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Zhu, H. Travis (Chimpanzee). Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33253 (accessed on 11 December 2023).
Zhu H. Travis (Chimpanzee). Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33253. Accessed December 11, 2023.
Zhu, Handwiki. "Travis (Chimpanzee)" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33253 (accessed December 11, 2023).
Zhu, H.(2022, November 07). Travis (Chimpanzee). In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33253
Zhu, Handwiki. "Travis (Chimpanzee)." Encyclopedia. Web. 07 November, 2022.
Travis (Chimpanzee)
Edit

Travis (October 21, 1995 – February 16, 2009) was a male common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) who, in February 2009, mauled his owner's friend in Stamford, Connecticut. He blinded her, severed several body parts and lacerated her face. He was shot dead by a police officer. As an animal actor, Travis had appeared in several television shows and commercials, including spots for Pepsi and Old Navy. He had also appeared on The Maury Povich Show, The Man Show, and a television pilot that featured Sheryl Crow and Michael Moore.

troglodytes chimpanzee travis

1. Socialization

Travis was born near Festus, Missouri on October 21, 1995, at Mike and Connie Braun Casey's compound, currently named the Missouri Chimpanzee Sanctuary. In a separate incident, Travis' mother Suzy was fatally shot following an escape in 2001.[1] Sandra and Jerome Herold purchased Travis for $50,000 from a breeder after he was taken from his mother when he was three days old.[2][3] They named the chimp for Sandra's favorite singer, Travis Tritt.[4] The Herolds raised Travis at their home at Rock Rimmon Road in the North Stamford section of Stamford, Connecticut.[5] Travis was the Herolds' constant companion and would often accompany them to work and on their shopping excursions in town.[5] The Herolds owned a towing company, and Travis would pose for photos at the shop and ride with the tow truck, his seatbelt buckled as he wore a baseball shirt. Travis became well known in the town and had been known to greet police officers they would encounter when towing cars.[5]

Having grown up among people, Travis had been socialized to humans since birth. A neighbor said he used to play around and wrestle with Travis. He added the animal always knew when to stop and paid close attention to its owner. "He listened better than my nephews," the neighbor remarked after Travis had mauled Nash. "I just don't know why he would do that."[6]

Travis could open doors using keys, dress himself, water plants, feed hay to his owners' horses, eat at a table with the rest of the family, and drink wine from a stemmed glass; he was so fond of ice cream that he learned the schedules of passing ice cream trucks. He logged onto the computer to look at pictures, watched television using a remote control, and brushed his teeth using a Water Pik.[7][8][9] He enjoyed watching baseball on television.[10] Travis had also driven a car on several occasions.[3]

Jerome died from cancer in 2004, and the Herolds' only child died in a car accident; as a result, Sandra Herold regarded Travis almost as a surrogate son and pampered him.[3][5] Sandra slept and bathed with Travis, saying after his death, "I'm, like, hollow now. He slept with me every night. Until you've eaten with a chimp and bathed with a chimp, you don't know a chimp."[11]

2. Incidents

2.1. 2003 Incident

In October 2003, Travis escaped from the Herolds' car and held up traffic at a busy intersection; he was on the loose for several hours.[12] The incident began after a pedestrian threw an empty soda bottle at the car that went through a partially open window and struck Travis while they were stopped at a traffic light.[13] Startled, Travis unbuckled his seat belt, opened the car door and chased the man, but did not catch him. When police arrived, they lured the chimpanzee into the car several times only to have Travis let himself out of another door and occasionally chase the officers around the car.[5] The 2003 incident led to the passing of a Connecticut law prohibiting people from keeping primates weighing more than 50 pounds (23 kg) as pets and requiring owners of exotic pets to apply for permits. The new law took effect in 2009, and as of Travis's death in the same year, no one in the state had applied to adopt a chimpanzee. The Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) did not enforce the law on the Herolds because they had owned 200-pound (91 kg) Travis for so long and the DEP did not believe Travis posed a public safety risk.[2][14]

2.2. 2009 Attack

On February 16, 2009, at around 3:40 p.m., Travis attacked Sandra Herold's 55-year-old friend Charla Nash, inflicting devastating injuries to her face and limbs.[15] Travis had left the house with Sandra Herold's car keys, and Nash came to help get the chimp back in the house; upon seeing Nash holding a Tickle Me Elmo—one of his favorite toys—Travis flew into a rage and attacked her.[5] Travis was familiar with Nash, who had also worked at the Herolds' towing company, although Nash had a different hairstyle at the time of the attack, which may have confused and alarmed him.[16] He had been taking medication for Lyme disease.[3] Herold, then 70 years old, attempted to stop Travis by hitting him on the head with a shovel and stabbing him in the back with a butcher knife.

