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HandWiki. Eurabia. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/34825 (accessed on 19 June 2024).
HandWiki. Eurabia. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/34825. Accessed June 19, 2024.
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Eurabia
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Eurabia is a political neologism, a portmanteau of Europe and Arabia, used to describe a far-right anti-Muslim conspiracy theory, involving globalist entities allegedly led by French and Arab powers, to Islamise and Arabise Europe, thereby weakening its existing culture and undermining a previous alignment with the United States and Israel. The term was first used in the 1970s as the title of a newsletter and the concept itself developed by Bat Ye'or (pen name of Gisèle Littman) in the early 2000s and is described in her 2005 book titled Eurabia: The Euro‐Arab Axis. Benjamin Lee of the Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats at the University of Lancaster describes her work as arguing that Europe "has surrendered to Islam and is in a state of submission (described as dhimmitude) in which Europe is forced to deny its own culture, stand silently by in the face of Muslim atrocities, accept Muslim immigration, and pay tribute through various types of economic assistance." According to the theory, the blame rests with a range of groups including communists, fascists, the media, universities, mosques and Islamic cultural centres, European bureaucrats, and the Euro-Arab Dialogue. The term has gained some public interest and has been used and discussed across a wide range of the political spectrum, including right-wing activists, self-described "conservatives" and counter-jihad and other anti-Islamism activists. Bat Ye'or's "mother conspiracy theory" has been used for further subtheories. The narrative grew important in expressing anti-Islamist sentiments and was used by movements like Stop Islamisation of Europe. It gained renewed interest after the September 11 attacks and the use of the term by 2011 Norway attacker, Anders Behring Breivik. Ye'or's thesis has come under criticism by scholars, which intensified after Breivik's crime. The conspiracy has been described as having resemblance to the anti-Semitic Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Eurabia is also discussed in classical anti-Europeanism, a strong influence in the culture of the United States and in the notion of American exceptionalism, which sometimes sees Europe on the decline or as a rising rival power, or, as is the case here, both.

exceptionalism public interest neologism

1. Basic Narrative

In Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis, Bat Ye'or says that Eurabia is the result of the Euro-Arab Dialogue, based on an allegedly French-led European policy intended to increase European power against the United States by aligning its interests with those of the Arab countries. During the 1973 oil crisis, the European Economic Community (predecessor of the European Union), had entered into the Euro-Arab Dialogue (EAD) with the Arab League.[1] Ye'or says it as a primary cause of alleged European hostility to Israel, referring to joint Euro-Arab foreign policies that she characterises as anti-American and anti-Zionist.[2] Ye'or purported a close connection of a Eurabia conspiracy and used the term "dhimmitude", denoting alleged "western subjection to Islam".[3] The term itself is based on a newsletter published in the 1970s by the Comité européen de coordination des associations d'amitié avec le monde Arabe, a Euro-Arab friendship committee.[2]

Bat Ye'or's Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis was the first print publication in the Eurabia genre,[3] which has since grown to a number of titles,[4][5] including Melanie Phillips's Londonistan,[6] Oriana Fallaci's The Force of Reason,[7] and Bruce Bawer's While Europe Slept.[8] The term is often used by the writers Oriana Fallaci,[9][10] Mark Steyn[11][12][13] and several web sites, many of them affiliated with the counterjihad movement.[14] Defeating Eurabia by Fjordman (the pen name of Peder Are Nøstvold Jensen)[15] earned him a high standing among far-right extremists.[16]

An important part of the narrative is the idea of a demographic threat, the fear that, at some time in the future, Islam will take over Europe.[17] or as Bernard Lewis put it, "Europe will be Islamic by the end of the century."[18] Walter Laqueur's The Last Days of Europe: Epitaph for An Old Continent is quoted often among the Eurabia literature.

2. Impact

2.1. Post-1945

While immigrants were being deemed a threat, in the postwar 1940s period, the British extreme right – in particular, fascist politician Oswald Mosley – were rather outspoken (see the Union Movement and the Europe a Nation slogan) in favour of a stronger integration of Britain with Europe and, using their own interpretation of the Eurafrica concept, Africa.[19][20]

2.2. Post-9/11 Significance

Bat Ye'or first used the term "Eurabia" in 2002 and again in another 2005 book. Subsequently, the coining of the term has been attributed to her.[3] The conservative historian Niall Ferguson referred to the concept, which he took as the potential future Islamisation of Europe based on demographic facts and ideational lack of the continent.[21]

2.3. 2010s Europe

The idea of a Eurabian conspiracy has become a basic theme in the European extremist and populist right and expresses as well a significant strategy change. José Pedro Zúquete notes that

the threat that the Crescent will rise over the continent and the spectre of a Muslim Europe have become basic ideological features and themes of the European extreme right[22]

Muslim minority populations and Muslim immigration gained new political significance. This has led to the adoption of political positions that were previously considered fringe or third rail on either side. The main anti-Islamic theme has also penetrated into mainstream European politics,[22] for instance in the case of Dutch populist Party for Freedom leader Geert Wilders:

