which is insufficient to meet the consumption of electronic devices in the long run. Combining two or more generators may be a reasonable design, which can effectively collect energy from the environment [48][49][50]. Wen et al. proposed a hybrid TENG-UPS textile in 2016, which can simultaneously collect energy from random body movements and external sunlight. This system then stores the energy in an electrochemical energy storage unit. The charging efficiency of UPST has been significantly increased by using fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells (for solar energy) and fiber-shaped TENG (for random body motion energy). Both harvested energies can be easily converted into electrical energy and stored as chemical energy in fiber-shaped SCs [51]. Ma et al. constructed a TENG-UPS panel by combining lithium-ion batteries, solar cells, and TENG to store the gathered energy and minimize excessive energy loss immediately. The utilization of current collectors, substrates, and packing materials is considerably reduced in integrated devices. TENG can charge the 2.1 mA h lithium-ion battery from 3 V to 3.6 V. In contrast, and the solar cell can charge the battery to 3.86 V. Compared with the case where only solar cells are used, the performance of the hybrid equipment has been significantly improved [52]. Like this, Xiong et al. developed a TENG fabric with a grating structure and integrated fiber optic dye-sensitized solar cells into their textile-based energy harvesting system. As complementary power sources, FDSSCs and TENG textiles are included in clothing. These power sources gather energy from sunlight and human motion, which is further stored as chemical energy in LIB [53]. Song et al. developed a flexible dye-sensitized solar cell and skillfully built TENG into it. Both the AC energy from the TENG and the DC energy from the solar cell may be simultaneously stored using a supercapacitor. It may efficiently be incorporated into a flexible wristband to power various portable electronic devices, including temperature sensors, LED lights, and electronic timepieces [54].


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      Mi, Y.; Lu, Y.; Wang, X.; Zhao, Z.; Cao, X.; Wang, N. From Triboelectric Nanogenerator to Uninterrupted Power Supply System. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 01 December 2022).
      Mi Y, Lu Y, Wang X, Zhao Z, Cao X, Wang N. From Triboelectric Nanogenerator to Uninterrupted Power Supply System. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed December 01, 2022.
      Mi, Yajun, Yin Lu, Xueqing Wang, Zequan Zhao, Xia Cao, Ning Wang. "From Triboelectric Nanogenerator to Uninterrupted Power Supply System," Encyclopedia, (accessed December 01, 2022).
      Mi, Y., Lu, Y., Wang, X., Zhao, Z., Cao, X., & Wang, N. (2022, November 18). From Triboelectric Nanogenerator to Uninterrupted Power Supply System. In Encyclopedia.
      Mi, Yajun, et al. ''From Triboelectric Nanogenerator to Uninterrupted Power Supply System.'' Encyclopedia. Web. 18 November, 2022.