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HandWiki. John E. Pickering. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/35036 (accessed on 24 June 2024).
HandWiki. John E. Pickering. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/35036. Accessed June 24, 2024.
HandWiki. "John E. Pickering" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/35036 (accessed June 24, 2024).
HandWiki. (2022, November 17). John E. Pickering. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/35036
HandWiki. "John E. Pickering." Encyclopedia. Web. 17 November, 2022.
John E. Pickering
Edit
radiobiology aviation medicine space medicine

1. Introduction

John E. Pickering (27 April 1918 – 19 September 1997) was an American pioneer in the field of radiobiology, aviation medicine and space medicine and a Colonel in the United States Air Force . He spent much of his career in the Department of Radiobiology, Air University, School of Aviation Medicine at Randolph Air Force Base , Texas. Pickering was involved with the first tests involving nuclear powered aircraft. Pickering co-wrote President John F. Kennedy’s last official speech before the fateful trip to Dallas, Texas in 1963. Colonel Pickering was a founding member and director of the Health Physics Society, the author of textbooks and many scientific papers.[1]

2. Life and Career

John E. Pickering was born 27 April 1918 in Bisbee, Arizona and died in 1997. In 1942 Lieutenant Pickering, USAF married Virginia Copeland and the couple had 3 children, Patricia, Peggy and John R. The family were lifelong Methodists and members of the Central United Methodist Church of Albuquerque since 1989 when they moved to New Mexico. He was buried at the Santa Fe National Cemetery, Santa Fe County, New Mexico in burial plot: [Section: Y, Row: 0, Site: 288B]. At the time of his death he resided in Tijeras, New Mexico near Albuquerque, New Mexico and was buried on 22 September 1997.

Pickering attended the University of Arizona and in 1940 received BS degrees in chemistry and engineering and completed MS degrees in chemistry and metallurgy in 1941.

In May 1942 Pickering graduated at the top of the class and received a commission as a second lieutenant. His first assignment took him to Turner Field in Georgia. In September 1942 he was transferred to United States Army Air Forces Navigation School at Selman Field near Monroe, Louisiana. At Selman Field, Pickering advanced in position from instructor, flight commander, flight control officer, squadron commander, and administrative executive with the Navigation Training Group III.

In 1945 Pickering was assigned to Chanute Air Force Base in Illinois. He completed courses in weather forecasting and advanced meteorology, and graduated at the top of the class. His next post was a short stint as a weather officer in San Francisco , California. After San Francisco, Pickering was transferred to Randolph Air Force Base in Texas and was charged with training air cadets in meteorology. He published his first book, "Student Handbook of Weather" in 1946.[2] His next book came in 1947, "Air Navigation".[3]

On 1 July 1947, Pickering was sent to the University of Chicago graduate school to complete studies for a Ph.D. in nuclear chemistry and physics. He returned in July 1948 before studies were completed, based on the needs of the United States Air Force . His assignment this time was with the School of Aerospace Medicine at Randolf Field as a research assistant in the Department of Biophysics.

In 1958 Colonel John E. Pickering, Chief, Department of Radiobiology, was named director of medical research at the U. S. School of Aerospace Medicine, San Antonio, Texas.

2.1. Aerospace Medical Center Dedicated at Brooks AFB

Pickering-and-Johnson-Dedication-AMC-1959. https://handwiki.org/wiki/index.php?curid=1137849

On 14 November 1959, Senator Lyndon B. Johnson formally dedicated the Aerospace Medical Center at Brooks AFB in San Antonio, Texas. Present at the ceremony were Texas congressmen Senator Ralph Yarborough and Representative Paul J. Kilday and United States Secretary of the Air Force James H. Douglas, Jr., the Surgeon General of the Air Force Oliver K. Niess, Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force Thomas D. White and General Otis O. Benson, the new commander of the School of Aerospace Medicine and Aerospace Medical Center.[4]

After the assignment to the U. S. School of Aerospace Medicine in San Antonio, Pickering was assigned to the Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA.