This government is enthusiastically co-operating with the Islamisation of the Netherlands. In all of Europe the elite opens the floodgates wide. In only a little while, one in five people in the European Union will be Muslim. Good news for this multiculti-government that views bowing to the horrors of Allah as its most important task. Good news for the CDA : C-D-A, in the meanwhile stands for Christians Serve Allah (Christenen Dienen Allah).[23]

3. Issues

The Eurabia concept is an Islamophobic conspiracy theory.[24] Eurabia shortcuts the complex interaction between the US, France, Israel, the Arabic and Muslim countries on an "us against them" basis. The Eurabia theories are dismissed as Islamophobic, extremist[22][25] and conspiracy theories in the academic community.[24] At first academics showed little interest in the Eurabia theories due to their lack of factual basis.[26][27] The theme was treated in studies of rightist extremism[22] and Middle East Politics.[28] This changed after the 2011 Norway attacks, which resulted in the publication of several works specifically treating the Eurabia conspiracy theories.[3][29] Janne Haaland Matláry went as far as to say that "it is poor use of time to analyse something so primitive".[30]

3.1. Demography

The Pew Research Center said in 2011 that "the data that we have isn't pointing in the direction of 'Eurabia' at all",[31] and predicts that the percentage of Muslims is estimated to rise to 8% in 2030. In 2007 academics who analysed the demographics dismissed the predictions that the EU would have Muslim majorities.[32] It is completely reasonable to assume that the overall Muslim population in Europe will increase, and Muslim citizens have and will have a significant imprint on European life.[33] The prospect of a homogeneous Muslim community per se, or a Muslim majority in Europe is however out of the question.

Justin Vaïsse seeks to discredit what he calls, "four myths of the alarmist school", using Muslims in France as an example. Specifically he has written that the Muslim population growth rate was lower than that predicted by Eurabia, partly because the fertility rate of immigrants declines with integration.[34] He further points out that Muslims are not a monolithic or cohesive group,[35] and that many Muslims do seek to integrate politically and socially. Finally, he wrote that despite their numbers, Muslims have had little influence on French foreign policy.[36]

Furthermore, leading European Muslims are rather outspoken against religious fundamentalism and are far from acknowledging Arab countries as a role model at all.[37][38]

4. Spread of Conspiracies and Further Influences

Examples of proponents use:

4.1. Europe

Germany

In 2010, German politician Thilo Sarrazin released Germany Abolishes Itself. The book contends that with continued Islamic immigration, Germany will become a majority Muslim nation.[39] Journalist Simon Kuper has argued that, with over 1 million copies sold, Sarrazin had done more to publicize the concept of Eurabia more than anybody else in Europe.[40]

In political campaigning for the 2019 European Parliament election, Germany's far-right party AfD used Jean-Léon Gérôme's 1886 painting The Slave Market with the slogan "Europeans vote AfD!" and "So Europe doesn't become Eurabia!".[41] Deutsche Welle reported that the reproduction of the painting suggestively depicted dark-skinned men with beards and foreign-dress "inspecting the teeth of a nude white woman".[42]

Italy

In 2004, journalist Oriana Fallaci claimed that Muslim immigration and high fertility was part of the conspiracy theory.[43] In 2005, Fallaci told The Wall Street Journal that "Europe is no longer Europe", adding "it is 'Eurabia,' a colony of Islam".[44]

In 2011, Francesco Speroni, a sitting MEP for Lega Nord, stated that he shared the same view as Anders Behring Breivik's idea "that we are going towards Eurabia".[45] In the aftermath of the shooting, Speroni confirmed his agreement with Breivik on the conspiracy theory in an interview with Radio 24.[46]

In 2018, Giulio Meotti used the theory in relation to the demographics of Europe, writing that "Europe is over. Its future will be a mix of Eurabia and a geriatric ward."[47]

In May 2019, ahead of the European elections, Lega Nord leader for Sarzana claimed that both the European People's Party and the Party of European Socialists were attempting to bring about Eurabia.[48] The day before the vote, Italian Deputy Prime Minister Matteo Salvini endorsed the theory as a genuine threat. He insisted that a state of Eurabia had already occurred in Sweden, a claim which the Swedish embassy promptly denied with an official statement.[49] Invoking the memory of Oriana Fallaci,[50] he released an anti-migrant speech on Twitter, accompanied by the message "No to Eurabia".[51]

Netherlands

In 2008, journalist Arthur van Amerongen described Molenbeek as "Brussels: Eurabia". Despite alleging that writer Wim van Rooy had already coined the phrase, Amerongen faced severe peer and media criticism for endorsing the conspiracy theory.[52] After the November 2015 Paris attacks and discovery of a Brussels ISIL terror cell, photojournalist Teun Voeten agreed with Amerongen's description, calling the municipality an "ethnic and religious enclave".[53]

Party for Freedom leader Geert Wilders, who serves in the Dutch House of Representatives, has openly stated that "if we do not stop Islamification now, Eurabia and Netherabia will just be a matter of time."[54][55] A supporter of the conspiracy theory, Wilders believes Muslim immigration to Europe is being driven by an agreement between the European Union and Islamic countries.[56] He has delivered speeches in the Dutch parliament about Eurabia.[57]