Herold later said, "For me to do something like that—put a knife in him—was like putting one in myself". The chimp turned around, she said, as if to say, "'Mom, what did you do?'"[3] The animal grew angrier. Herold, at this point believing Nash to be dead, then called 9-1-1 and pleaded for help. Travis' screams can be heard in the background at the start of the tape as Sandra pleaded for the police, who initially believed the call to be a hoax, until she started screaming, "He's eating her!"[17][18][19] Emergency medical services waited for police before approaching the house. Travis headed towards the police car when it arrived, tried to open a locked passenger door, and smashed a side-view mirror. Then he went around to the driver's-side door and opened it, at which point Officer Frank Chiafari shot him several times. Travis retreated to the house, where he was found dead next to his cage.[5]

2.3. Aftermath

The emergency crew described Nash's injuries as "horrendous".[12] Within the following 72 hours, Nash underwent more than seven hours of surgery on her face and hands by four teams of surgeons. The hospital provided counseling to its staff members who initially treated her because of the extraordinary nature of Nash's wounds.[20] Paramedics noted she lost her hands, nose, eyes, lips, and mid-face bone structure, and received significant brain tissue injuries.[21] Doctors reattached her jaw, but announced on April 7, 2009, that Nash would be blind for life. Her injuries made her a possible candidate for an experimental face transplant surgery.[20] After initial treatment at Stamford Hospital, Nash was transferred to the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio.[22] Her family started a trust fund to raise money to pay her "unfathomable" medical bills and support her daughter.[23] Nash revealed her damaged face in public for the first time on The Oprah Winfrey Show on November 11, 2009. She was not at that time in physical pain from the attack, and family members said she hoped to leave the Cleveland Clinic soon.[24] Pictures have surfaced on the Internet displaying Nash's face before and after the attack.[25]

The incident became an international news story. Shortly after the attack, a woman who had lived in the same area as Herold came forward with information that back in 1996, the chimpanzee had bitten her hand and tried to pull her into a vehicle as she greeted him.[26] She claimed to have complained to the Herolds and to police, who stated they had no record of any such complaint.[27]

In June 2011, Nash underwent transplant surgery performed by a team led by Dr. Bohdan Pomahač at the Harvard teaching affiliate, Brigham and Women's Hospital, receiving a donated face and hands. The hands transplant was initially successful, but because Nash developed pneumonia shortly thereafter, doctors were forced to remove her newly transplanted hands due to the infection and resulting poor circulation.[28]

In accordance with standard procedure, Travis' head was taken to the state laboratory for a rabies test, and the body was taken to the University of Connecticut for a necropsy.[7] The head tested negative for rabies,[29] but there was Xanax (Alprazolam) remaining in his system.[30] Necropsy results in May 2009 confirmed the chimp was overweight and had been stabbed.[31] The remains were cremated at All Pets Crematory in Stamford on February 25, 2009.[32]

Toxicology reports confirmed Sandra's statement that she had given Travis Xanax-laced tea the day of the attack, which could have exacerbated his aggression.[33][34] Xanax is a short-acting, potent anti-anxiety drug that can cause disinhibition and disorientation and occasionally paradoxical reactions of hallucination, aggression, rage, and mania in humans.[35]

Lawsuit

In March 2009, an attorney for Charla Nash's family filed a $50 million lawsuit against Sandra Herold.[36] On May 6, a Stamford judge froze Herold's assets, valued at US$10 million.[37] Other potential defendants included the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, the city of Stamford, and the veterinarian who prescribed the Xanax.[38] The defense claimed the chimp had no violent behavior before the attack, and the two accusations in the 1990s attacks were untrue because the chimp had no teeth at the time.[39]

On May 24, 2010, 15 months after the attack, Sandra Herold died suddenly of a ruptured aortic aneurysm at the age of 72. Her attorney, Robert Golger, released the following statement: "Ms. Herold had suffered a series of heartbreaking losses over the last several years, beginning with the death of her daughter who was killed in a car accident, then her husband, then her beloved chimp Travis, as well as the tragic maiming of friend and employee Charla Nash. In the end, her heart, which had been broken so many times before, could take no more."[40]

In November 2012, Nash reached a settlement with Herold's estate and received approximately $4 million.[41]

Nash attempted to sue the state of Connecticut in 2013 but her claim was denied. She had asserted that officials knew the animal was dangerous but did nothing about it.[42] Nash's petition to sue was denied on the basis that at the time of the attack, no statute existed that prohibited the private ownership of a chimpanzee. In July 2013, Nash's attorneys began efforts to appeal the court's decision.[43]

In media

Travis' escape and subsequent attack of Charla Nash were used as part of the "Chimps" episode of the Animal Planet 2010-2011 documentary series: Fatal Attractions. Sound from the original 9-1-1 call, radio traffic from the police shooting of Travis, and the aftermath of the hunt were used in the episode.[44]

