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Lima, S.K.R.;  Coêlho, A.G.;  Lucarini, M.;  Durazzo, A.;  Arcanjo, D.D.R. Platonia insignis Mart. ("bacuri"). Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/35130 (accessed on 19 June 2024).
Lima SKR,  Coêlho AG,  Lucarini M,  Durazzo A,  Arcanjo DDR. Platonia insignis Mart. ("bacuri"). Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/35130. Accessed June 19, 2024.
Lima, Simone Kelly Rodrigues, Angélica Gomes Coêlho, Massimo Lucarini, Alessandra Durazzo, Daniel Dias Rufino Arcanjo. "Platonia insignis Mart. ("bacuri")" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/35130 (accessed June 19, 2024).
Lima, S.K.R.,  Coêlho, A.G.,  Lucarini, M.,  Durazzo, A., & Arcanjo, D.D.R. (2022, November 17). Platonia insignis Mart. ("bacuri"). In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/35130
Lima, Simone Kelly Rodrigues, et al. "Platonia insignis Mart. ("bacuri")." Encyclopedia. Web. 17 November, 2022.
Platonia insignis Mart. ("bacuri")
Edit

Bacuri (Platonia insignis) is a monotype belonging to the Clusiaceae family. From Amazonian origin, it is highly appreciated for fresh consumption, mainly due to its peculiar sensory characteristics. It is also widely used in the food industry, mainly in pulp (endocarp), used in the manufacture of beverages, jellies, and ice cream. 

antioxidant bacuri Clusiaceae Platonia insignis

1. Introduction

Brazil has the most diversified flora in the world, with approximately 33,161 plant species, corresponding to 26.5% of the total number of species currently known [1]. In this context, biodiversity is associated with a wide variety of natural compounds, with a wide possibility of developing new drugs, agrochemicals, fragrances, cosmetics, ingredients, and food supplements, providing a catalog of opportunities for biotechnological innovation and an unbeatable competitive advantage [2][3]. Nowadays, modeling the strict linkage between environmental, ecological and food resources in the biodiversity and health benefits perspectives represent great challenges [4][5].
Bacuri (Platonia insignis) is a tree species of the Clusiaceae family, which encompasses approximately 1000 species belonging to 47 genera, although bacuri is a monotype. Plantations occur in the wild, and propagation occurs through seeds or sprouts that arise spontaneously in the roots of adult plants [6][7]. The Amazon is its original area, although it also has a distribution along the Atlantic coast, going from the Guianas to the mid-northern region of Brazil. The area of greatest concentration is in the estuary of the Amazon River, and the largest production and marketing centers are in the states of Pará, Maranhão, and Piauí [8][9].
The fruits are usually collected through the extractive system, with the use of trees that already exist in the producing regions. However, besides the extractive system, at least two more types of systems are known: regrowth management and planting systems. Regrowth management is a process of improvement of simple extractivism, in which more favorable conditions are created for bacuri trees by using low-cost technologies. The system of planting saplings, seeds, and grafting, which is considered the most recent and promising, allows faster production of fruits while maintaining the preservation of the system [10].
Regarding the botanical aspects, the fruit is of berry type and presents shapes that can vary from pear-shaped to rounded [11] and may also present other intermediate types. However, in the same tree, the shape of the fruits is uniform, which demonstrates that the bacuri tree has genetically well-fixed characters [12]. The length of the fruit is 7–15 cm, and the diameter is 5–15 cm, with a weight that usually varies from 200 to 500 g [13], although some types can reach a weight of more than 1000 g [11]. The shell has a very thick structure (1–3 cm), responsible for the largest volume of the fruit, with a color that can vary from green to yellow-citrine and reddish-brown. On the other hand, the pulp has a creamy-white color and an essentially floral flavor with fruity notes [14][15].
Bacuri (Figure 1) is a fruit with very different characteristics from a physiological perspective. It presents a non-climacteric breathing pattern at all stages of maturation from the third day of harvest (ambient conditions with a relative humidity of 75.1% and 25.2 °C) [16][17]. Although there may still be a slight softening and color change when harvested before the sweet spot, no considerable improvement in their sensory and nutritional characteristics can be observed [14].
Figure 1. Contribution of bacuri (Platonia insignis) components to fruit volume.
The fruits are predominantly provided with seeds with an ellipsoidal shape, with an average weight of 24.4 g. The intensity of the angularities depends on the number of seeds that form in the fruit [18]. Although seeded bacuri is the most commonly found type, in 1970, seedless bacuri, a variety initially found on the island of Marajó, was reported [11]. The phenomenon of parthenocarpy occurs when none of the ovules located in one or more locules is converted into seed. It is assumed that the fraction of the pulp represented by the parthenocarpic segments is tastier, mainly due to its lower acidity. However, more studies are still needed to prove it [19].