3. Health Physics Society

Pickering was a founding member and director of the Health Physics Society and represented the U.S. Air Force and aviation medicine.[5][6]

4. Flashblindness

In the 1950s Pickering was an Air Force researcher with the School of Aviation Medicine and participated as a research subject to study flashblindness in the atomic bomb tests including Operation Plumbbob and Operation Dominic I.[7][8][9]

5. Nuclear Powered Aircraft

The only US aircraft to carry a nuclear reactor was the NB-36H. The program was canceled in 1958.  https://handwiki.org/wiki/index.php?curid=1170634

In 1956 Colonel Pickering was involved with the project to place a nuclear reactor on the Convair NB-36H Crusader and the development of a nuclear powered aircraft.[10]

6. Awards and Honors

  • Legion of Merit, USAF, 1958[11]
  • American Men of Science, 1962
  • Who's Who in the South and Southwest, 1964
  • Fellow, Aerospace Medical Association, 1965
  • Exceptional Service Medal, NASA, 1969
  • Sir Henry Wellcome Medal and Prize, 1974[12] (Joint Award).[13]
  • Louis H. Bauer Founders Award, Aerospace Medical Association, 1975[14]
  • Hubertus Strughold Award, 1979

6.1. President Kennedy's Speech, "Cap over the Wall"

On 21 November 1963, Colonel Pickering and Lt. Gen. George E. Schafer co-wrote the technical portions of John F. Kennedy’s ‘Cap over the Wall’ speech. Kennedy visited Brooks Air Force Base to dedicate the Aerospace Medical Center. This was President Kennedy's last official act as President before Dallas.[15][16]

6.1.1. Excerpt from JFK's "Cap Over the Wall" Speech, 21 November 1963

An excerpt form the 'Cap Over the Wall' speech, with the closing 2 paragraphs from John F. Kennedy:

Frank O’Connor, the Irish writer, tells in one of his books how, as a boy, he and his friends would make their way across the countryside; and when they came to an orchard wall that seemed too high to climb, too doubtful to try, too difficult to permit their journey to continue, they took off their caps and tossed them over the wall - - and then they had no choice but to follow them.

My friends, this nation has tossed its cap over the wall of space - - and we have no choice but to follow it. Whatever the difficulties, they must be overcome. Whatever the hazards, they must be guarded against. With the vital help of this Aerospace Medical Center, with the help of all who labor in this space endeavor, with the help and support of all Americans, we will climb this wall with both safety and speed - - and we shall then explore all the wonders and treasures that lie on the other side.[16][17]

(The end)

7. Professional Service

  • Executive Secretary, Interagency Committee on Back Contamination, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA

8. Publications

  • Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Biomedical Research Program[10]
  • Sequelae after application of high-intensity X-radiation to the head of rabbits[18]
  • Radiation Studies on the Monkey Eye: Effects of Gamma Radiation on the Retina[19]
  • DEMYELINIZATION INDUCED IN THE BRAINS OF MONKEYS BY MEANS OF FAST NEUTRONS PATHOGENESIS OF THE LESION AND COMPARISON WITH THE LESIONS OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS AND SCHILDER'S DISEASE[20]
  • Prompt Pulmonary Ventilation and Oxygen Consumption Changes in Rhesus Monkeys Associated with Whole-Body Gamma-Irradiation[21]
  • Neoplasms in monkeys (Macaca mulatta): spontaneous and irradiation induced[22]
  • The Effects of Barium140-Lanthanum146 (Gamma) Radiation on the Central Nervous System and Pituitary Gland of Macaque Monkeys A Study of 67 Brains and Spinal Cords and 77 Pituitary Glands[23]
  • Nuclear propulsion: cataractogenic effects from fast neutrons[24]
  • The effects from massive doses of high dose rate gamma radiation on monkeys[25]
  • Biologic effects of nuclear radiation in primates[26]
  • Problems in Shielding[27]
  • Biological Effects of Whole-Body Proton Irradiation[28]
  • Proton-Irradiation Effects in Primates[29]
  • Radiobiological Concepts for Manned Space Missions.[30]
  • Late effects from particulate radiations in primate and rabbit tissues[31]
  • Radiation risk assessment for military space crews[32]
  • Biological Aspects of Nuclear Propulsion[33]
Further Reading
In this part, we encourage you to list the link of papers wrote by the character, or published reviews/articles about his/her academic contributions. Edit

