Submitted Successfully!
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Ver. Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 handwiki -- 3129 2022-11-11 01:35:47

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?


Are you sure to Delete?
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Zheng, H. Censorship of Twitter. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 07 December 2023).
Zheng H. Censorship of Twitter. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed December 07, 2023.
Zheng, Handwiki. "Censorship of Twitter" Encyclopedia, (accessed December 07, 2023).
Zheng, H.(2022, November 11). Censorship of Twitter. In Encyclopedia.
Zheng, Handwiki. "Censorship of Twitter." Encyclopedia. Web. 11 November, 2022.
Censorship of Twitter

Censorship of Twitter refers to Internet censorship by governments that block access to Twitter. Twitter censorship also includes governmental notice and take down requests to Twitter, which Twitter enforces in accordance with its Terms of Service when a government or authority submits a valid removal request to Twitter indicating that specific content (such as a tweet) is illegal in their jurisdiction.

censorship twitter tweet

1. Restrictions Based on Government Request

Twitter acts on complaints by third parties, including governments, to remove illegal content in accordance with the laws of the countries in which people use the service. On processing a successful complaint about an illegal tweet from "government officials, companies or another outside party", the social networking site will notify users from that country that they may not see it.[1]

1.1. France

Following the posting of an antisemitic and racist posts by anonymous users, Twitter removed those posts from its service. Lawsuits were filed by the Union of Jewish Students (UEJF), a French advocacy group and, on January 24, 2013, Judge Anne-Marie Sauteraud ordered Twitter to divulge the personally identifiable information about the user who posted the antisemitic post, charging that the posts violated French laws against hate speech. Twitter responded by saying that it was "reviewing its options" regarding the French charges. Twitter was given two weeks to comply with the court order before daily fines of €1,000 (about US$1,300) would be assessed. Issues over jurisdiction arise, because Twitter has no offices nor employees within France, so it is unclear how a French court could sanction Twitter.[2][3][4]

1.2. India

Twitter accounts spoofing the Prime Minister of India such as "PM0India", "Indian-pm" and "PMOIndiaa" were blocked in India in August 2012 following violence in Assam.[5]

During the curfew in Jammu and Kashmir after Indian revocation of Jammu and Kashmir's special status on 5 August 2019, the Indian government approached Twitter to suspend accounts which were spreading rumours and anti-India content.[6] This included the Twitter account of Syed Ali Shah Geelani, a Kashmiri separatist leader.[7] On 3 August 2019, Geelani tweeted "India is about to launch the biggest genocide in the history of mankind",[8] leading which, his account was suspended on request by authorities. Two days later, on August 5, the Indian parliament passed resolution to bifurcate the Jammu and Kashmir state into two union territories.

In February 2021, Twitter blocked hundreds of accounts that were posting about the Indian farmers protest from being accessed by users in India, by request of the Ministry of Home Affairs; the government ministry alleged that the accounts were spreading misinformation.[9][10][11] Later that month, Twitter became subject to the national Social Media Ethics Code, which expects all social media companies operating in the country to remove content by request of the government within 36 hours, and appoint a local representative who is an Indian resident and passport holder[12]

On May 18, 2021, Bhartiya Janata Party national spokesperson Sambit Patra posted an image alleged to be from an internal Indian National Congress (INC) document, detailing a social media campaign against Prime Minister Narendra Modi to criticize his handling of the COVID-19 pandemic in India. The INC disputed the posts and claimed that they were fabricated. Twitter subsequently marked the post as containing manipulated media.[13][14] The Ministry of Communications and Information Technology issued a request for Twitter to remove the label, alleging that Twitter's decision was "prejudged, prejudiced, and a deliberate attempt to colour the investigation by the local law enforcement agency".[13] After Twitter refused to remove the label, its offices in New Delhi were raided by police.[15]

In June 2021, Twitter lost its immunity as an "intermediary" under the Information Technology Act for its failure to appoint a local representative. It will be considered publisher of all materials posted on the platform.[16][17] Later the same month, police in Uttar Pradesh registered a case against Twitter accusing it of distribution of child pornography.[18] In March 2022, Delhi High Court questioned Twitter on why it would not block users posting objectionable content about Hindu Gods in the same way they blocked US President Donald Trump. The court sought a detailed explanation of Twitter's policies and asked them to file an affidavit.[19]

