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HandWiki. Phosphate Minerals. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/34429 (accessed on 14 June 2024).
HandWiki. Phosphate Minerals. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/34429. Accessed June 14, 2024.
HandWiki. "Phosphate Minerals" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/34429 (accessed June 14, 2024).
HandWiki. (2022, November 14). Phosphate Minerals. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/34429
HandWiki. "Phosphate Minerals." Encyclopedia. Web. 14 November, 2022.
Phosphate Minerals
Edit

Phosphate minerals contain the tetrahedrally coordinated phosphate (PO43−) anion along sometimes with arsenate (AsO43−) and vanadate (VO43−) substitutions. Chlorine (Cl−), fluorine (F−), and hydroxide (OH−) anions that also fit into the crystal structure. The phosphate class of minerals is a large and diverse group, however, only a few species are relatively common.

chlorine fluorine vanadate

1. Applications

Thin section of apatite-rich carbonatite in cross polarised transmitted light. https://handwiki.org/wiki/index.php?curid=1342396

Phosphate rock has high concentration of phosphate minerals, most commonly of the apatite group. It is the major resource mined to produce phosphate fertilizers for the agriculture sector. Phosphate is also used in animal feed supplements, food preservatives, anti-corrosion agents, cosmetics, fungicides, ceramics, water treatment and metallurgy.

The largest use of minerals mined for their phosphate content is the production of fertilizer.

Phosphate minerals are often used for control of rust and prevention of corrosion on ferrous materials applied with electrochemical conversion coatings.

2. Examples

Phosphate minerals include:

  • Triphylite Li(Fe,Mn)PO4
  • Monazite (La, Y, Nd, Sm, Gd, Ce,Th)PO4 ,rare earth metals
  • Hinsdalite PbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
  • Pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl
  • Erythrite Co3(AsO4)2·8H2O
  • Amblygonite LiAlPO4F
  • lazulite (Mg,Fe)Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
  • Wavellite Al3(PO4)2(OH)3·5H2O
  • Turquoise CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·5H2O
  • Autunite Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2·10-12H2O
  • Phosphophyllite Zn2(Fe,Mn)(PO4)2•4H2O
  • Struvite (NH4)MgPO4·6H2O
  • Xenotime-Y Y(PO4)
  • Apatite group Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH)
    • hydroxylapatite Ca5(PO4)3OH
    • fluorapatite Ca5(PO4)3F
    • chlorapatite Ca5(PO4)3Cl
    • bromapatite
  • Mitridatite group:
    • Arseniosiderite-mitridatite series (Ca2(Fe3+)3[(O)2|(AsO4)3]·3H2O -- Ca2(Fe3+)3[(O)2|(PO4)3]·3H2O)[1]
    • Arseniosiderite-robertsite series (Ca2(Fe3+)3[(O)2|(AsO4)3]·3H2O -- Ca3(Mn3+)4[(OH)3|(PO4)2]2·3H2O)[2]

3. Nickel–Strunz Classification -08- Phosphates

IMA-CNMNC proposes a new hierarchical scheme (Mills et al., 2009). This list uses it to modify the classification of Nickel–Strunz (mindat.org, 10 ed, pending publication).

  • Abbreviations:
    • "*" – discredited (IMA/CNMNC status).
    • "?" – questionable/doubtful (IMA/CNMNC status).
    • "REE" – Rare-earth element (Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu)
    • "PGE" – Platinum-group element (Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt)
    • 03.C Aluminofluorides, 06 Borates, 08 Vanadates (04.H V[5,6] Vanadates), 09 Silicates:
      • Neso: insular (from Greek νησος nēsos, island)
      • Soro: grouping (from Greek σωροῦ sōros, heap, mound (especially of corn))
      • Cyclo: ring
      • Ino: chain (from Greek ις [genitive: ινος inos], fibre)
      • Phyllo: sheet (from Greek φύλλον phyllon, leaf)
      • Tekto: three-dimensional framework
  • Nickel–Strunz code scheme: NN.XY.##x
    • NN: Nickel–Strunz mineral class number
    • X: Nickel–Strunz mineral division letter
    • Y: Nickel–Strunz mineral family letter
    • ##x: Nickel–Strunz mineral/group number, x add-on letter

