Bacuri (Platonia insignis) is a monotype belonging to the Clusiaceae family. From Amazonian origin, it is highly appreciated for fresh consumption, mainly due to its peculiar sensory characteristics. It is also widely used in the food industry, mainly in pulp (endocarp), used in the manufacture of beverages, jellies, and ice cream.
Brazil has the most diversified flora in the world, with approximately 33,161 plant species, corresponding to 26.5% of the total number of species currently known 
. In this context, biodiversity is associated with a wide variety of natural compounds, with a wide possibility of developing new drugs, agrochemicals, fragrances, cosmetics, ingredients, and food supplements, providing a catalog of opportunities for biotechnological innovation and an unbeatable competitive advantage 
. Nowadays, modeling the strict linkage between environmental, ecological and food resources in the biodiversity and health benefits perspectives represent great challenges 
Bacuri (Platonia insignis
) is a tree species of the Clusiaceae
family, which encompasses approximately 1000 species belonging to 47 genera, although bacuri is a monotype. Plantations occur in the wild, and propagation occurs through seeds or sprouts that arise spontaneously in the roots of adult plants 
. The Amazon is its original area, although it also has a distribution along the Atlantic coast, going from the Guianas to the mid-northern region of Brazil. The area of greatest concentration is in the estuary of the Amazon River, and the largest production and marketing centers are in the states of Pará, Maranhão, and Piauí 
The fruits are usually collected through the extractive system, with the use of trees that already exist in the producing regions. However, besides the extractive system, at least two more types of systems are known: regrowth management and planting systems. Regrowth management is a process of improvement of simple extractivism, in which more favorable conditions are created for bacuri trees by using low-cost technologies. The system of planting saplings, seeds, and grafting, which is considered the most recent and promising, allows faster production of fruits while maintaining the preservation of the system 
Regarding the botanical aspects, the fruit is of berry type and presents shapes that can vary from pear-shaped to rounded 
and may also present other intermediate types. However, in the same tree, the shape of the fruits is uniform, which demonstrates that the bacuri tree has genetically well-fixed characters 
. The length of the fruit is 7–15 cm, and the diameter is 5–15 cm, with a weight that usually varies from 200 to 500 g 
, although some types can reach a weight of more than 1000 g 
. The shell has a very thick structure (1–3 cm), responsible for the largest volume of the fruit, with a color that can vary from green to yellow-citrine and reddish-brown. On the other hand, the pulp has a creamy-white color and an essentially floral flavor with fruity notes 
Bacuri (Figure 1
) is a fruit with very different characteristics from a physiological perspective. It presents a non-climacteric breathing pattern at all stages of maturation from the third day of harvest (ambient conditions with a relative humidity of 75.1% and 25.2 °C) 
. Although there may still be a slight softening and color change when harvested before the sweet spot, no considerable improvement in their sensory and nutritional characteristics can be observed 
Figure 1. Contribution of bacuri (Platonia insignis) components to fruit volume.
The fruits are predominantly provided with seeds with an ellipsoidal shape, with an average weight of 24.4 g. The intensity of the angularities depends on the number of seeds that form in the fruit 
. Although seeded bacuri is the most commonly found type, in 1970, seedless bacuri, a variety initially found on the island of Marajó, was reported 
. The phenomenon of parthenocarpy occurs when none of the ovules located in one or more locules is converted into seed. It is assumed that the fraction of the pulp represented by the parthenocarpic segments is tastier, mainly due to its lower acidity. However, more studies are still needed to prove it 
2. Bacuri Composition: Characteristics and Applications
Bacuri is one of the most prominent Amazonian fruits. Its organoleptic characteristics allowed its success both in the group of fruits for in natura consumption and industrial use 
. The pulp, in addition to the nutritional aspects, presents properties that allow its wide application in the industry, mainly for the production of juices, jellies, and ice creams. 
The centesimal composition, composition of minerals, vitamins, and amino acids, and physicochemical characteristics are reported of bacuri pulp (Platonia insignis
Mart.) are reported in Table 1
and Table 2
. In quantitative terms, carbohydrates are the main macronutrients that compose the pulp and are almost entirely responsible for energy values (Table 1
). Among the total sugars, sucrose comprises 18.5%, while glucose and fructose comprise 15.5% and 15.6%, respectively 
Table 1. Centesimal composition of bacuri pulp (Platonia insignis Mart.).
Table 2. Composition of minerals, vitamins, and amino acids in bacuri pulp (Platonia insignis Mart.).
Table 3. Bacuri shell composition (Platonia insignis Mart.).