2. Bacuri Composition: Characteristics and Applications

Bacuri is one of the most prominent Amazonian fruits. Its organoleptic characteristics allowed its success both in the group of fruits for in natura consumption and industrial use [20]. The pulp, in addition to the nutritional aspects, presents properties that allow its wide application in the industry, mainly for the production of juices, jellies, and ice creams. [6].
The centesimal composition, composition of minerals, vitamins, and amino acids, and physicochemical characteristics are reported of bacuri pulp (Platonia insignis Mart.) are reported in Table 1 and Table 2. In quantitative terms, carbohydrates are the main macronutrients that compose the pulp and are almost entirely responsible for energy values (Table 1). Among the total sugars, sucrose comprises 18.5%, while glucose and fructose comprise 15.5% and 15.6%, respectively [21].
Table 1. Centesimal composition of bacuri pulp (Platonia insignis Mart.).
Table 2. Composition of minerals, vitamins, and amino acids in bacuri pulp (Platonia insignis Mart.).
Table 3. Bacuri shell composition (Platonia insignis Mart.).
Parameters Values (%)  References
Moisture  75.30–78.80 [25][26][27]
Ashes  0.5–1.02
Proteins  1.16
Lipids  1.58
Carbohydrates  20.94
Pectin  5.00
Resins  1.40
Cellulose  3.90
Reducing sugars  2.70