Norway

In 2008, Peder Are Nøstvold Jensen, writing under his pseudonym Fjordman, published Defeating Eurabia. The book contends that 1 in 3 babies born in France are from a Muslim-background, and that there are hundreds of "Muslim ghettos" following Sharia law in the country, which Fjordman believes will either be overrun or face an impending civil war.[58]

2083: A European Declaration of Independence, the manifesto of Anders Behring Breivik, the perpetrator of the 2011 Norway attacks, includes a lengthy discussion of and support for the "Eurabia" theory. It also contains several articles on the Eurabia theme by Bat Ye'or and Fjordman.[59] As a result, the theory received widespread mainstream media attention following the attacks.[60] In the verdict against Breivik, the court said that "many people share Breivik's conspiracy theory, including the Eurabia theory. The court finds that very few people, however, share Breivik's idea that the alleged "Islamization" should be fought with terror."[61]

Breivik has later identified himself as a fascist and voiced support for neo-Nazis, stating that he previously had exploited "counterjihad" rhetoric in order to protect "ethno-nationalists", thereby instead launching a media drive against what he deemed "anti-nationalist counterjihad"-supporters.[62][63]

United Kingdom

  • David Pryce-Jones (2008). Betrayal: France, the Arabs, and the Jews. New York: Encounter Books. ISBN 978-1-594032-20-2. https://books.google.com/books?id=DJmYHDrAMTkC. Retrieved June 8, 2012. 
  • Theodore Dalrymple (2011). The New Vichy Syndrome. Why European Intellectuals Surrender to Barbarism. New York: Encounter Books. ISBN 978-1-59403-372-8. https://books.google.com/books?id=BXIpqAzMVHwC. Retrieved June 8, 2012.  The premises common to these theories are that a rapid demographic transition in Europe has been induced by "European politicians and civil servants",[64] and will lead to a Muslim majority which will have an unchanging, hostile attitude toward their host nations.[4] Other premises, such as acquiring the compliance of or control over bureaucracies, intelligentsias and European political leaders are frequent.[65]

4.2. North America

Canada

Author Mark Steyn, described as a "champion of 'Eurabia' myth" by Canadian newspaper The Globe and Mail,[66] has predicted an emerging Eurabia region, captured by the religion of Islam and hostile to U.S. interests.[67] Steyn's promotion of the conspiracy theory centres on European demographics, where he believes a culturally asserted Muslim mass will become the majority population and demand the assimilation of white Europeans.[68]

United States

In the United States , the theories have found strong proponents in the Islamophobia movement,[69][70] among them the president of Stop Islamization of America, Robert B. Spencer[71][72] and political commentator Daniel Pipes.[73]

In May 2006, Fox News host John Gibson called for white Americans to have more babies, referencing a decline in the "native population" of Europe as an apparent demographic warning for the U.S. regarding Hispanic birthrates.[74] In what Media Matters reported as fearmongering, he claimed that Eurabia was occurring in Europe.[75]

In his 2011–2012 run for the Republican presidential nomination, senator Rick Santorum warned that Europe was "creating an opportunity for the creation of Eurabia", and that the continent was "losing, because they are not having children."[76] Classicist Bruce Thornton is also a strong advocate for the theory.[77]

A 2007 film outline by Steve Bannon, who would later become the chief strategist for President Donald Trump and a member of the U.S. National Security Council, proposed that Muslims were trying to turn the United States into the "Islamic States of America".[78]

5. Criticism

The Economist rejected the concept of Eurabia as "scaremongering".[79] Simon Kuper in the Financial Times described Ye'or's book as "little-read but influential", and akin to "Protocols of the Elders of Zion in reverse", adding that "though ludicrous, Eurabia became the spiritual mother of a genre".[5]

David Aaronovitch acknowledges that the threat of "jihadist terror" may be real, but that there is no threat of Eurabia. Aaronovitch concludes that those who study conspiracy theories will recognize Eurabia to be a theory that adds the "Sad Dupes thesis to the Enemy Within idea".[80]

Conservative US military analyst Ralph Peters has criticized the Eurabia narrative on the grounds that it is unlikely to happen as posited, citing the historical precedent of genocides frequently occurring in Europe, such as in the Balkans during the 1990s, and the Holocaust during World War II.[81][82] Peters stated that if Muslims "taking over" Europe were imminent, Europeans would either forcibly deport their Muslims at best or engage in a genocide of them at worst,[81][82] possibly leading to a U.S. intervention on behalf of persecuted Muslims.[81]

In his 2007 book Wars of Blood and Faith, Peters states that far from being about to take over Europe through demographic change, "Europe's Muslims are living on borrowed time" and that in the event of a major terrorist attack in Europe, thanks to the "ineradicable viciousness" of Europeans and what he perceives as a historical tendency to over-react to real or perceived threats, European Muslims "will be lucky if they're only deported."[83]