In July 2022, Twitter started a lawsuit against the government of India after being ordered to remove multiple accounts and tweets that violated India's laws. Twitter is arguing that the laws are too restrictive and challenging the orders to block content. The company stated that some of the blocking demands "pertain to political content that is posted by official handles of political parties" and said that such orders are "a violation of the freedom of speech".[20]

1.3. Israel

In 2016, access to comments by the American blogger Richard Silverstein about a criminal investigation, which involved a minor and therefore was under a gag order according to Israeli law, was blocked to Israeli IP addresses, following a request by Israel's Ministry of Justice.[21][22]

1.4. Pakistan

As of May 2014, Twitter regularly disables the ability to view specific "tweets" inside Pakistan, at the request of the Government of Pakistan on the grounds that they are blasphemous, having done so five times in that month.[23]

On November 25, 2017, the NetBlocks internet shutdown observatory and Digital Rights Foundation collected evidence of nation-wide blocking of Twitter alongside other social media services, imposed by the government in response to the religious political party Tehreek-e-Labaik protests.[24][25][26] The technical investigation found that all major Pakistani fixed-line and mobile service providers were affected by the restrictions, which were lifted by the PTA the next day when protests abated following the resignation of Minister for Law and Justice Zahid Hamid.[27]

1.5. Russia

On May 19, 2014, Twitter blocked a pro-Ukrainian political account for Russian users. It happened soon after a Russian official had threatened to ban Twitter entirely if it refused to delete "tweets" that violated Russian law, according to the Russian news site Izvestia.[28]

On July 27, 2014, Twitter blocked an account belonging to a hacker collective that has leaked several internal Kremlin documents to the Internet.[29]

On March 10, 2021, Russia's Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media began throttling Twitter on all mobile devices and 50% of computers due to claims that Twitter regulatory board failed to remove illegal content that includes suicide, child pornography, and drug use. They issued Twitter could be blocked in Russia if it did not comply. In an e-mail statement Twitter stated it was "deeply concerned to throttle online public conversation."[30][31][32]

From March to April 2021 Roskomnadzor considered a ban and the removal of the IP of Twitter from Russia completely.[33] The government agency was met with denials and lack of urgency from the social network.[34] Roskomnadzor has the necessary “technical capabilities” to completely remove Twitter from Russian domain.[35] The severity of the situation occurred when over 3,000 posts containing child pornography in violation of Community Guidelines have been detected in 2021 by the agency that was later sent to Twitter regulatory board for verification. However Twitter sent no response back to the agency concerning the illegal content and has thereafter been charged of withholding its duty to maintain the social network's Community Guidelines.[35]

On April 2, 2021, a Russian court found Twitter guilty on three counts of "violating regulations on restricting unlawful content," and ordered Twitter to pay $117,000 in fines.[36][37][38] On April 5, 2021, Russia extended its throttling of Twitter until May 15, 2021. On May 17, 2021, Roskomnadzor said that Twitter had removed 91% of the banned content and backed off on blocking Twitter. Barring 600 posts still pending removal, the government agency also said they would continue throttling Twitter on Mobile Devices only saying that Twitter needed to remove all the banned items and in the future delete reportedly illegal posts within 24 hours for all restrictions to be lifted.[39]

1.6. South Korea

In August 2010, the Government of South Korea tried to block certain content on Twitter due to the North Korean government opening a Twitter account.[40] The North Korean Twitter account created on August 12, uriminzok, loosely translated to mean "our people" in Korean, acquired over 4,500 followers in less than one week. On August 19, 2010, South Korea 's state-run Communications Standards Commission banned the Twitter account for broadcasting "illegal information."[41] According to BBC US and Canada, experts claim that North Korea has invested in "information technology for more than 20 years" with knowledge of how to use social networking sites.[42] This appears to be "nothing new" for North Korea as the reclusive country has always published propaganda in its press, usually against South Korea, calling them "warmongers."[42] With only 36 "tweets", the Twitter account was able to accumulate almost 9,000 followers. To date, the South Korean Commission has banned 65 sites, including this Twitter account.[41]

1.7. Tanzania

On October 29, 2020, the ISPs in Tanzania blocked social media in their country during election week.[43][44][45] Other social media sites have been unblocked since then, but Twitter remains blocked across all ISPs.