News reports of the incident spread as far as China.[45] The attack, similar to another chimpanzee attack four years earlier in California,[46] provoked discussion about the logic of keeping such exotic animals as pets by sources such as Time (magazine) magazine and primatologists Jane Goodall and Frans de Waal.[47][48][49] Afterward, PETA members allegedly harassed Herold, although the organization stated that it did not have any official involvement.[50][51]

Frank Chiafari—the police officer who fatally shot Travis—was initially unable to get his therapy for depression and anxiety covered after the incident. This led to legislation proposed in 2010 that would cover a police officer's compensation for mental or emotional impairment after he used justifiable deadly force to kill an animal.[52]

In June of 2009, American deathcore band Suicide Silence released their second album No Time to Bleed which featured the track "...And Then She Bled" a song recreation of the 911 emergency phone call placed by Sandra Herold during the February 16, 2009 attack.[53]

Influence on legislation

Connecticut Attorney General Richard Blumenthal noted that a defect in the existing 2004 Connecticut law prohibiting chimpanzees of Travis' size, itself a result of the 2003 incident, allowed the attack to occur. A Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) spokesman clarified that Travis was exempt because he did not appear to present a public health risk and was owned before the registration requirement began. Blumenthal subsequently sent letters to legislative leaders and the DEP Commissioner, asking them to support a proposed law that would ban all potentially dangerous exotic animals, such as chimpanzees, crocodiles, and venomous snakes, from being kept in a residential setting in Connecticut. The DEP was seeking a similar law banning large primates and, after the incident, announced that it sought the help of the public, police officers, and animal control officers to report such pets to the agency.[54] The editorial board of The Advocate newspaper in Stamford also supported banning the possession of all exotic birds and reptiles.[55]

U.S. Representative Earl Blumenauer introduced the Captive Primate Safety Act introduced on January 6, 2009, which would have added monkeys, great apes, and lemurs to the list of "prohibited wildlife species" that cannot be sold or purchased through interstate and foreign sales.[14][56] The attack led the Humane Society of the United States to join with the Wildlife Conservation Society in supporting the Act.[14] Travis' attack resulted in the bill's reintroduction by co-sponsor, Rep. Mark Kirk, on February 23, 2009.[56][57] Rep. Rob Bishop argued against the bill during the floor debate, noting it would cost $4 million annually and do nothing directly to prevent chimpanzee attacks on humans. He also claimed such attacks are relatively rare.[58] Twenty states and the District of Columbia already have laws banning primates as pets.[59] On February 23, 2009, the House voted 323 to 95 in favor of the bill,[58] and the editorial boards of several major newspapers, including The New York Times and Newsday, supported its passage.[60][61] The bill was never taken up by the US Senate.