According to Marján and Sapir, the very idea of "Eurabia" is "based on an extremist conspiracy theory, according to which Europe and the Arab states would join forces to make life impossible for Israel and Islamize the old continent."[25]

Writing in Race & Class in 2006, author and freelance journalist Matt Carr argued that Eurabia had moved from "an outlandish conspiracy theory" to a "dangerous Islamophobic fantasy". Carr states,

"In order to accept Ye'or's ridiculous thesis, it is necessary to believe not only in the existence of a concerted Islamic plot to subjugate Europe, involving all Arab governments, whether 'Islamic' or not, but also to credit a secret and unelected parliamentary body with the astounding ability to transform all Europe's major political, economic and cultural institutions into subservient instruments of 'jihad' without any of the continent's press or elected institutions being aware of it. Nowhere in this ideologically driven interpretation of European-Arab relations does Ye'or come close to proving the 'secret history' that she professes to reveal."[84]

Arun Kundnani, writing for the International Centre for Counter-terrorism, notes that "Eurabia" fulfills the counter-jihad movement's "structural need" for a conspiracy theory, and compares "Eurabia" to The Protocols of the Elders of Zion,[64] while Carr compares it to the Zionist Occupation Government conspiracy theory.[84]

Doug Saunders argues that pro-Al-Qaeda writers, and those who promote the Eurabia theory as truth, have a common extremism and world view, where "there is one creature called 'the Muslim' and another called 'the Westerner'". He proposes that there is no such distinction and that Muslims can become secular in the Western world.[85]