1.8. Turkey

On April 20, 2014, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, FAZ, reported Twitter had blocked two regime hostile accounts in Turkey, @Bascalan and @Haramzadeler333, both known for pointing out corruption.[46] In fact, on March 26, 2014, Twitter announced that it started to use its Country Withheld Content tool for the first time in Turkey.[47] As of June 2014, Twitter was withholding 14 accounts and "hundreds of tweets" in Turkey.[48]

Turkey submitted the highest volume of removal requests to Twitter in 2014,[49] 2015,[50][51] 2016,[50] 2017[52] and 2018.[52] While in 2019 was third.[52]

1.9. Venezuela

Twitter images were temporarily blocked in Venezuela in February 2014,[53] along with other sites used to share images, including and Zello, a walkie-talkie app.[54] In response to the block, Twitter offered Venezuelan users a workaround to use their accounts via text message on their mobile phones.[55]

On February 27, 2019, internet monitoring group NetBlocks reported the blocking of Twitter by state-run Internet provider CANTV for a duration of 40 minutes.[56][57] The disruption followed the sharing of a tweet made by opposition leader Juan Guaidó linking to a highly critical recording posted to SoundCloud, which was also restricted access during the incident. The outages were found to be consistent with a pattern of brief, targeted filtering of other social platforms established during the country's presidential crisis.[58]

2. Government Blocking of Twitter Access

In some cases, governments and other authorities take unilateral action to block Internet access to Twitter or its content.

2.1. China

Twitter is officially blocked in China; however, many Chinese people circumvent the block to use it.[59] Even major Chinese companies and national medias, such as Huawei and CCTV, use Twitter through a government approved VPN.[60][61] The official account of China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs started tweeting in English in December 2019, meanwhile dozens of Chinese diplomats, embassies and consulates run their accounts on Twitter.[62] In 2010, Cheng Jianping was sentenced to one year in a labor camp for "retweeting" a comment that suggested boycotters of Japanese products should instead attack the Japanese pavilion at the 2010 Shanghai Expo. Her fiancé, who posted the initial comment, claims it was actually a satire of anti-Japanese sentiment in China.[63] According to the report of the Washington Post, in 2019, state security officials visited some users in China to request them deleting tweets.[64] The Chinese police would produce printouts of tweets and advise users to delete either the specific messages or their entire accounts. The New York Times described "the crackdown (of the twitter users in China) is unusually broad and punitive". The targets of the crackdown even included those Twitter lurkers with very few followers.[65] In 2019, a Chinese student at the University of Minnesota was arrested and sentenced to six months in prison when he returned to China, for posting tweets mocking Chinese paramount leader Xi Jinping while in US.[66] On 3 July 2020, Twitter announced that all data and information requests for Hong Kong authorities were immediately paused after Hong Kong national security law, which was imposed by the Chinese government, went into effect.[67] According to the official verdicts as of 2020, at least hundreds of Chinese were sentenced to prison due to their tweeting, retweeting and liking on Twitter.[68] According to the documents obtained by the New York Times in 2021, Shanghai police were trying to use technology means to find out the true identities of Chinese users of specific accounts on foreign social media, including Twitter.[69] In 2022, Peiter Zatko, Twitter’s former head of security, accused Twitter of accepting funding from unnamed "Chinese entities", which gave them access to the information of users in China, and Twitter knew that could endanger these users.[70] Zatko also disclosed that FBI notified Twitter of at least one Chinese agent in the company.[71]

2.2. Iran

In 2009, during 2009 Iranian presidential election, the Iranian government blocked Twitter due to fear of protests being organised.[72] In September 2013, the blocking of both Twitter and Facebook was briefly lifted without notice due to a technical error, but within a day the sites were blocked again.[73]