References

  1. Lustosa, A.K.M.F.; Bezerra, É.A.B.; Rodrigues, K.A.d.F.R.; Amorim, L.V.A.; Lima Neto, J.d.S. Antileishmanial effect of fruit seeds from Platonia insignis against macrophage- internalized amastigote forms of Leishmania Amazonensis. Rev. Cuba. Plantas 2018, 2, 1–14.
  2. Lustosa, A.K.M.F.; Arcanjo, D.D.R.; Ribeiro, R.G.; Rodrigues, K.A.F.; Passos, F.F.B.; Piauilino, C.A.; Silva-Filho, J.C.; Araújo, B.Q.; Lima-Neto, J.S.; Costa-Júnior, J.S.; et al. Immunomodulatory and toxicological evaluation of the fruit seeds from Platonia insignis, a native species from Brazilian Amazon Rainforest. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 2016, 26, 77–82.
  3. Lima, G.D.M.; Brito, A.K.D.S.; De Farias, L.M.; Rodrigues, L.A.R.L.; Pereira, C.F.D.C.; Lima, S.K.R.; Frota, K.D.M.E.G.; Rizzo, M.D.S.; Nunes, P.H.M.; Lucarini, M.; et al. Effects of “bacuri” Seed Butter (Platonia insignis Mart.) on Metabolic Parameters in Hamsters with Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia. Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2021, 2021, 1–8.
  4. Lindoso, J.V.d.S.; Alencar, S.R.; dos Santos, A.A.; Mello Neto, R.S.; Mendes, A.V.d.S.; Furtado, M.M.; da Silva, M.G.; Brito, A.K.d.S.; Batista, E.K.F.; Baêta, S.d.A.F.; et al. Effects of “Bacuri” Seed Butter (Platonia insignis Mart.), a Brazilian Amazon Fruit, on Oxidative Stress and Diabetes Mellitus-Related Parameters in STZ-Diabetic Rats. Biology 2022, 11, 562.
  5. Durazzo, A.; Lucarini, M.; Zaccardelli, M.; Santini, A. Forest, Foods, and Nutrition. Forests 2020, 11, 1182.
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  7. Carvalho, J.E.U.d. Aspectos botânicos, origem e distribuição geográfica do bacurizeiro. In Bacuri: Agrobiodiversidade; Instituto Interamericano de Cooperação para a Agricultura: São Luis, Brazil, 2007; p. 210.
  8. Bezerra, G.D.S.A.; Maia, G.A.; de Figueiredo, R.W.; de Souza Filho, M.d.S.M. Agroeconomic Potential of Bacuri: Review. Bol. Cent. Pesqui. Process. Aliment. 2005, 23, 45–58.
  9. Nascimento, W.M.O.; De Carvalho, J.E.U.; Müller, C.H. Ocorrência e distribuição geográfica do bacurizeiro. Rev. Bras. Frutic. 2007, 29, 657–660.
  10. de Menezes, A.; Homma, A.K.O.; de Matos, G. From extractivism to domestication: The case of the bacurizeiro in northeastern Pará and on the island of Marajó. Soc. Bras. Econ. Adm. Sociol. Rural 2018.
  11. Calzavara, B.B.G. Fruteiras: Abieiro, abricozeiro, bacurizeiro, cupuaçuzeiro. In Série Culturas da Amazônia,2.; Instituto de Pesquisas e Experimentação Agropecuárias do Norte (IPEAN): Belém, Brazil, 1970; p. 84.
  12. Mourão, K.S.M.; Beltrati, C.M. Morfologia dos frutos, sementes e plântulas de Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae). II morfo-anatomia dos frutos e sementes maduros. Acta Amaz. 1995, 25, 33–46.
  13. Souza, V.A.B.D.; Araujo, E.C.; Vasconcelos, L.F.; Lima, P.S. Variability of physical and chemical fruit characteristics of bacuri germplasm from mid-north region of Brazil. Rev. Bras. Frutic. 2001, 23, 677–683.
  14. Fontenele, M.A.; de Figueiredo, R.W.; Maia, G.A.; Alves, R.E.; de Sousa, P.H.M.; de Souza, V.A.B. Conservação pós-colheita de bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart.) sob refrigeração e embalado em PVC. Rev. Ceres 2010, 57, 292–296.
  15. Uekane, T.M.; Nicolotti, L.; Griglione, A.; Bizzo, H.R.; Rubiolo, P.; Bicchi, C.; Rocha-leão, M.H.M.; Rezende, C.M. Studies on the volatile fraction composition of three native Amazonian- Brazilian fruits: Murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae), bacuri (Platonia insignis M., Clusiaceae), and sapodilla (Manilkara sapota L., Sapotaceae). Food Chem. 2017, 219, 13–22.
  16. Henrique, G.; Teixeira, D.A.; Durigan, J.F.; Lima, M.A. Postharvest changes and respiratory pattern of bacuri fruit (Platonia insignis Mart.) at different maturity stages during ambient storage. Acta Amaz. 2005, 35, 17–21.