References

  1. "Euro-Arab dialogue". [MEDEA]. http://www.medea.be/?doc=55&lang=en.  [1]
  2. Bat Ye'or (December 2002). "Le dialogue Euro-Arabe et la naissance d'Eurabia" (in fr). Observatoire du monde juif. http://obs.monde.juif.free.fr/pdf/omj04-05.pdf.  English translation
  3. Fekete, Liz (2012). "The Muslim conspiracy theory and the Oslo massacre". Race & Class 53 (3): 30–47. doi:10.1177/0306396811425984.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1177%2F0306396811425984
  4. Justin Vaïsse (January–February 2010). "Eurabian Follies". Foreign Policy. The FP Group, a The Washington Post subsidiary. https://foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/01/04/eurabian_follies?page=full. 
  5. Simon Kuper (October 11, 2007). "The Crescent and the Cross.". Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/4cf288ba-8c13-11dc-af4d-0000779fd2ac. 
  6. Melanie Phillips (2006). Londonistan: How Britain is creating a terror state within. London: Encounter. ISBN 9781594031441. 
  7. Oriana Fallaci (2004) (in it). La forza della ragione. Milano: Rizzoli. ISBN 9788817002967. 
  8. Bruce Bawer (2007). While Europe Slept. New York: Anchor/Random House. ISBN 978-0767920056. https://archive.org/details/whileeuropeslept00bawe_0. 
  9. Tunku Varadarajan (June 23, 2005). "Prophet of Decline". The Wall Street Journal. http://www.opinionjournal.com/forms/printThis.html?id=110006858. ""Europe is no longer Europe, it is 'Eurabia,' a colony of Islam"" 
  10. Dopo Londra (September 15, 2006). "Il nemico che trattiamo da amico" (in it). Corriere della Sera. http://www.corriere.it/Primo_Piano/Cronache/2006/09_Settembre/15/falultimopezzo.shtml. "Fallaci says "Sono quattr' anni che parlo di nazismo islamico, di guerra all' Occidente, di culto della morte, di suicidio dell' Europa. Un' Europa che non è più Europa ma Eurabia e che con la sua mollezza, la sua inerzia, la sua cecità, il suo asservimento al nemico si sta scavando la propria tomba." ("Since four years I am talking about the Islamic Nazism, the war to the West, the cult of death, the suicide of Europe. A Europe that is no longer Europe but Eurabia, which with its softness, its inertia, its blindness, its servitude to the enemy is digging its own grave.")" 
  11. Mark Steyn (2006). America Alone: The End of the World as We Know It. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing Inc.. ISBN 978-0847827534. 
  12. Mark Steyn (January 2, 2006). "It's the Demography, stupid". The New Criterion. http://www.newcriterion.com/articles.cfm/its-the-demography-1429. 
  13. Mark Steyn (October 10, 2006). "The future belongs to Islam". Macleans.ca. http://www.macleans.ca/article.jsp?content=20061023_134898_134898. 
  14. including Gates of Vienna, Paul Beliën's Brussels Journal, Front Page Magazine, Richard Landes's Eurabia article, Fjordman's The Eurabia Code article and his Defeating Eurabia compilation. http://www.theaugeanstables.com/reflections-from-second-draft/eurabia/
  15. Peder Are Nøstvold Jensen (2008). Defeating Eurabia. Lulu.com. ISBN 9781409247159.  (available online) http://gatesofvienna.blogspot.fr/2008/10/defeating-eurabia-part-5.html
  16. Sandvik, Siv (3 August 2011). "Fjordman hevder han vil hjelpe politiet i terroretterforskningen". Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.7736530. 
  17. "Muslims 'about to take over Europe'". http://www.jpost.com/International/Muslims-about-to-take-over-Europe. 
  18. "Europa Wird Islamisch". Die Welt. April 18, 2006. https://www.welt.de/print-welt/article211310/Europa-wird-islamisch.html. 
  19. Culture of Fascism: Visions of the Far Right in Britain, Julie V. Gottlieb, Thomas P. Linehan.B.Tauris, 31.12.2003, p.75
  20. DRÁBIK, Jakub. Oswald Mosley´s Concept of a United Europe. A Contribution to the Study of Pan-European Nationalism. In. The Twentieth Century, 2/2012, s. 53-65, Prague : Charles University in Prague, ISSN 1803-750X
  21. Niall Ferguson (April 4, 2004). "The way we live now: Eurabia?". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2004/04/04/magazine/the-way-we-live-now-4-4-04-eurabia.html. 
  22. Zúquete, José Pedro (October 2008). "The European Extreme Right and Islam: New directions?". Journal of Political Ideologies 13 (3): 321–344. doi:10.1080/13569310802377019.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F13569310802377019
  23. Geert Wilders. "speech in the Dutch parliament, September 16, 2009". http://www.geertwilders.nl/?option=com_content&task=view&id=1595. 
  24. See: Fekete, Liz (2012). "The Muslim conspiracy theory and the Oslo massacre". Race & Class 53 (3): 30–47. doi:10.1177/0306396811425984.  Carland, Susan (2011). "Islamophobia, fear of loss of freedom, and the Muslim woman". Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations 22 (4): 469–473. doi:10.1080/09596410.2011.606192.  David Lagerlöf; Jonathan Leman; Alexander Bengtsson (2011). The Anti-Muslim Environment - The ideas, the Profiles and the Concept. Stockholm: Expo Research. http://expo.se/www/download/research_the_anti_muslim_environment_final.pdf. Retrieved June 8, 2012.  Shooman, Yasemin; Spielhaus, Riem (2010). "The concept of the Muslim enemy in the public discourse". in Jocelyne Cesari. Muslims in the West after 9/11: religion, politics, and law. Routledge. pp. 198–228. ISBN 978-0-415-77654-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=6OH3G0VESQsC&pg=PA198.  Fekete, Liz (2006). "Enlightened fundamentalism? Immigration, feminism and the Right". Race & Class 48 (1): 1–22. doi:10.1177/0306396806069519.  Carr, M. (2006). "You are now entering Eurabia". Race & Class 48: 1–22. doi:10.1177/0306396806066636. 