2.3. North Korea

In April 2016, North Korea started to block Twitter "in a move underscoring its concern with the spread of online information".[74] Anyone who tries to access it without special permission from the North Korean government, including foreign visitors and residents, is subject to punishment.[74]

2.4. Russia

On 26 February 2022, during the invasion of Ukraine, Russia began restricting access to Twitter, with global internet monitor NetBlocks observing that the censorship measure was in effect "across multiple providers."[75][76] Despite direct connections being restricted, Russians could still access Twitter via VPN services.[77] The decision was subsequently announced by Roskomnadzor as a measure to curtail information on Twitter and Facebook that did not align with the Government of Russia's positions.[78]

2.5. Turkmenistan

(As of 2018), foreign news and opposition websites are blocked in Turkmenistan, and international social networks such as Twitter are "often inaccessible".[79]

2.6. Uzbekistan

On July 2, 2021, Uzbekistan blocked access to Twitter along with TikTok, VKontakte, and Skype after stating that they had violated a new personal data law. This also came amid new laws passed that criminalized insulting or slandering the president online, amid an upcoming presidential election later that year. [80] The sites were briefly unblocked on 16 March 2022 before being blocked again hours later. [81]

2.7. Egypt (2011 Temporary Block)

Twitter was inaccessible in Egypt on January 25, 2011, during the 2011 Egyptian protests. Some news reports blamed the government of Egypt for blocking it.[82]Vodafone Egypt, Egypt's largest mobile network operator, denied responsibility for the action in a tweet.[83] Twitter's news releases did not state who the company believed instituted the block.[84] As of January 26, Twitter was still confirming that the service was blocked in Egypt.[85] On January 27, various reports claimed that access to the entire Internet from within Egypt had been shut down.[86]

Shortly after the Internet shutdown, engineers at Google, Twitter, and SayNow, a voice-messaging startup company acquired by Google in January, announced the Speak To Tweet service. Google stated in its official blog that the goal of the service was to assist Egyptian protesters in staying connected during the Internet shutdown.[87] Users could phone in a "tweet" by leaving a voicemail and use the Twitter hashtag #Egypt. These comments could be accessed without an Internet connection by dialing the same designated phone numbers. Those with Internet access could listen to the comments by visiting

On February 2, 2011, connectivity was re-established by the four main Egyptian service providers.[88][89][90] A week later, the heavy filtering that occurred at the height of the revolution had ended.

2.8. Nigeria (2021–2022 Temporary Block)

From 5 June 2021 to 13 January 2022, the government of Nigeria officially banned Twitter,[13][91] which restricted it from operating in the country. The ban occurred after Twitter deleted tweets made by, and temporarily suspended, the Nigerian president Muhammadu Buhari, warning the southeastern people of Nigeria,[92][93] predominantly Igbo people, of a potential repeat of the 1967 Biafran Civil War due to the ongoing insurgency in Southeastern Nigeria.[91][94][95][96][97][98] The Nigerian government claimed that the deletion of the president's tweets factored into their decision, but it was ultimately based on "a litany of problems with the social media platform in Nigeria, where misinformation and fake news spread through it have had real world violent consequences",[99] citing the persistent use of the platform for activities that are capable of undermining Nigeria's corporate existence.[100]

2.9. Turkey (2014 Temporary Block)

On March 21, 2014, access to Twitter in Turkey was temporarily blocked, after a court ordered that "protection measures" be applied to the service. This followed earlier remarks by Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan who vowed to "wipe out Twitter" following damaging allegations of corruption in his inner circle.[101] However, on March 27, 2014, Istanbul Anatolia 18th Criminal Court of Peace suspended the above-mentioned court order. Turkey's constitutional court later ruled that the ban is illegal.[102] Two weeks after the Turkish government blocked the site, the Twitter ban was lifted.[103] However, (As of 2017), Twitter reports that the government of Turkey accounts for more than 52 percent of all content removal requests worldwide.[104]

