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Aziz, A.;  Noreen, S.;  Khalid, W.;  Mubarik, F.;  Niazi, M.K.;  Koraqi, H.;  Ali, A.;  Lima, C.M.G.;  Alansari, W.S.;  Eskandrani, A.A.; et al. Bioavailability of Sprout against Different Diseases. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 29 November 2023).
Aziz A,  Noreen S,  Khalid W,  Mubarik F,  Niazi MK,  Koraqi H, et al. Bioavailability of Sprout against Different Diseases. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed November 29, 2023.
Aziz, Afifa, Sana Noreen, Waseem Khalid, Fizza Mubarik, Madiha Khan Niazi, Hyrije Koraqi, Anwar Ali, Clara Mariana Gonçalves Lima, Wafa S. Alansari, Areej A. Eskandrani, et al. "Bioavailability of Sprout against Different Diseases" Encyclopedia, (accessed November 29, 2023).
Aziz, A.,  Noreen, S.,  Khalid, W.,  Mubarik, F.,  Niazi, M.K.,  Koraqi, H.,  Ali, A.,  Lima, C.M.G.,  Alansari, W.S.,  Eskandrani, A.A.,  Shamlan, G., & Al-Farga, A.(2022, November 10). Bioavailability of Sprout against Different Diseases. In Encyclopedia.
Aziz, Afifa, et al. "Bioavailability of Sprout against Different Diseases." Encyclopedia. Web. 10 November, 2022.
Bioavailability of Sprout against Different Diseases

With the intake of plant sprouts, bioavailability has long been regarded as crucial. The bioavailability of phytochemicals in various sprout diets varies substantially depending on several parameters. Interindividual factors, including delivery mode, and even intraindividual biochemical variances and the makeup and function of the gut microbiota are all factors to consider.

sprout bioactive compound functional product

1. Bioavailability of Sprouts against Brain Issues

Nervous system diseases are a common ailment that will become more common as populations age. Axonopathy, also known as dying-back axonopathy, is a neurological illness in which axons become disconnected from their destinations, resulting in functional impairment. Axons can renew or sprout in response to several neurologic illnesses to re-establish synaptic function and to reconnect with the target before motor neuron death. Compensatory motor axon sprouting and neuromuscular junction reinnervation has been demonstrated in ALS patients, although the disease’s course has typically outpaced these advantages. In ALS and kindred illnesses defined by dying-back axonopathy, potential therapeutics that encourage compensatory sprouting and reinnervation may delay symptom onset and may sustain muscle function for extended periods. Many questions concerning the impact of various disease-causing mutations on axonal outgrowth and regeneration, especially in motor neurons derived from patient-induced pluripotent stem cells, remain unsolved. Researchers must mimic the human neuromuscular circuit using motor neurons created from human-induced pluripotent stem cells to uncover drugs that stimulate axonal regeneration, sprouting, and reinnervation of neuromuscular junctions [1]. Regarding colored flavonoids, anthocyanins, the majority of which are highly acylated, and glycosylated forms of cyanidin are abundant in broccoli, radishes, cabbages, and kale sprouts [2]. Recently, anthocyanins have attracted more attention due to their potential to improve brain function and their role in the prevention and treatment of disorders including diabetes and obesity. One study suggested that two crude juices of broccoli sprouts had a protective effect on SH-SY5Y cells treated with the fragment Aβ25–35 because they contained different amounts of polyphenols and sulforaphane. The sprouts’ juices both protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death as evidenced by cell viability, nuclear chromatin condensation, and apoptotic body formation measurements [3]. Another study suggested that cruciferous vegetables were a good source of sulforaphane. The results herein showed that sulforaphane protected against acute brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway [4].