References

  1. Government Services, Air Force. JAMA. (1958). 168(14):1915. doi:10.1001/jama.1958.03000140077020
  2. Pickering, John E. (1946). "Student Handbook of Weather". U.S. Air Force.
  3. Pickering, John E. (1947). "Air Navigation". U.S. Air Force.
  4. Peyton, Green. (1968). Fifty Years of Aerospace Medicine (1918-1968). (AFSC Historical Publications).
  5. "News of Science". Science 122 (15 July 1955): 112–117. 15 July 1955. doi:10.1126/science.122.3159.112. PMID 17751437. Bibcode: 1955Sci...122..112W.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1126%2Fscience.122.3159.112
  6. Reinig, William C. (July/August 1989). C.M. Patterson 1913-1989. HPS Newsletter, XVII(7/8): 19-20.
  7. Colonel John Pickering; interview by John Harbert and Gil Whittemore (ACHRE), transcript of audio recording, (2 November 1994). (ACHRE Research Project Series, Interview Program File, Targeted Interview Project), 55. DOD.
  8. Defense Atomic Support Agency, (15 August 1962). "Operation Plumbbob: Technical Summary of Military Effects, Programs 1-9". (ACHRE No. DOD-100794-A), 137.
  9. Defense Nuclear Agency, 1962 ("Operation Dominic I: Report of DOD Participation") (ACHRE No. DOE-082294-A).
  10. Pickering, J. E., Brown, D. V. L., Payne, R. B., & Vogel, F. S. (1955). Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Biomedical Research Program (No. 3). Report.
  11. Items of Current Interest, Air Force. (November 1958). Academic Medicine. 33(11): xxxiv.
  12. Albanese, Richard A., and John E. Pickering. (1974). Aircrew vulnerability in nuclear encounters (No. SAM-TR-74-18). School of Aerospace Medicine. Brooks AFB TX.
  13. The Wellcome Trust Tenth Report, 1972-1974. (1974). Wellcome Trust. 1 Park Square West, London NW1 4LJ.
  14. Col. John E. Pickering, USAF (Ret), receives Bauer Founders Award. (15 May 1975). San Antonio Express. p. 23.
  15. Brooks marks JFK's 40th anniversary visit. http://www.af.mil/DesktopModules/ArticleCS/Print.aspx?PortalId=1&ModuleId=850&Article=138100
  16. Remarks at Aero-Space Medical Health Center dedication, San Antonio, Texas, 21 November 1963. http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/Archives/JFKPOF-048-017.aspx
  17. President John F. Kennedy's Remarks at Brooks Air Force Base. San Antonio, TX - 21 November 1963. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6DTX9OiKi9U
  18. Gerstner, H. B., Pickering, J. E., & Dugi, A. J. (1955). Sequelae after application of high-intensity X-radiation to the head of rabbits. Radiation research, 2(3), 219-226.
  19. BROWN, D. V., CIBIS, P. A., & PICKERING, J. E. (1955). Radiation Studies on the Monkey Eye: Effects of Gamma Radiation on the Retina. AMA archives of ophthalmology, 54(2): 249-256.
  20. Vogel, F. S.; Pickering, J. E. (1956). "Demyelinization Induced in the Brains of Monkeys by Means of Fast Neutrons". The Journal of Experimental Medicine 104 (3): 435–442. doi:10.1084/jem.104.3.435. PMID 13357695.  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2136567
  21. Phillips M. Brooks, Everett O. Richey, and John E. Pickering (April 1957). Prompt Pulmonary Ventilation and Oxygen Consumption Changes in Rhesus Monkeys Associated with Whole-Body Gamma-Irradiation. Radiation Research: Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 430-449.