3. Suspending and Restricting Users

Under Twitter's Terms of Service which requiring users agreement, Twitter retains the right to temporarily or permanently suspend user accounts based on violations.[105] One such example took place on December 18, 2017, when it banned the accounts belonging to Paul Golding, Jayda Fransen, Britain First, and the Traditionalist Worker Party.[106] Donald Trump, the former President of the United States, faced a limited degree of censorship in 2019, and following the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol has been completely suspended on January 8, 2021, according to an interpretation of two tweets by moderation.[107][108][109] Trump has used the platform extensively as a means of communication, and has escalated tensions with other nations through his tweets.[110] On January 8, 2021, at 6:21 EST, Twitter permanently suspended Trump's personal Twitter account.[111] The President then posted four status updates on the POTUS Twitter account which were subsequently removed. Twitter said they would not suspend government accounts, but will "instead take action to limit their use."[112]

Twitter's policies have been described as subject to manipulation by users who may coordinate to flag politically controversial tweets as allegedly violating the platform's policies, resulting in deplatforming of controversial users.[105] The platform has long been criticized for its failure to provide details of underlying alleged policy violations to the subjects of Twitter suspensions and bans.[113]

In 2018, Twitter rolled out a "quality filter" that hid content and users deemed "low quality" from search results and limited their visibility, leading to accusations of shadow banning. After conservatives claimed it censors users from the political right, Alex Thompson, a writer for VICE, confirmed that many prominent Republican politicians had been "shadow banned" by the filter.[114] Twitter later acknowledged the problem, stating that the filter had a software bug that would be fixed in the near future.[114]

In October 2020, Twitter prevented users from tweeting about a New York Post article about the Biden–Ukraine conspiracy theory, relating to emails about Hunter Biden allegedly introducing a Ukrainian businessman to his father, Joe Biden.[115] Senators Marsha Blackburn and Ted Cruz described the blocking of the New York Post on Twitter as "election interference".[116] The New York Times reported in September 2021 that a Federal Election Commission inquiry into a complaint about the matter found Twitter had acted with a valid commercial reason, rather than a political purpose. The FEC inquiry also found that allegations Twitter had violated election laws by allegedly shadow banning Republicans and other means were "vague, speculative and unsupported by the available information."[117]


