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HandWiki. Nickel Oxides. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33781 (accessed on 18 June 2024).
HandWiki. Nickel Oxides. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33781. Accessed June 18, 2024.
HandWiki. "Nickel Oxides" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33781 (accessed June 18, 2024).
HandWiki. (2022, November 10). Nickel Oxides. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33781
HandWiki. "Nickel Oxides." Encyclopedia. Web. 10 November, 2022.
Nickel Oxides
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Nickel forms a series of mixed oxide compounds which are commonly called nickelates. A nickelate is an anion containing nickel or a salt containing a nickelate anion, or a double compound containing nickel bound to oxygen and other elements. Nickel can be in different or even mixed oxidation states, ranging from +1, +2, +3 to +4. The anions can contain a single nickel ion, or multiple to form a cluster ion. The solid mixed oxide compounds are often ceramics, but can also be metallic. They have a variety of electrical and magnetic properties. Rare-earth elements form a range of perovskite nickelates, in which the properties vary systematically as the rare-earth element changes. Fine tuning of properties is achievable with mixtures of elements, applying stress or pressure, or varying the physical form. Inorganic chemists call many compounds that contain nickel centred anions "nickelates". These include the chloronickelates, fluoronickelates, tetrabromonickelates, tetraiodonickelates, cyanonickelates, nitronickelates and other nickel-organic acid complexes such as oxalatonickelates.

fluoronickelates chloronickelates oxalatonickelates

1. Alkali Nickelates

The lithium nickelates are of interest to researchers as cathodes in lithium cells, as these substance can hold a variable amount of lithium, with the nickel varying in oxidation state.[1]

2. Rare-Earth Nickelates

Rare-earth nickelates with nickel in a +1 oxidation state have an electronic configuration to same as for cuprates and so are of interest to high-temperature superconductor researchers. Other rare-earth nickelates can function as fuel cell catalysts. The ability to switch between an insulating and a conducting state in some of these materials is of interest in the development of new transistors, that have higher on to off current ratios.[2]

The rare-earth nickelates were first made by Demazeau et al. in 1971, by heating a mixture of oxides under high pressure oxygen, or potassium perchlorate. However they were unable to make the cerium, praseodymium, and terbium nickelates.[3] This may be because Ce, Pr and Tb oxidises to 4+ions in those conditions.[4] For two decades after that no one paid attention to them.[4] Many rare-earth nickelates have the Ruddlesden–Popper phase structure.