  22. Kent, S. P.; Pickering, J. E. (1958). "Neoplasms in monkeys (Macaca mulatta): spontaneous and irradiation induced". Cancer 11 (1): 138–147. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(195801/02)11:1<138::aid-cncr2820110125>3.0.co;2-p. PMID 13500309.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1002%2F1097-0142%28195801%2F02%2911%3A1%3C138%3A%3Aaid-cncr2820110125%3E3.0.co%3B2-p
  23. Haymaker, W.; Laqueur, G.; Nauta, W. J. H.; Pickering, J. E.; Sloper, J. C.; Vogel, F. S. (1958). "The Effects of Barium140-Lanthanum146 (Gamma) Radiation on the Central Nervous System and Pituitary Gland of Macaque Monkeys A Study of 67 Brains and Spinal Cords and 77 Pituitary Glands". Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology 17 (1): 12–57. doi:10.1097/00005072-195801000-00003.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1097%2F00005072-195801000-00003
  24. Pickering, J. E.; Brown, D. (1959). "Nuclear propulsion: cataractogenic effects from fast neutrons". Texas State Journal of Medicine 55 (4): 264–6. PMID 13647394.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13647394
  25. Pickering, J. E., Langham, W. H., & Rambach, W. A. (1960). The effects from massive doses of high dose rate gamma radiation on monkeys (No. AF-SAM-60-57). School of Aviation Medicine, Aerospace Medical Center, Brooks AFB, Texas.
  26. Zellmer, R. W., & Pickering, J. E. (1960). Biologic effects of nuclear radiation in primates (No. AF-SAM-60-66). School of Aviation Medicine, Brooks AFB, Texas.
  27. Pickering, J. E., Allen Jr, R. G., & Ritter, O. L. (1961). Problems in Shielding. Medical and Biological Aspects of Energies of Space, p 38l. Ed by Paul A. Campbell.
  28. Pickering, J. E. (1963). "Biological Effects of Whole-Body Proton Irradiation". Aerospace Medicine 34: 942–3. PMID 14050682.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14050682
  29. Zellmer, R., Culver, J., & Pickering, J. E. (1967). Proton-Irradiation Effects in Primates. Radiation Research Supplement, 325-329.
  30. Pickering, John E. (February 1970). Radiobiological Concepts for Manned Space Missions. Aerospace Medicine. 41(2): 159-165.
  31. Lett, J. T.; Cox, A. B.; Bergtold, D. S.; Lee, A. C.; Pickering, J. E. (1984). "Late effects from particulate radiations in primate and rabbit tissues". Advances in Space Research 4 (10): 251–256. doi:10.1016/0273-1177(84)90249-7. PMID 11539635. Bibcode: 1984AdSpR...4j.251L.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2F0273-1177%2884%2990249-7
  32. Wood, D. H.; Pickering, J. E.; Yochmowitz, M. G.; Hardy, K. A.; Salmon, Y. L. (1988). "Radiation risk assessment for military space crews". Military Medicine 153 (6): 298–303. doi:10.1093/milmed/153.6.298. PMID 3133599.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1093%2Fmilmed%2F153.6.298
  33. Pickering, John E. Biological Aspects of Nuclear Propulsion. USAF, RCC!.960206.006. p. 1-14/
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Name: John E. Pickering
Born: Apr 1918
Died: Sep 1997
Birth
Location:
Bisbee, Arizona
Title: Colonel in the United States Air Force
Affiliation: Unknown
Honor: Pioneer in the field of radiobiology, aviation medicine and space medicine
Information
Subjects: Others
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