3.1. Class: Phosphates

  • 08.A Phosphates, etc. without additional anions, without H2O
    • 08.AA With small cations (some also with larger ones): 05 Berlinite, 05 Rodolicoite; 10 Beryllonite, 15 Hurlbutite, 20 Lithiophosphate, 25 Nalipoite, 30 Olympite
    • 08.AB With medium-sized cations: 05 Farringtonite; 10 Ferrisicklerite, 10 Heterosite, 10 Natrophilite, 10 Lithiophilite, 10 Purpurite, 10 Sicklerite, 10 Simferite, 10 Triphylite; 15 Chopinite, 15 Sarcopside; 20 Beusite, 20 Graftonite
    • 08.AC With medium-sized and large cations: 10 IMA2008-054, 10 Alluaudite, 10 Hagendorfite, 10 Ferroalluaudite, 10 Maghagendorfite, 10 Varulite, 10 Ferrohagendorfite*; 15 Bobfergusonite, 15 Ferrowyllieite, 15 Qingheiite, 15 Rosemaryite, 15 Wyllieite, 15 Ferrorosemaryite; 20 Maricite, 30 Brianite, 35 Vitusite-(Ce); 40 Olgite?, 40 Bario-olgite; 45 Ferromerrillite, 45 Bobdownsite, 45 Merrillite-(Ca)*, 45 Merrillite, 45 Merrillite-(Y)*, 45 Whitlockite, 45 Tuite, 45 Strontiowhitlockite; 50 Stornesite-(Y), 50 Xenophyllite, 50 Fillowite, 50 Chladniite, 50 Johnsomervilleite, 50 Galileiite; 55 Harrisonite, 60 Kosnarite, 65 Panethite, 70 Stanfieldite, 90 IMA2008-064
    • 08.AD With only large cations: 05 Nahpoite, 10 Monetite, 15 Archerite, 15 Biphosphammite; 20 Phosphammite, 25 Buchwaldite; 35 Pretulite, 35 Xenotime-(Y), 35 Xenotime-(Yb); 45 Ximengite, 50 Monazite-(Ce), 50 Monazite-(La), 50 Monazite-(Nd), 50 Monazite-(Sm), 50 Brabantite?
  • 08.B Phosphates, etc. with Additional Anions, without H2O
    • 08.BA With small and medium-sized cations: 05 Vayrynenite; 10 Hydroxylherderite, 10 Herderite; 15 Babefphite
    • 08.BB With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 £1:1: 05 Amblygonite, 05 Natromontebrasite?, 05 Montebrasite?, 05 Tavorite; 10 Zwieselite, 10 Triplite, 10 Magniotriplite?, 10 Hydroxylwagnerite; 15 Joosteite, 15 Stanekite, 15 Triploidite, 15 Wolfeite, 15 Wagnerite; 20 Satterlyite, 20 Holtedahlite; 25 Althausite; 30 Libethenite, 30 Zincolibethenite; 35 Tarbuttite; 40 Barbosalite, 40 Hentschelite, 40 Scorzalite, 40 Lazulite; 45 Trolleite, 55 Phosphoellenbergerite; 90 Zinclipscombite, 90 Lipscombite, 90 Richellite
    • 08.BC With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 > 1:1 and < 2:1: 10 Plimerite, 10 Frondelite, 10 Rockbridgeite
    • 08.BD With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 2:1: 05 Pseudomalachite, 05 Reichenbachite, 10 Gatehouseite, 25 Ludjibaite
    • 08.BE With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 > 2:1: 05 Augelite, 10 Grattarolaite, 15 Cornetite, 30 Raadeite, 85 Waterhouseite
    • 08.BF With medium-sized and large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 < 0.5:1: 05 Arrojadite, 05 Arrojadite-(BaFe), 05 Arrojadite-(KFe), 05 Arrojadite-(NaFe), 05 Arrojadite-(SrFe), 05 Arrojadite-(KNa), 05 Arrojadite-(PbFe), 05 Arrojadite-(BaNa), 05 Fluorarrojadite-(BaNa), 05 Fluorarrojadite-(KNa), 05 Fluorarrojadite-(BaFe), 05 Ferri-arrojadite-(BaNa), 05 Dickinsonite, 05 Dickinsonite-(KNa), 05 Dickinsonite-(KMnNa), 05 Dickinsonite-(KNaNa), 05 Dickinsonite-(NaNa); 10 Samuelsonite, 15 Griphite, 20 Nabiasite