  25. Marján, Attila; André Sapir (2010). Europe's Destiny. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-8018-9547-0. 
  26. "Eurabiske vers" (in no). Morgenbladet. August 19, 2011. http://morgenbladet.no/samfunn/2011/eurabiske_vers. 
  27. Kuper, Simon (September 9, 2011). "The end of Eurabia". Financial Times. http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/2/1c825298-d8f7-11e0-aff1-00144feabdc0.html. 
  28. Roy, Olivier (2008). The Politics of Chaos in the Middle East. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-80043-3. 
  29. Gardell, Mattias (2011) (in no). Islamofobi. Oslo: Spartacus. ISBN 9788243006683. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-162521. 
  30. "Advarer mot å ta Breivik seriøst" (in no). Norsk Telegrambyrå. Norsk Rikskringkasting. May 2, 2012. http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.8111936. 
  31. Brian Grim quoted in Richard Greene, World Muslim population doubling, report projects, CNN, 2011-01-27 http://religion.blogs.cnn.com/2011/01/27/world-muslim-population-doubling-report-projects/
  32. Simon Kuper (August 19, 2007). "Head count belies vision of 'Eurabia'". Financial Times. http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/123ade02-4e6f-11dc-85e7-0000779fd2ac.html. 
  33. Kaufmann, Eric (20 March 2010). "Europe's Muslim Future", Prospect, Issue 169. http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/2010/03/europes-muslim-future/
  34. See also Randy McDonald, France, its Muslims, and the Future, 2004-04-13, Doug Saunders, "The 'Eurabia' myth deserves a debunking ", The Globe and Mail, 2008-09-20, Fewer differences between foreign born and Swedish born childbearing women, Statistics Sweden, 2008-11-03, Mary Mederios Kent, Do Muslims have more children than other women in western Europe? , Population Reference Bureau, prb.org, February 2008; for fertility of Muslims outside Europe, see the sentence "The dramatic decline in Iran's fertility provides a recent example of how strict Islamic practices can coexist with widespread use of family planning.", and (the articles) Farzaneh Roudi-Fahimi and Mary Mederios Kent, Fertility Declining in the Middle East and North Africa , prb.org, April 2008, especially the figure 2, Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Recent changes and the future of fertility in Iran, especially the figure 1; http://demographymatters.blogspot.com/2008/02/demographic-spectres-and-politics.html
  35. See also "Merely speaking of a 'Muslim community in France' can be misleading and inaccurate: like every immigrant population, Muslims in France exhibit strong cleavages based on the country of their origin, their social background, political orientation and ideology, and the branch or sect of Islam that they practice (when they do)." in Justin Vaisse, Unrest in France, November 2005 , 2006-01-12 http://www.brookings.edu/testimony/2006/0112france_vaisse.aspx
  36. See also Justin Vaïsse, La France et les musulmans: une politique étrangère sous influence? , April 2007 (in French) http://www.vaisse.net/BiblioJustin/Articles/BiblioJustin-Lobby_musulman-avril2007.pdf
  37. Europas muslimische Eliten: Wer sie sind und was sie wollen Jytte Klausen, Campus Verlag, 13.03.2000
  38. Walter Laqueur (2009). Best of Times, Worst of Times. University Press of New England. p. 211. https://books.google.com/books?id=8k05tbeFo-MC&pg=PA211
  39. Judis, John (2018). The Nationalist Revival; Trade Immigration, and the Revolt Against Gobalization. Columbia Global Reports. p. 99. ISBN 9780999745403. 
  40. Simon Kuper (September 9, 2011). "The end of Eurabia". Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/1c825298-d8f7-11e0-aff1-00144feabdc0. 
  41. "U.S. Museum Condemns Far-right German Party for Using Their Painting for anti-Muslim Campaign". Haaretz. May 1, 2019. https://www.haaretz.com/world-news/u-s-museum-condemns-far-right-germany-party-for-using-their-painting. 
  42. "AfD in hot water with US museum over campaign billboard". Deutsche Welle. April 26, 2019. https://www.dw.com/en/afd-in-hot-water-with-us-museum-over-campaign-billboard/a-48508555. 
  43. "How Oriana Fallaci's Writings on Islamism Are Remembered—and Reviled" (in en). The Atlantic. December 15, 2017. https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2017/12/oriana-fallaci-journalist-views-islamism/544736/. 
  44. "Oriana Fallaci, Incisive Italian Journalist, Is Dead at 77" (in en). The New York Times. September 16, 2006. https://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/16/books/16fallaci.html. 
  45. "Ukip faces questions about its far-right friends in Europe" (in en). The Guardian. March 10, 2014. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2014/mar/10/ukip-faces-questions-far-right-europe-for-freedom-and-democracy. 
  46. "La matanza de Oslo descoloca a la extrema derecha europea" (in es). Público (Spain). July 30, 2011. https://www.publico.es/internacional/matanza-oslo-descoloca-extrema-derecha.html. 
  47. "Europe's future: A combination of Eurabia and a geriatric ward" (in en). Arutz Sheva. December 8, 2018. http://www.israelnationalnews.com/Articles/Article.aspx/23130. 
  48. "Sarzana, il capogruppo del Carroccio: "Votare Lega per evitare l'Eurabia"" (in it). Il Secolo XIX. May 21, 2019. https://www.ilsecoloxix.it/la-spezia/2019/05/21/news/sarzana-il-capogruppo-del-carroccio-votare-lega-per-evitare-l-eurabia-1.32867332. 
  49. "Le proteste della Svezia per un servizio del Tg2" (in it). Il Post. May 21, 2019. https://www.ilpost.it/2019/05/26/svezia-arrabbiata-servizio-tg2/. 