2. Compensatory Sprouting as a Potential Therapeutic Strategy for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Functional motor recovery can be aided by the sprouting of motor axons and the reinnervation of denervated NMJs. Axonal sprouting allows motor units to increase 5–8 times their initial size. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, there is evidence of motor axon sprouting [5]. ALS is more common in certain motor neuron subpopulations that are also less prone to sprouting. In people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, compensatory sprouting may be employed to slow the onset of muscle denervation and weakness. The global number of ALS cases is expected to rise by 2040. Any drug that can improve the quality of life for ALS patients is badly needed. Axonal sprouting, which involves the functional reinnervation of NMJs, has the potential to improve life quality [6]. Phenolic acids are present in different vegetable sprouts. The diverse neuroprotective effects of phenolic acids make them interesting candidates for better ALS therapies. Study outcomes have shown that protocatechuic acid administration at 100 mg/kg in SOD1G93A mice prolonged survival, recovered motor functions, and decreased gliosis [7][8]. An in vitro study suggested that antioxidant molecules were capable of rescuing NSC34 motor neuron cells expressing an ALS-associated mutation of superoxide dismutase 1 [9].

3. Bioavailability of Sprouts against Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) Health Problems

Sprouts may make it easier for you to digest your diet. According to a study, sprouted seeds increased the amount of fiber in them, making them more accessible. According to one study, cereals sprouted for five days had up to 133 percent more fiber than non-sprouted grains. Another study found that growing beans until the sprouts were 5 mm long boosted the overall fiber content by 226 percent. Sprouting appears to enhance the amount of insoluble fiber, a type of fiber that aids stool creation and passage through the stomach, reducing constipation risk. Finally, sprouted beans, grains, vegetables, nuts, and seeds have lower antinutrient levels than their non-sprouted counterparts. This makes it easier for the body to absorb nutrients during digestion [10]. Fiber that the human gut cannot digest on its own, but some bacteria can digest, is an essential source of nutrients that your gut microbe need to stay healthy. Fiber helps to stimulate the growth of colonic flora, to increase the weight of the stool, and to enhance the number of bacteria in the gut. The growth of bacteria present in the gut enhances the health of the intestines. However, short-chain fatty acids are produced by anaerobic gut bacteria through saccharolytic fermentation of complex resistant carbohydrates, which escape digestion and absorption in the small intestine [11]. In contrast to micro- and macronutritional contents, dietary polyphenols tend to be recognized as xenobiotic by humans during absorption, and therefore, their biological accessibility is significantly low. Furthermore, polymerization and structural complexity influence digestion in the small intestine [12]. The small intestine usually consumes approximately 5–10% of the absorbed polyphenols. The residual polyphenols (90–95%) might develop up to millimolar proportions in the large intestine linked to bile conjugates spilled into lumen in which they are susceptible to the enzymatic reactions of the gut bacteria species [13]. According to current data, dietary polyphenols that penetrate gut microflora, also including volatile compounds produced, manufacture and generate differences in the microbiota community through their prebiotic properties and functioning as an antiseptic towards infectious intestinal microbiota [14].
Onions have been proven to offer digestive system-protective properties, such as preventing stomach ulcers, regulating gut flora, and alleviating colitis. In rats, raw onion sprouts were shown to suppress histamine-induced stomach acid release and to attenuate ethanol-stimulated gastric ulcers. However, boiling the onion was less effective. In common carp juveniles, dietary supplementation with onion sprout powder has been shown to alter gut microbiota by increasing the number of lactic acid bacteria [15]. In rats, bioactive substances produced from onions, such as quercetin and quercetin monoglycosides, were found to boost the enzymatic activity of the gut microbiota. In colitis mice caused by dextran sodium sulfate, quercetin monoglycosides were shown to affect a variety of gut bacteria. Furthermore, onions and other Allium species have been demonstrated to protect against upper aerodigestive tract and gastrointestinal tract cancers [16]. Peanut sprout ethanolic extract at a purification of 80% (v/v) has been administered to loperamide-induced constipated SD rats, which revealed its laxative effects [17].