    • 08.BG With medium-sized and large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 0.5:1: 05 Bearthite, 05 Goedkenite, 05 Tsumebite; 10 Melonjosephite, 15 Tancoite
    • 08.BH With medium-sized and large cations, (OH,etc.):RO4 = 1:1: 05 Thadeuite; 10 Lacroixite, 10 Isokite, 10 Panasqueiraite; 15 Drugmanite; 20 Bjarebyite, 20 Kulanite, 20 Penikisite, 20 Perloffite, 20 Johntomaite; 25 Bertossaite, 25 Palermoite; 55 Jagowerite, 60 Attakolite
    • 08.BK With medium-sized and large cations, (OH, etc.): 05 Brazilianite, 15 Curetonite, 25 Lulzacite
    • 08.BL With medium-sized and large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 3:1: 05 Corkite, 05 Hinsdalite, 05 Orpheite, 05 Woodhouseite, 05 Svanbergite; 10 Kintoreite, 10 Benauite, 10 Crandallite, 10 Goyazite, 10 Springcreekite, 10 Gorceixite; 10 Lusungite?, 10 Plumbogummite, 10 Ferrazite?; 13 Eylettersite, 13 Florencite-(Ce), 13 Florencite-(La), 13 Florencite-(Nd), 13 Waylandite, 13 Zairite; 15 Viitaniemiite, 20 Kuksite, 25 Pattersonite
    • 08.BM With medium-sized and large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 4:1: 10 Paulkellerite, 15 Brendelite
    • 08.BN With only large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 0.33:1: 05 IMA2008-068, 05 Phosphohedyphane, 05 IMA2008-009, 05 Alforsite, 05 Apatite*, 05 Apatite-(CaOH), 05 Apatite-(CaCl), 05 Apatite-(CaF), 05 Apatite-(SrOH), 05 Apatite-(CaOH)-M, Carbonate-fluorapatite?, 05 Carbonate-hydroxylapatite?, 05 Belovite-(Ce), 05 Belovite-(La), 05 Fluorcaphite, 05 Pyromorphite, 05 Hydroxylpyromorphite, 05 Deloneite-(Ce), 05 Kuannersuite-(Ce), 10 Arctite
    • 08.BO With only large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 1:1: 05 Nacaphite, 10 Petitjeanite, 15 Smrkovecite, 25 Heneuite, 30 Nefedovite, 40 Artsmithite
  • 08.C Phosphates without Additional Anions, with H2O
    • 08.CA With small and large/medium cations: 05 Fransoletite, 05 Parafransoletite; 10 Ehrleite, 15 Faheyite; 20 Gainesite, 20 Mccrillisite, 20 Selwynite; 25 Pahasapaite, 30 Hopeite, 40 Phosphophyllite; 45 Parascholzite, 45 Scholzite; 65 Gengenbachite, 70 Parahopeite
    • 08.CB With only medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O = 1:1: 05 Serrabrancaite, 10 Hureaulite
    • 08.CC With only medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O = 1:1.5: 05 Garyansellite, 05 Kryzhanovskite, 05 Landesite, 05 Phosphoferrite, 05 Reddingite
    • 08.CD With only medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O = 1:2: 05 Kolbeckite, 05 Metavariscite, 05 Phosphosiderite; 10 Strengite, 10 Variscite; 20 Ludlamite
    • 08.CE With only medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O £1:2.5: 10 Newberyite, 20 Phosphorrosslerite; 25 Metaswitzerite, 25 Switzerite; 35 Bobierrite; 40 Arupite, 40 Baricite, 40 Vivianite, 40 Pakhomovskyite; 50 Cattiite, 55 Koninckite; 75 IMA2008-046, 75 Malhmoodite; 80 Santabarbaraite, 85 Metavivianite