3. List of Oxides

formula name other names structure Remarks references
LiNiO2 Lithium Nickelate   rhombohedral a = 2.88 Å, c = 14.2 Å, density = 4.78 / 4.81   [5]
Li2NiO3     monoclinic C2/m a = 4.898 Å, b = 8.449 Å, c = 4.9692 Å, β = 109.02°, V = 194.60 Å3 Nickel in +4 state [1]
NaNiO2 sodium nickelate   monoclinic a = 5.33 Å, b = 2.86 Å, c = 5.59 Å, β = 110°30′, Z = 2, density = 4.74; over 220 °C: rhombohedral a = 2.96 Å, b = 15.77 Å Carbon dissolved in the molten salt can precipitate diamond. [5][6]
KNiO2 potassium nickelate       [5][7]
SrTiNiO3 Strontium titanate nickelate STN     [8]
YNiO3 yttrium nickelate   monoclinic P21/n; orthorhombic a = 5.516 Å, b = 7.419 Å, c = 5.178 Å, V = 211.9 Å3, Z = 4, density = 6.13 insulator changes to metal under pressure [9][10]
Y2BaNiO5 chain nickelate   Orthorhombic Immm, a = 3.7589, b = 5.7604, c = 11.3311   [11][12]
2H-AgNiO2     hexagonal P63/mmc, a = 2.93653 Å, b = 2.93653 Å, c = 12.2369 Å, V = 91.384 Å3, Z = 2, density = 7.216 g/cm3 Ni in +3 state [13]
3R-AgNiO2     trigonal R32/m, a = 2.9390 Å, c = 18.3700 Å Ni in +3 state [13][14]
Ag2NiO2 silveroxonickelate   trigonal R32/m, a = 2.926 Å, c = 24.0888 Å lustrous black solid, stable in air; Ni3+ and subvalent Ag2+ [14]
Ag3Ni2O4     hexagonal P63/mmc, a = 2.9331 Å, b = 2.9331 Å, c = 28.31 Å, V = 210.9 Å3, Z = 2, density = 7.951 g/cm3 electric conductor [15]
BaNiO2     orthorhombic a = 5.73 Å, b = 9.2 Å, c = 4.73 Å, V = 249 Å3, Z = 4 black [16]
BaNiO3     hexagonal a = 5.580 Å, c = 4.832 Å, V = 130.4 Å3, Z = 2 black powder dec 730 °C N-type semiconductor; decompose in acid [16][17]
Ba2Ni2O5     hexagonal a = 5.72, c = 4.30, density = 6.4 black needles melt 1200 °C [16][17]
LaNiO2 Lanthanum nickelite   a = 3.959, c = 3.375 Ni in +1 state [18]
LaNiO3 lanthanum nickelate   a = 5.4827 Å, b = 5.4827 Å, c = 3.2726 Å, γ = 120°, V = 345.5, Z = 6, density = 7.08 metallic, no insulating transition polar metal [19]
La2NiO4   LN tetragonal a = 3.86 Å, b = 3.86 Å, c = 12.67 Å, V = 188.8 Å3, Z = 2, density = 7.05   [20][21]
La3Ni2O6     tetragonal a = 3.968 Å, c = 19.32 Å   [20]
La3Ni2O7     a = 5.3961 Å, b = 5.4498 Å, c = 20.522 Å, V = 603.5, Z = 4, density = 7.1   [20][22]
La4Ni3O8     antiferromagnetic below 105 K, mixed valence I and II   [20][23]
La4Ni3O10         [23]
La2−xSrxNiO4   LSN a varies from 3.86 to 3.81 as x changes from 0 to 0.5, then ≈ 3.81; c ≈ 12.7 for x ≤ 0.8, the it falls to 12.4 at x = 1.2 polarization-specific metal [24]
CeNiO3 Cerium Nickelate     decomposes 1984 °C [25]
PrNiO2         [20]
PrNiO3     perovskite metallic insulator transition=130K [26]
Pr4Ni3O8         [20]
Pr2BaNiO5 chain nickelate   Orthorhombic   [11]
NdNiO3 neodymium nickelate   perovskite orthorhombic Pbnm, a = 5.38712 Å, b = 5.38267 Å, c = 7.60940 Å metallic insulator transition=200K [10][26]
NdNiO2     orthorhombic a = 5.402 Å, b = 7.608 Å, c = 5.377 Å, V = 221.0 Å3, density = 7.54   [20][27][28]
Nd4Ni3O8     orthorhombic a = 3.9171 Å, b = 3.9171 Å, c = 25.307 Å, V = 388.3 Å3, Z = 2, density = 7.54   [20][29]
Nd2NiO4     Cmca a = 5.383 Å, b = 12.342 Å, c = 5.445 Å, V = 361.7 Å3, density = 7.55   [30]
Nd2BaNiO5 chain nickelate   Orthorhombic Immm, a = 2.8268 Å, b = 5.9272 Å, c = 11.651 Å   [11][12]
SmNiO3 samarium nickelate SNO perovskite Pnma, a = 5.431 Å, b = 7.568 Å, c = 5.336 Å, V = 219.3 Å, Z = 4, density = 7.79 metallic insulator transition=400K [26][31]
Sm1.5Sr0.5NiO4   SSNO orthorhombic Bmab giant dielectric constant 100,000 [32]
EuNiO3 europium nickelate   perovskite orthorhombic a = 5.466 Å, b = 7.542 Å, c = 5.293 Å, V = 218.2 Å3, Z = 4, density = 7.87 metallic insulator transition=460K [26]
GdNiO3 gadolinium nickelate   perovskite orthorhombic a = 0.5492 Å, b = 0.7506 Å, c = 0.5258 Å, V = 216.8 Å3, Z = 4, density = 8.09 metallic insulator transition=510.9K [33]
Gd2NiO4 digadolinium nickelate   Orthorhombic a = 3.851 Å, b = 3.851 Å, c = 6.8817 Å, V = 187.5 Å3, Z = 2, density = 7.75   [34]
BaGd2NiO5 barium digadolinium nickelate chain nickellate ?orthorhombic low thermal conductance [35]
Tb2BaNiO5 chain nickelate   Orthorhombic   [11]
DyNiO3 dysprosium nickelate   perovskite orthorhombic a = 0.55 Å, b = 0.7445 Å, c = 0.5212 Å V=213.4 Z=4 density=8.38 metallic insulator transition=564.1K [26][33][36]
Dy2BaNiO5 chain nickelate   Orthorhombic   [11]
HoNiO3 holmium nickelate   perovskite orthorhombic a = 3.96 Å, b = 3.96 Å, c = 5.04 Å, V = 212 Å3 Z = 4, density=8.51 metallic insulator transition=560K [33]
Ho2BaNiO5 chain nickelate   Orthorhombic Immm, a = 3.764 Å, b = 5.761 Å, c=11.336 Å   [11][37]
ErNiO3 erbium nickelate   perovskite orthorhombic a = 5.514 Å, b =7.381 Å, c = 5.16 V=201 Z=4 density=8.67 metallic insulator transition=580K [33][38]
Er2BaNiO5 chain nickelate   Orthorhombic Immm a = 3.7541 Å, b = 5.7442 Å c=11.3019 Å V=243.71 Å3 Z=2   [11][12][39]
TmNiO3 thulium nickelate   orthorhombic a = 5.495 Å, b = 7.375 Å, c = 5.149 Å V = 208.7 Z = 4 density = 8.77   [40]
Tm2BaNiO5 thulium barium nickelate   Orthorhombic low temperature Pnma a = 12.2003 Å b = 5.65845 Å c = 6.9745 Å Z = 4; high T: Immm a = 3.75128 b = 5.7214 c = 11.2456 Pnma form is brown Immm form is dark green [11][41]
YbNiO3 ytterbium nickelate   Orthorhombic a = 5.496 Å, b = 7.353 Å, c = 5.131 Å Z=4 V=207.4 Å3 density=8.96   [42]
Yb2BaNiO5 ytterbium barium nickelate   Orthorhombic Pnma a = 5.6423 Å, b = 6.9545 Å, c = 12.1583 Å V=477.1 Z=4 density=8.66 Pnma form is brown [41]
LuNiO3 lutetium nickelate   perovskite a = 5.499 Å, b = 7.356 Å, c = 5.117 Å, V = 207 Å3, Z = 4, density = 9.04 metallic insulator transition=600K [33][43]
Lu2BaNiO5     Orthorhombic Pnma   [12]
TlNiO3 Thallium nickelate(III)   perovskite a = 5.2549 Å, b = 5.3677 Å, c = 7.5620 Å, V = 213.3 Å3   [44]
PbNiO3  
BiNiO3 bismuth nickelate(III)   perovskite triclinic a = 5.3852, b = 5.6498, c = 7.7078 Å, α = 91.9529°, β = 89.8097°, γ = 91.5411, V = 234.29 Å3 Ni in +2 state, Bi in +3 and +5; stable 5–420K, antiferromagnetic [45][46]
 

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