4. Bioavailability of Sprouts against Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs)

In hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats, dietary supplementation with onion reversed high-cholesterol diet-induced changes in lipid mediators such as oxylipin and sphingolipid profiles [18]. Using an animal model to study increased blood pressure, researchers investigated the relationship between oxidative stress and a diet rich in broccoli sprouts with a high quantity of glucoraphanin. After 14 weeks, rats were fed broccoli sprouts that were either low in the chemical or rich in glucoraphanin. After the trial, they observed that rats fed a glucoraphanin-rich diet had lower blood pressure and less heart inflammation. According to the researchers, the benefits were attributed to better antioxidant defense systems and a decreased glucoraphanin-induced inflammatory response. Broccoli and broccoli sprouts contain different antioxidants (vitamin E, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid) that may aid in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In laboratory rats, the chemical glucoraphanin increased heart function, decreased inflammation, and boosted natural antioxidant defenses. When unstable molecules, called free radicals, react with oxygen in the body, they promote inflammation and cell death, raising the risk of heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants are supposed to help reduce oxidative stress in the body, preventing these detrimental consequences. Glucoraphanin is a chemical that boosts the body’s antioxidant defenses by acting as an indirect antioxidant. It is naturally found in broccoli and broccoli sprouts [19].
Onions have been shown in trials to enhance lipid profiles and to prevent platelet aggregation, lowering the risk of heart disease. Onions and their bioactive components have been widely researched for their hypocholesterolemia effects in rats fed high-cholesterol or high-fat diets. Onion sprouts successfully reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in hyperlipidemic rats [20]. Polyphenol-rich onion extract alleviated hyperlipidemia in Sprague-Dawley rats’ livers by upregulating the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and downregulating the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase (HMGCR). In addition, Lee et al. [21] found that quercetin-rich onion peel extract increased fecal cholesterol, reduced the atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor, and activation of LDLR and cholesterol 7-monooxygenase (CYP7A1) in high-cholesterol diet-fed mice, indicating that onion had a cholesterol-lowering effect via fecal excretion. They proved that fecal excretion of onions lowered cholesterol. When onions were added to a high-cholesterol diet supplied to rats, the bile acid levels in their stools changed. Dietary onion increased antioxidant enzyme activity and enhanced anti-inflammatory response and cardiovascular risk markers in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet [22].

5. Bioavailability of Sprouts against Oxidative Stress-Related Diseases such as Cancer and Diabetes

In addition, secondary metabolites are abundantly present in sprouts, especially the glucosinolates (GLs), as in the case of the Brassicaceae family [23]. Gulcosinolates consist of an amino acid group and a thiohydroximate-O-sulfonate attached to the glucose unit [24]. Myrosinase acts to hydrolyse these GLs to thiocyanates and isothiocyanates [20] when the pH is between 6.0 and 7.0 [10], and then it yields anti-mutagenic activity, having a limiting effect on oxidative stress and playing a role in chemoprotection, especially in cancers and diabetes [25]. Glucoraphenin and glucobrassicin are the GLs excessively present in sprouted radish, which readily enhance antioxidant activity, and consequently decrease carcinogenesis in the body [26]. Kale sprouts do not have dehydroerucin but have a better GL profile as compared with sprouted radish due to gluconapoleiferin, glucoiberin, gluconasturtin, gluconapin, progoitrin, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, and sinigrin, which potentially reduce oxidative stress, and hence, decrease the risk of related diseases, i.e., diabetes, cancer, and heart diseases [27]. Taniguchi et al. [28] used Japanese radish sprouts in normal and streptozotin-induced diabetic mice to show the benefits of cruciferous sprouts on DM. It was shown that radish sprout consumption decreased plasma levels of fructosamine, glucose, and insulin, suggesting that the hypoglycemia brought on by radish sprout consumption may not be related to an increase in insulin synthesis but rather to enhanced sensitivity or an insulin-like action [29]. It depends on the ktype of sorghum, enzyme-inducing, and anti-proliferative capabilities. The most effective inducer of quinone oxidoreductase, a phase II detoxifying enzyme, has been shown to be an extract from black tea (non-tannin) that is abundant in 3-deoxyanthocyanins. Comparatively speaking, white sorghum extract has been shown to be a relatively potent inducer. Despite not inducing quinone oxidoreductase, tannin sorghum extracts have provided the most potent antiproliferative effects on human esophageal and colon cancer cells.

6. Bioavailability of Protein against Malnutrition

Sprouting enhances protein content, as evidenced from a study conducted by Devi et al. [30] on cowpea (lobia) by enhancing its bioavailability and digestibility. Sprouting is an interesting phenomenon that influences metabolic enzymes, especially proteinases, which increase the content of protein [31]. Sprouted chickpeas have more protein content than black gram. The sprouting process decreases the protease inhibitors and even enhances lipase activity, yielding increased content of fatty acids, and this also improves the digestibility of starches [32].


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