    • 08.CF With large and medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O > 1:1: 05 Tassieite, 05 Wicksite, 05 Bederite; 10 Haigerachite
    • 08.CG With large and medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O = 1:1: 05 Collinsite, 05 Cassidyite, 05 Fairfieldite, 05 Messelite, 05 Hillite, (05 Uranophane-beta but Uranophane 09.AK.15); 20 Phosphogartrellite
    • 08.CH With large and medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O < 1:1: 10 Anapaite, 20 Dittmarite, 20 Niahite, 25 Francoanellite, 25 Taranakite, 30 Schertelite, 35 Hannayite, 40 Hazenite, 40 Struvite, 40 Struvite-(K), 45 Rimkorolgite, 50 Bakhchisaraitsevite, 55 IMA2008-048
    • 08.CJ With only large cations: 05 Stercorite, 10 Mundrabillaite, 10 Swaknoite, 15 Nastrophite, 15 Nabaphite, 45 Brockite, 45 Grayite, 45 Rhabdophane-(Ce), 45 Rhabdophane-(La), 45 Rhabdophane-(Nd), 45 Tristramite, 50 Brushite, 50 Churchite-(Dy)*, 50 Churchite-(Nd), 50 Churchite-(Y), 50 Ardealite, 60 Dorfmanite, 70 Catalanoite, 80 Ningyoite
  • 08.D Phosphates
    • 08.DA With small (and occasionally larger) cations: 05 Moraesite, 10 Footemineite, 10 Ruifrancoite, 10 Guimaraesite, 10 Roscherite, 10 Zanazziite, 10 Atencioite, 10 Greifensteinite; 15 Uralolite, 20 Weinebeneite, 25 Tiptopite, 30 Veszelyite, 35 Kipushite, 40 Spencerite, 45 Glucine
    • 08.DB With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 < 1:1: 05 Diadochite, 10 Vashegyite, 15 Schoonerite, 20 Sinkankasite, 25 Mitryaevaite, 30 Sanjuanite, 50 Giniite, 55 Sasaite, 60 Mcauslanite, 65 Goldquarryite, 70 Birchite
    • 08.DC With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 1:1 and < 2:1: 05 Nissonite; 15 Kunatite, 15 Earlshannonite, 15 Whitmoreite; 17 Kleemanite, 20 Bermanite, 207? Oxiberaunite*, 22 Kovdorskite; 25 Ferrostrunzite, 25 Ferristrunzite, 25 Metavauxite, 25 Strunzite; 27 Beraunite; 30 Gordonite, 30 Laueite, 30 Sigloite, 30 Paravauxite, 30 Ushkovite, 30 Ferrolaueite, 30 Mangangordonite, 30 Pseudolaueite, 30 Stewartite, 30 Kastningite, 35 Vauxite, 37 Vantasselite, 40 Cacoxenite; 45 Gormanite, 45 Souzalite; 47 Kingite; 50 Wavellite, 50 Allanpringite, 52 Kribergite, 60 Nevadaite
    • 08.DD With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 2:1: 15 Aheylite, 15 Chalcosiderite, 15 Faustite, 15 Planerite, 15 Turquoise; 20 Ernstite, 20 Childrenite, 20 Eosphorite
    • 08.DE With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 3:1: 05 Senegalite, 10 Fluellite, 20 Zapatalite, (35 Alumoakermanite, Mindat.org: 09.BB.10), 35 Aldermanite
    • 08.DF With only medium-sized cations, (OH,etc.):RO4 > 3:1: 05 Hotsonite-VII, 05 Hotsonite-VI; 10 Bolivarite, 10 Evansite, 10 Rosieresite, 25 Sieleckiite, 40 Gladiusite
    • 08.DG With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 < 0.5:1: 05 Sampleite