  50. "Salvini rompe il silenzio elettorale su Rai3. Pd e sinistra attaccano." (in it). la Repubblica. May 25, 2019. https://www.repubblica.it/politica/2019/05/25/news/silenzio_elettorale_elezioni_europee_social-227151837/. 
  51. "Lettons, Maltais et Slovaques convoqués aux urnes pour les élections européennes" (in fr). Le Devoir. May 25, 2019. https://www.ledevoir.com/monde/europe/555313/les-europeens-aux-urnes-l-extreme-droite-veut-marquer-le-coup. 
  52. "Arthur van Amerongen: 'Misschien dat er dit jaar nog iets in Amsterdam gebeurt'" (in nl). de Volkskrant. November 23, 2015. https://www.volkskrant.nl/nieuws-achtergrond/arthur-van-amerongen-misschien-dat-er-dit-jaar-nog-iets-in-amsterdam-gebeurt~bc0d6bcd/. 
  53. Teun Voeten (November 21, 2015). "A former resident reflects on his struggles with Brussels' most notorious neighborhood". Politico. https://www.politico.eu/article/molenbeek-broke-my-heart-radicalization-suburb-brussels-gentrification/. 
  54. Allegretti, Aubrey (June 16, 2015). "Disgraced Ukip MEP Janice Atkinson Joins Far-Right Front National Group In European Parliament". HuffPost. https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2015/06/16/ukip-janice-atkinson-mep-marine-le-pen_n_7595388.html. 
  55. Mehdi Hasan (March 8, 2017). "The "Dutch Trump" Is Even More Toxic Than the Real Thing" (in en). The Intercept. https://theintercept.com/2017/03/08/the-dutch-trump-is-even-more-toxic-than-the-real-thing/. 
  56. "Geert Wilders: maverick who could ride anti-Islam wave to the top of Dutch politics". The Conversation. September 6, 2016. http://theconversation.com/geert-wilders-maverick-who-could-ride-anti-islam-wave-to-the-top-of-dutch-politics-64992. 
  57. Geert Wilders (September 16, 2009). "Speech in the Dutch parliament". Geert Wilders' blog. http://www.geertwilders.nl/?option=com_content&task=view&id=1595. 
  58. "Suspect admired bloggers who believe Europe is drowning in Muslims". CNN. July 27, 2011. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/europe/07/27/norway.terror.web/index.html. 
  59. See: Doug Saunders (July 25, 2011). "Norway gunman's manifesto calls for war against Muslims". The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/europe/norway-gunmans-manifesto-calls-for-war-against-muslims/article2107826/.  Full text Doug Saunders (July 26, 2011). "'Eurabia' opponents scramble for distance from anti-Muslim murderer". The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/europe/eurabia-opponents-scramble-for-distance-from-anti-muslim-murderer/article2109447/.  Full text Fredrik Mandal; Kenneth Nodeland (July 24, 2011). "Terroristen ville bruke atomvåpen" (in no). Bergens Tidende. http://www.bt.no/nyheter/innenriks/Terroristen-ville-bruke-atomvpen-2542322.html.  Archer, Toby (July 25, 2011). "Breivik's Swamp". Foreign Policy. https://foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/07/25/breivik_s_swamp?page=0,1. Retrieved May 12, 2012.  "Massedrapsmannen kopierte "Unabomberen" ord for ord" (in no). Norsk Rikskringkasting. July 24, 2011. http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.7725223.  Timothy Rutten (July 27, 2011). "The Norway attacks illustrate once again the danger posed by hate-laced propaganda". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2011/jul/27/opinion/la-oe-0727-rutten-20110727.  Scott Shane (July 24, 2011). "Killings in Norway Spotlight Anti-Muslim Thought in U.S.". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/25/us/25debate.html.  Andrew Brown (July 24, 2011). "Anders Breivik is not Christian but anti-Islam". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/andrewbrown/2011/jul/24/norway-anders-behring-breivik-beliefs/print.  Seumas Milne (July 28, 2011). "In his rage against Muslims, Norway's killer was no loner". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2011/jul/28/rage-muslims-no-loner-breivik/print.  Abel Mestre; Caroline Monnot (July 26, 2011). "L'inspiration des extrémistes post-11-Septembre" (in fr). Le Monde. http://www.lemonde.fr/europe/article/2011/07/26/l-inspiration-des-extremistes-post-11-septembre_1552858_3214.html.  Jostein Gaarder; Thomas Hylland Eriksen (July 28, 2011). "A Blogosphere of Bigots". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/29/opinion/Gaarder-Eriksen.html.  Malise Ruthven (August 9, 2011). "The New European Far-Right". The New York Review of Books. http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2011/aug/09/new-european-far-right. 
  60. "Psykiater om Breivik: – Så komplisert at vi først i historiens lys kan få svar" (in no). Tv2.no. July 28, 2011. http://www.tv2.no/nyheter/innenriks/psykiater-om-breivik-saa-komplisert-at-vi-foerst-i-historiens-lys-kan-faa-svar-3547076.html. 
  61. Smilende Breivik fornøyd med dommen , nettavisen.no, 24.08.12 http://www.nettavisen.no/nyheter/article3458481.ece
  62. Daniel Vergara (10 January 2014). "Breivik vill deportera "illojala judar" [Breivik wants to deport "disloyal Jews""] (in sv). Expo. http://expo.se/2014/breivik-vill-deportera-illojala-judar_6336.html. 
  63. "Mass killer Breivik says wants to create fascist party". Reuters. Sep 5, 2014. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-norway-breivik-idUSKBN0H01NG20140905
  64. Arun Kundnani (June 2012). "Blind Spot? Security Narratives and Far-Right Violence in Europe". International Centre for Counter-terrorism. http://www.icct.nl/download/file/ICCT-Kundnani-Blind-Spot-June-2012.pdf. 
  65. For instance in: Ye'or, Bat (2005). Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis. New Jersey, USA: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN 978-0838640777. https://archive.org/details/eurabiaeuroaraba00yeor.  Peder Are Nøstvold Jensen (2008). Defeating Eurabia. Lulu.com. ISBN 9781409247159. 