  1. "Twitter's censorship plan rouses global furor". CBS News. Associated Press. January 27, 2012. 
  2. Pfanner, Eric; Somini Sengupta (January 24, 2013). "In a French Case, a Battle to Unmask Twitter Users". The New York Times. 
  3. "French court rules on hate tweets". UPI. January 25, 2013. 
  4. Marchive, Valéry. "Twitter ordered to give up details of racist users". ZDNet. 
  5. "India targets social media sites after Assam violence". BBC News. August 22, 2012. 
  6. "Govt tells Twitter to block accounts inciting anti-India content using Kashmir". Hindustan Times. August 12, 2019. 
  7. Twitter told to take down handles spreading fake news about Kashmir Valley , The Economic Times (August 13, 2019)
  8. "'India is about to launch the biggest genocide in IOK': Kashmiri leader urges Muslims to 'save our souls'". Pakistan Today. 3 August 2019. 
  9. Singh, Karan Deep (February 10, 2021). "Twitter Blocks Accounts in India as Modi Pressures Social Media". The New York Times. 
  10. "Why Twitter Blocked Accounts Linked to Farmers Protests in India". Time. 
  11. Singh, Vijaita; Bhargava, Yuthika (February 1, 2021). "Twitter blocks several accounts posting messages in support of farmers' stir, restores most of them later". The Hindu. 
  12. Ramachandran, Naman (2021-02-25). "India Publishes 'Digital Media Ethics Code' for Social Media and Streaming Platforms" (in en-US). 
  13. "Twitter marks BJP leader's post on Cong 'toolkit' manipulated; IT Ministry steps in, calls it biased" (in en). 2021-05-22. 
  14. "What is 'Congress toolkit' controversy: All you need to know | India News - Times of India" (in en). May 19, 2021. 
  15. Ramachandran, Naman (2021-05-24). "Twitter's India Offices Raided by Delhi Police After Political Tweet" (in en-US). 
  16. "Legal protection of Twitter as intermediary is not absolute, it is compliance-oriented". 2021-06-18. 
  17. "Twitter loses its status as intermediary platform in India due to non-compliance with new IT rules". June 16, 2021. 
  18. "Twitter faces new case for child pornography after India map row". al-Jazeera. Reuters. June 30, 2021. 
  19. NETWORK, LIVELAW NEWS (2022-03-28). "Twitter Can Block Donald Trump's Account But Not User Posting Objectionable Content About Hindu Gods? Delhi High Court Asks" (in en). 
  20. Singh, Manish. "Twitter, challenging block orders, sues India's government". 
  21. "Israeli Censorship on an American Tweet". Calcalist (in Hebrew). August 9, 2016.,7340,L-3695173,00.html. 
  22. "Twitter Agrees To Remove Tweet At Israel's Request". Vocativ. August 11, 2016. 
  23. "Twitter Agrees to Block 'Blasphemous' Tweets in Pakistan". The New York Times. May 22, 2014. 
  24. "DRF and NetBlocks find blanket and nation-wide ban on social media in Pakistan and demand it to be lifted immediately" (in en-GB). Digital Rights Foundation. November 26, 2017. 
  25. "Activists assail blanket ban on social media" (in en-US). The Nation. November 27, 2017. 
  26. "All you need to know about nation-wide internet disruptions during dharna" (in en-US). November 27, 2017. 
  27. "The issue of social media networking" (in en-US). The Nation. November 26, 2017. 
  28. "Twitter Blocks Pro-Ukrainian Political Account for Russian Users" , Brian RiesMay, Mashable, May 19, 2014.
  29. "Twitter 'Blocks' Access to Russia's Most Infamous Hackers" , Kevin Rothrock, Global Voices Online, July 27, 2014.
  30. Reuters Staff (2021-03-10). "Twitter says 'deeply concerned' after Russian move" (in en). Reuters. 
  31. "Russia slows down Twitter in latest social media clampdown" (in en-US). 
  32. Shead, Sam (2021-03-10). "Russia says it is slowing down Twitter to protect citizens from illegal content" (in en). 
  33. "Russia will block Twitter in one month unless it deletes banned content - Russian news agencies". 2021-03-16. 
  34. Rosenbaum, Andrew. "Twitter faces shutdown in Russia unless banned content is deleted | Cyprus Mail" (in en-GB). 
  35. "Russia threatens to block Twitter in a month" (in en-US). 2021-03-16. 
  36. Reuters Staff (2021-04-02). "Russian court fines Twitter over failure to delete content" (in en). Reuters. 
  37. Klar, Rebecca (2021-04-02). "Russia fines Twitter for not removing posts" (in en). 