    • 08.DH With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 < 1:1: 05 Minyulite; 10 Leucophosphite, 10 Spheniscidite, 10 Tinsleyite; 15 Kaluginite*, 15 Keckite, 15 Jahnsite-(CaMnFe), 15 Jahnsite-(CaMnMg), 15 Jahnsite-(CaMnMn), 15 Jahnsite-(MnMnMn)*, 15 Jahnsite-(CaFeFe), 15 Jahnsite-(NaFeMg), 15 Jahnsite-(CaMgMg), 15 Jahnsite-(NaMnMg), 15 Rittmannite, 15 Whiteite-(MnFeMg), 15 Whiteite-(CaFeMg), 15 Whiteite-(CaMnMg); 20 Manganosegelerite, 20 Overite, 20 Segelerite, 20 Wilhelmvierlingite, 20 Juonniite; 25 Calcioferrite, 25 Kingsmountite, 25 Montgomeryite, 25 Zodacite; 30 Lunokite, 30 Pararobertsite, 30 Robertsite, 30 Mitridatite; 35 Matveevite?, 35 Mantienneite, 35 Paulkerrite, 35 Benyacarite, 40 Xanthoxenite, 55 Englishite
    • 08.DJ With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 1:l: 05 Johnwalkite, 05 Olmsteadite, 10 Gatumbaite, 20 Meurigite-Na, 20 Meurigite-K, 20 Phosphofibrite, 25 Jungite, 30 Wycheproofite, 35 Ercitite, 40 Mrazekite
    • 08.DK With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 > 1:1 and < 2:1: 15 Matioliite, 15 IMA2008-056, 15 Dufrenite, 15 Burangaite, 15 Natrodufrenite; 20 Kidwellite, 25 Bleasdaleite, 30 Matulaite, 35 Krasnovite
    • 08.DL With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 2:1: 05 Foggite; 10 Cyrilovite, 10 Millisite, 10 Wardite; 15 Petersite-(Y), 15 Calciopetersite; 25 Angastonite
    • 08.DM With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 > 2:1: 05 Morinite, 15 Melkovite, 25 Gutsevichite?, 35 Delvauxite
    • 08.DN With only large cations: 05 Natrophosphate, 10 Isoclasite, 15 Lermontovite, 20 Vyacheslavite
    • 08.DO With CO3, SO4, SiO4: 05 Girvasite, 10 Voggite, 15 Peisleyite, 20 Perhamite, 25 Saryarkite-(Y), 30 Micheelsenite, 40 Parwanite, 45 Skorpionite
  • 08.E Uranyl Phosphates
    • 08.EA UO2:RO4 = 1:2: 05 Phosphowalpurgite, 10 Parsonsite, 15 Ulrichite, 20 Lakebogaite
    • 08.EB UO2:RO4 = 1:1: 05 Autunite, 05 Uranocircite, 05 Torbernite, 05 Xiangjiangite, 05 Saleeite; 10 Bassetite, 10 Meta-autunite, 10 Metauranocircite, 10 Metatorbernite, 10 Lehnerite, 10 Przhevalskite; 15 Chernikovite, 15 Meta-ankoleite, 15 Uramphite; 20 Threadgoldite, 25 Uranospathite, 30 Vochtenite, 35 Coconinoite, 40 Ranunculite, 45 Triangulite, 50 Furongite, 55 Sabugalite
    • 08.EC UO2:RO4 = 3:2: 05 Francoisite-(Ce), 05 Francoisite-(Nd), 05 Phuralumite, 05 Upalite; 10 Kivuite?, 10 Yingjiangite, 10 Renardite, 10 Dewindtite, 10 Phosphuranylite; 15 Dumontite; 20 Metavanmeersscheite, 20 Vanmeersscheite; 25 Althupite, 30 Mundite, 35 Phurcalite, 40 Bergenite
    • 08.ED Unclassified: 05 Moreauite, 10 Sreinite, 15 Kamitugaite
  • 08.F Polyphosphates
    • 08.FA Polyphosphates, without OH and H2O; dimers of corner-sharing RO4 tetrahedra: 20 Pyrocoproite*, 20 Pyrophosphite*
    • 08.FC Polyphosphates, with H2O only: 10 Canaphite, 20 Arnhemite*, 25 Wooldridgeite, 30 Kanonerovite
  • 08.X Unclassified Strunz Phosphates
    • 08.XX Unknown: 00 Sodium-autunite, 00 Pseudo-autunite*, 00 Cheralite-(Ce)?, 00 Laubmannite?, 00 Spodiosite?, 00 Sodium meta-autunite, 00 Kerstenite?, 00 Lewisite, 00 Coeruleolactite, 00 Viseite, 00 IMA2009-005

References

  1. Mindat Arseniosiderite-Mitridatite Series http://www.mindat.org/min-10963.html
  2. Mindat Arseniosiderite-Robertsite Series http://www.mindat.org/min-10962.html
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