  66. "The 'Eurabia' myth deserves a debunking" (in en). The Globe and Mail. September 20, 2008. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/the-eurabia-myth-deserves-a-debunking/article20387697/. 
  67. "Dispelling the Myth of Eurabia" (in en). Newsweek. July 10, 2009. https://www.newsweek.com/dispelling-myth-eurabia-81943. 
  68. "Apocalypse now". New Statesman. 12 March 2007. http://www.newstatesman.com/books/2007/03/steyn-european-america-muslim. 
  69. "anti-Islam groups received more than $119 million in funding between 2008 and 2011." Furthermore, the report asserts that many of these prolific anti-Islam groups are "tightly linked" and some of the "top players" receive huge paychecks. The founder of Jihad Watch, Robert Spencer, a renowned anti-Islam scholar, is said to have received a salary of more than $150,000, while the organization's revenues in the year 2012 were over $200,000. In an investigative paper published in 2011 and titled "Fear Inc.," the Center of American Progress (CAP) reveals a detailed list of donors that help support think tanks that perpetrate misinformation about Muslims and Islam. One such think tank is the Middle East Forum (MEF), led by academic and scholar Daniel Pipes. In 2009, the MEF is said to have received funding of nearly $6 million. Pipes and his anti-Muslim hyperbole are well known."[2]
  70. "Leading Islamophobic figures like Pamela Geller, lawyer David Yerushalmi, Daniel Pipes of the Middle East Forum, commentator Steven Emerson, Robert Spencer and Frank Gaffney play a major role in the anti-Islamic lobby " [3]
  71. Carr, Matt (1 July 2006). "You are now entering Eurabia". Race & Class (SAGE) 48 (1): 9–10. doi:10.1177/0306396806066636. http://www.mywf.org.uk/uploads/projects/borderlines/Archive/2007/Carr_on_Eurabia_R&C.pdf. Retrieved 5 February 2021. 
  72. Bergmann, Eirikur (21 August 2018). "The Eurabia Doctrine" (in en). Conspiracy & Populism: The Politics of Misinformation. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 144. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-90359-0_6. ISBN 978-3-319-90359-0. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-90359-0_6. Retrieved 5 February 2021. 
  73. see for instance: Daniel Pipes (October 10, 2004). "Europeans fleeing Eurabia". danielpipes.org. http://www.danielpipes.org/blog/2004/10/europeans-fleeing-eurabia.  Daniel Pipes (March 1, 2007). "Eurabian Nights". The National Interest. http://nationalinterest.org/bookreview/eurabian-nights-1474.  Daniel Pipes (April 15, 2008). "Europe or Eurabia?". The Australian. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/europe-or-eurabia/story-fna7dq6e-1111116061264. 
  74. Sandra E. Weissinger; Dwayne A. Mack (2017). "6". Law Enforcement in the Age of Black Lives Matter: Policing Black and Brown Bodies (Critical Perspectives on Race, Crime, and Justice). Lexington Books. p. 120. ISBN 9781498553599. 
  75. "Fox News' long history of race-baiting". 27 July 2010. https://www.mediamatters.org/research/2010/07/27/fox-news-long-history-of-race-baiting/168312. 
  76. Max Blumenthal (January 5, 2012). "Santorum warns of 'Eurabia,' issues call to 'evangelize and eradicate' Muslims". Al-Akhbar English. http://english.al-akhbar.com/blogs/gadfly/santorum-warns-eurabia-issues-call-evangelize-and-eradicate-muslims. 
  77. Bruce Thornton (March 26, 2005). "The Civilization of Dhimmitude - A review of Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis, by Bat Ye'or". Victor Davis Hanson on the web. http://www.victorhanson.com/articles/thornton032605.html. 
  78. "Bannon film outline warned U.S. could turn into 'Islamic States of America'". The Washington Post. February 2, 2017. https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/bannon-film-outline-warned-us-could-turn-into-islamic-states-of-america/2017/02/03/f73832f4-e8be-11e6-b82f-687d6e6a3e7c_story.html. 
  79. "Tales from Eurabia". The Economist. June 22, 2006. http://www.economist.com/node/7086222. "Integration will be hard work for all concerned. But for the moment at least, the prospect of Eurabia looks like scaremongering." 
  80. David Aaronovitch (2005-11-15). "It's the latest disease: sensible people saying ridiculous things about Islam". The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/columnists/david_aaronovitch/article590235.ece. 
  81. Peters, Ralph (2007). Wars of Blood and Faith: The Conflicts That Will Shape the Twenty-First Century. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. pp. 332–334. ISBN 9781461752073. https://books.google.com/books?id=CPa3DAAAQBAJ&pg=PA334. Retrieved September 18, 2018. 
  82. "THE 'EURABIA' MYTH; MUSLIMS TAKE OVER EUROPE? SORRY, THERE'S NO CHANCE". 26 November 2006. https://nypost.com/2006/11/26/the-eurabia-myth-muslims-take-over-europe-sorry-theres-no-chance/. 
  83. Peters, Ralph (2007). Wars of Blood and Faith: The Conflicts That Will Shape the Twenty-First Century. Stackpole Books. pp. 333–334. ISBN 978-0-8117-0274-4. https://archive.org/details/warsofbloodfaith00pete/page/333. 
  84. Carr, M. (2006). "You are now entering Eurabia". Race & Class 48: 1–22. doi:10.1177/0306396806066636.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1177%2F0306396806066636
  85. Doug Saunders (August 25, 2012). "Doug Saunders: The groundless fear of Muslim immigration". The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/doug-saunders-the-groundless-fear-of-muslim-immigration/article4498250/. 
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