  38. "Twitter fined by Russian court for not taking down calls to protest" (in en). 
  39. "Russia partially halts punitive Twitter slowdown, warns other tech platforms". 2021-05-17. 
  40. "South Korea tries to block Twitter messages from North". August 21, 2010. 
  41. Zachary Sniderman (August 19, 2010). "North Korea's Newly Launched Twitter Account Banned by South Korea". 
  42. Boyd, Clark (August 18, 2010). "BBC News – North Korea creates Twitter and YouTube presence". 
  43. "Internet disrupted in Tanzania on eve of general elections" (in en-US). 2020-10-27. 
  44. "Internet throttling, SMS blocking in days leading up to election in Tanzania" (in en). 2020-10-27. 
  45. "Tanzania Restrics Social Media". October 29, 2020. 
  46. "Twitter sperrt regierungsfeindliche Konten". April 20, 2014. 
  47. Gadde, Vijaya (March 26, 2014). "Challenging the access ban in Turkey". Twitter. 
  48. Sözeri, Efe Kerem (June 28, 2014). "Twitter Yasakları: Yolsuzluk, Dedikodu ve Biraz Porno". Bianet. 
  49. "Turkey tops countries demanding content removal: Twitter". reuters. February 9, 2015. 
  50. "Half of All Requests to Remove Twitter Posts Come From Turkey". Bloomberg L.P.. March 22, 2017.  ...Turkey accounted for more than half of all content removal requests sent to Twitter during the second half of 2016, a ranking it has topped for three years.
  51. "Turkey leads the world in Twitter censorship — and no other country is even close". businessinsider. August 13, 2015. 
  52. "Removal Requests - Twitter Transparency Center". 
  53. Knibbs, Kate (February 17, 2014). "Venezuela censors tweets amid protests, Twitter confirms".!B9IFw. 
  54. Chao, Loretta (February 21, 2014). "Twitter, Other Apps Disrupted in Venezuela Amid Protests". The Wall Street Journal. 
  55. "Twitter reports image blocking in Venezuela". USA Today. Associated Press. February 14, 2014. 
  56. "Twitter blocked in Venezuela" (in en-US). February 27, 2019. 
  57. Carballo, Betzimar (February 27, 2019). "NetBlocks: "Por primera vez durante la crisis Twitter fue bloqueado en Venezuela"" (in es). 
  58. Ma, Alexandra. "Venezuela's Maduro has been blacking out social media — and sometimes the whole internet — to stifle his US-backed opposition". 
  59. Bamman, D.; O'Connor, B.; Smith, N. (March 5, 2012). "Censorship and deletion practices in Chinese social media". First Monday (University of Illinois at Chicago) 17 (3). doi:10.5210/fm.v17i3.3943. Retrieved 2013-12-03. 
  60. "CCTV (@CCTV) | Twitter" (in en). 
  61. "Huawei (@Huawei) | Twitter" (in en). 
  62. Feng, Zhaoyin (29 December 2019). "China and Twitter: The year China got louder on social media". BBC News. 
  63. Shahid, Aliyah (November 18, 2010). "Chinese woman, Cheng Jianping, sentenced to a year in labor camp over Twitter post". New York Daily News. 
  64. Shih, Gerry (January 4, 2019). "Chinese censors go old school to clamp down on Twitter: A knock on the door". The Washington Post. 
  65. Mozur, Paul (10 January 2019). "Twitter Users in China Face Detention and Threats in New Beijing Crackdown". The New York Times. 
  66. Allen-Ebrahimian, Bethany (23 January 2020). "University of Minnesota student jailed in China over tweets". Axios. 
  67. Manfredi, Lucas (6 July 2020). "Facebook, Twitter pause data requests from Hong Kong authorities over controversial security law". 
  68. Dahai, Han (November 10, 2020). "Chinese Authorities Punish Citizens for Using Foreign Social Media". VOA. 
  69. "Buying Influence: How China Manipulates Facebook and Twitter". The New York Times. 2021-12-20. Archived from the original on 2021-12-20. 
  70. "Twitter is vulnerable to Russian and Chinese influence, whistleblower says". CNN. 2022-08-23. 
  71. FBI notified Twitter of at least one Chinese agent in company -- whistleblower
  72. "Iran Blocks Facebook, Twitter Sites Before Elections (Update1)". Bloomberg. May 23, 2009. 
  73. Taylor, Chris (September 17, 2013). "Iran Unblocks Facebook and Twitter". 
  74. "North Korea blocks Facebook, Twitter and YouTube". Global News. April 4, 2016. 
  75. "Twitter and Facebook restricted in Russia amid conflict with Ukraine" (in en-US). 2022-02-26. 
  76. "Russia restricts Twitter, Facebook during Ukraine attack". 