  17. Aguiar, L.P.; Figueiredo, R.W.D.; Alves, R.E.; Maia, G.A.; Aurélio, V.; Souza, B. De Caracterização física e físico-química de frutos de diferentes genótipos de bacurizeiro (Platonia insignis Mart.). Cienc. Tecnol. Aliment. 2008, 28, 423–428.
  18. Cravalho, J.E.U.; Nascimento, W.M.O.; Müller, C.H.; Carvalho, J.E.U. Sistemas alternativos para formação de mudas de bacurizeiro (Platonia insignis Mart.). Comun. Técnico no° 11 Embrapa Amaz. Orient. 1999, 1–5.
  19. Cardoso, R.C.D.; Carvalho, J.E.U.; Barbosa, W.C. Caracterização Físico-Química das Frações Polpa Aderida às Sementes e Segmentos Partenocárpicos do Bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart.). In Contribuição ao Desenvolvimento da Fruticultura na Amazônia; SBF: Belém, Brazil, 2006; pp. 143–149.
  20. Carvalho, J.E.U.; De Nazaré, F.R.; Do Nascimento, W.M.O. Características físicas e físico-químicas de um tipo de bacuri (Platonia Insignis Mart.) com rendimento industrial superior. Rev. Bras. Frutic. 2003, 25, 326–328.
  21. Rogez, H.; Buxant, R.; Mignolet, E.; Souza, J.N.S.; Silva, E.M.; Larondelle, Y. Chemical composition of the pulp of three typical Amazonian fruits: Araça-boi (Eugenia stipitata), bacuri (Platonia insignis) and cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum). Eur. Food Res. Technol. 2004, 218, 380–384.
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  24. de Santana, M.d.F.S.; de Carvalho, J.E.; Nascimento, W.M.O.d. Determinação Química da Polpa em Genótipos de Bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart.); Embrapa Amazônia Oriental: Belém, Brazil, 2008; Volume 13, pp. 129–130.
  25. Paula, R.D.d.G.; Estudos químicos de mesocarpo de bacuri.. An. Assoc. Química Bras. 1945, 4, 173–176.
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  28. Soares, A.G. Caracterização Físico-Química do Resíduo Agroindustrial dos Frutos do Bacurizeiro (Platonia Insignis Mart.) com o Objetivo de Produção de Insumos Para a Indústria de Alimentos e Química; Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro: Seropédica, Brazil, 2010. https://tede.ufrrj.br/jspui/handle/jspui/3059. Accessed on 17/11/2022.
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  31. Lustosa, A.K.M.F.; Bezerra, É.A.B.; Rodrigues, K.A.d.F.R.; Amorim, L.V.A.; Lima Neto, J.d.S. Antileishmanial effect of fruit seeds from Platonia insignis against macrophage- internalized amastigote forms of Leishmania Amazonensis. Rev. Cuba. Plantas 2018, 2, 1–14.
  32. Lustosa, A.K.M.F.; Arcanjo, D.D.R.; Ribeiro, R.G.; Rodrigues, K.A.F.; Passos, F.F.B.; Piauilino, C.A.; Silva-Filho, J.C.; Araújo, B.Q.; Lima-Neto, J.S.; Costa-Júnior, J.S.; et al. Immunomodulatory and toxicological evaluation of the fruit seeds from Platonia insignis, a native species from Brazilian Amazon Rainforest. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 2016, 26, 77–82.
  33. Lima, G.D.M.; Brito, A.K.D.S.; De Farias, L.M.; Rodrigues, L.A.R.L.; Pereira, C.F.D.C.; Lima, S.K.R.; Frota, K.D.M.E.G.; Rizzo, M.D.S.; Nunes, P.H.M.; Lucarini, M.; et al. Effects of “bacuri” Seed Butter (Platonia insignis Mart.) on Metabolic Parameters in Hamsters with Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia. Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2021, 2021, 1–8.
  34. Lindoso, J.V.d.S.; Alencar, S.R.; dos Santos, A.A.; Mello Neto, R.S.; Mendes, A.V.d.S.; Furtado, M.M.; da Silva, M.G.; Brito, A.K.d.S.; Batista, E.K.F.; Baêta, S.d.A.F.; et al. Effects of “Bacuri” Seed Butter (Platonia insignis Mart.), a Brazilian Amazon Fruit, on Oxidative Stress and Diabetes Mellitus-Related Parameters in STZ-Diabetic Rats. Biology 2022, 11, 562.
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