  77. Brandom, Russell (2022-02-26). "Russia blocks Twitter as Ukraine invasion escalates" (in en). 
  78. "Facebook And Twitter Have Been Blocked In Russia". March 4, 2022. Retrieved March 4, 2022. 
  79. BBC Monitoring (2018). "Turkmenistan country profile". 
  80. "Uzbekistan Restricts Access To Several Social Media Sites" (in en-US). 2021-03-07. 
  81. "Uzbekistan unblocks, re-blocks popular social media amid TikTok talks" (in en-US). 2022-03-17. 
  82. Murphy, Dan (January 25, 2011). "Inspired by Tunisia, Egypt's protests appear unprecedented". The Christian Science Monitor. 
  83. @VodafoneEgypt (January 25, 2011). "We didn't block twitter...". Twitter. 
  84. Sherman, Alex (January 26, 2011). "Twitter Says Access to Service in Egypt Is Blocked". Business Week. Retrieved January 26, 2011. 
  85. "Twitter Comms: Egypt continues to block Twitter...". Twitter. January 26, 2011. 
  86. Kanalley, Craig (January 27, 2011). "Egypt's Internet Shut Down, According To Reports". Huffington Post. 
  87. Singh, Ujjwal. "Some weekend work that will (hopefully allow more Egyptians to be heard.". 
  88. "Egypt internet comes back online". February 2, 2011. 
  89. Labovitz, Craig (February 2, 2011). "Egypt Returns to the Internet". 
  90. Cowie, James (February 2, 2011). "Egypt Returns To The Internet". 
  91. "Nigeria bans Twitter after company deletes President Buhari's tweet" (in en). 
  92. "Twitter removes Nigerian president's 'abusive' civil war post". 2021-06-02. 
  93. "Nigeria Condemns Twitter for Deleting President Buhari's Tweet" (in en). 2021-06-02. 
  94. "Twitter deletes Nigerian leader's 'civil war' post" (in en-GB). 2021-06-02. 
  95. Maclean, Ruth (2021-06-05). "Nigeria Bans Twitter After President's Tweet Is Deleted" (in en-US). The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. 
  96. "Nigeria suspends Twitter after the social media platform freezes president's account" (in en-US). Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. 
  97. "Nigerians on Twitter react to Nigeria's Twitter suspension" (in en). 
  98. "Twitter blocked in Nigeria after deleting a tweet by its president" (in en). 5 June 2021. 
  99. "Nigeria's Twitter ban: Government orders prosecution of violators" (in en-GB). 2021-06-06. 
  100. "BREAKING: FG suspends Twitter's operations in Nigeria" (in en-US). 2021-06-04. 
  101. "Twitter website 'blocked' in Turkey" , BBC News, March 20, 2014. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
  102. "Turkey Twitter ban: Constitutional court rules illegal". BBC News. April 2, 2014. 
  103. "#BBCtrending: Turkey's Twitter block 'lifted'". BBC News. April 3, 2014. 
  104. "Transparency Reports, Turkey". 2017. 
  105. Holt, Kris (June 12, 2012). "Dirty digital politics: How users manipulate Twitter to silence foes". 
  106. "Opinion | Why I'm done with Twitter's black hole of outrage" (in en). 
  107. "Twitter Suspends Account Retweeted By President Trump". December 17, 2019. 
  108. Schleifer, Theodore (June 27, 2019). "Twitter won't censor Trump's rule-breaking tweets, but it will make them harder to find". 
  109. Trump, Donald (January 8, 2021). "Donald Trump's twitter page". 
  110. Nakamura, David. "For Trump and Iran, trolling on Twitter helped escalate tensions on the battlefield". 
  111. "Twitter permanently suspends Trump's account" (in en-GB). BBC News. 2021-01-09. 
  112. Brian Fung. "Twitter bans President Trump permanently". 
  113. Ohlheiser, Abby (July 22, 2016). "Here's what it takes to get banned from Twitter". Hamilton Spectator. 
  114. Thompson, Alex (July 26, 2018). "Twitter appears to have fixed search problems that lowered visibility of GOP lawmakers". VICE News. 
  115. Mihalcik, Carrie; Wong, Queenie (October 14, 2020). "Facebook, Twitter limit reach of New York Post article about Hunter Biden". CNET. 
  116. Isaac, Mike; Conger, Kate (October 22, 2020). "Twitter Changes Course After Republicans Claim 'Election Interference'". The New York Times. 
  117. Goldmacher, Shane (September 13, 2021). "The F.E.C. dismisses claims that Twitter illegally blocked a Hunter Biden article.". The New York Times. 
Contributor MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to :
View Times: 1246
Entry Collection: HandWiki
Revision: 1 time (View History)
Update Date: 11 Nov 2022