References

  1. Rich Schapiro, Mom of crazed chimpanzee, Travis, also shot dead during rage in 2001, New York Daily News, February 21, 2009, Accessed February 24, 2009. http://www.nydailynews.com/news/2009/02/21/2009-02-21_mom_of_crazed_chimpanzee_travis_also_sho-1.html
  2. Lockhard, Brian (February 17, 2009). "State turned blind eye to Stamford chimpanzee". The Advocate (Stamford). http://www.stamfordadvocate.com/ci_11723406. 
  3. Mike Celizic, Owner describes chimp’s terrifying rampage, TODAYShow.com, February 18, 2009, Accessed February 18, 2009; also see associated video available on the Today Show website. https://web.archive.org/web/20090219211339/http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/29255129/
  4. "Travis the Menace". https://nymag.com/news/features/70830/. 
  5. Jeff Morganteen, Victim's face mauled in Stamford chimpanzee attack, Stamford Advocate, February 18, 2009, Accessed February 18, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090222022124/http://www.stamfordadvocate.com/ci_11729621
  6. "Residents Shocked By Brutal Chimp Attack - Connecticut News Story - W…". 5 December 2010. http://www.wfsb.com/news/18726175/detail.html. 
  7. Gallman, Stephanie (February 17, 2009). "Chimp attack 911 call: 'He's ripping her apart'". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2009/US/02/17/chimpanzee.attack/. 
  8. Roger Catlin, About that Chimp, Hartford Courant, February 18, 2009, Accessed February 18, 2009. https://archive.today/20130120001442/http://blogs.courant.com/roger_catlin_tv_eye/2009/02/about-that-chimp.html
  9. "Chimp, owner had unusual bond". USA Today. February 19, 2009. https://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2009-02-19-chimpanzee-previous-attack_N.htm. 
  10. Ed Pilkington, Chimpanzee shot after attack outside New York, The Guardian, February 17, 2009, Accessed February 18, 2009. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/feb/17/chimpanzee-attack-usa
  11. "Owner Shared Bed and Took Baths With Chimpanzee From Connecticut Attack". Fox News. February 20, 2009. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,497064,00.html. 
  12. Andy Newman and Anahad O'Connor, Woman Mauled by Chimp Is Still in Critical Condition, The New York Times , February 18, 2009, Accessed February 18, 2009. https://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/18/nyregion/18chimp.html
  13. "Travis the Menace" (in en-us). 2011-01-21. https://nymag.com/news/features/70830/. 
  14. Travis Led to New Law in '04, NBCConnecticut.com, February 18, 2009, Accessed February 18, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090222063101/http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/29254668
  15. Newman, Andy (2009-02-17). "Pet chimpanzee attacks woman in Connecticut (Published 2009)" (in en-US). The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. https://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/17/world/americas/17iht-chimp.1.20241928.html. 
  16. Devon Lash, Family: Victim makes 'good, but small, progress", Stamford Advocate, February 18, 2009, Accessed February 20, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090727191035/http://www.stamfordadvocate.com/localnews/ci_11733496
  17. Residents Shocked By Brutal Chimp Attack, Eyewitness News 3, updated: March 4, 2009, Accessed September 19, 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20090218222416/http://www.wfsb.com/news/18726175/detail.html
  18. Chimp Attack 911 Call, CBS's official channel on YouTube, February 17, 2009, Accessed February 18, 2009. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wgS0KgT5APc
  19. "Chilling 911 Call Chronicles Chimp Attack". February 18, 2009. http://www.wfsb.com/news/18737306/detail.html. 
  20. Anahad O'Connor, Woman Mauled by Chimp Has Surgery, and Her Vital Signs Improve, The New York Times, February 18, 2009, Accessed February 19, 2009. https://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/19/nyregion/19chimpanzee.html
  21. Edgar Sandoval and Rich Schapiro, Charla Nash lost eyes, nose and jaw in chimpanzee attack, New York Daily News, February 19, 2009, Accessed February 19, 2009. http://www.nydailynews.com/news/2009/02/18/2009-02-18_charla_nash_lost_eyes_nose_and_jaw_in_ch.html
  22. Lawrence K. Altman and Anahad O'Connor, Cleveland Clinic Gets Victim of Chimp Attack, The New York Times, February 19, 2009, Accessed February 20, 2009. https://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/20/nyregion/20face.html
  23. Lash, Devon. Family sets up fund for chimp attack victim. March 5, 2009. Stamford Advocate. Accessed March 13, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090727183532/http://www.stamfordadvocate.com/ci_11848103
  24. "Chimp Attack Victim Reveals Face During Oprah Interview", by "combined staff and wire reports [...] Associated Press and Hartford Courant", Hartford Courant website, November 11, 2009, retrieved same day http://www.courant.com/health/hc-charla-nash-oprah-winfrey-interview-1111,0,2767773,print.story
  25. "Chimp mauling victim Charla Nash's $150 million lawsuit against Connecticut denied". New York Daily News. Associated Press. June 14, 2013. http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/chimp-attack-victim-loses-bid-sue-connecticut-article-1.1373108#ixzz30lwnsclT. 
  26. "Chimp Has Attacked Before, Woman Claims". ABC News. https://abcnews.go.com/GMA/story?id=6912308. 
  27. "Owner, Travis the chimp had unusual bond". NBC News. 2009-02-19. https://www.nbcnews.com/id/29279834/#.UtiCxvukK34. 
  28. Khan, Amina (10 June 2011). "Charla Nash, chimpanzee attack victim, receives full face transplant in Boston". latimes.com. https://articles.latimes.com/2011/jun/10/opinion/le-heb-charla-nash-chimpanzee-face-transplant-20110610. 
  29. John Christofferen, Woman says Connecticut chimpanzee bit her in '96, Associated Press, February 19, 2009, Accessed February 19, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090222211949/http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5jvlkKth37Fp__GL6KYdl2b1s6dBgD96EPIQG1
  30. John Christoffersen (2009-05-13). "Conn. chimp that mauled woman had Xanax in system". Associated Press. https://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5jhxw9fUjruFRAJbzmlxU7kG1sdvwD985FKAG0. 
  31. Potts, Monica. 2009. Chimp had Xanax in his system. Stamford, CT: Stamford Advocate http://www.topix.net/forum/source/stamford-advocate/TJPGAK887OOJFCKHJ
  32. "Stamford chimpanzee cremated". Stamford Advocate. 2009-02-25. http://www.stamfordadvocate.com/ci_11781956. 
  33. Tests Show Chimp Had Anti-Anxiety Drug Xanax in System During Vicious Attack , FoxNews.com, updated: Wednesday, May 13, 2009, Accessed September 21, 2010. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,520061,00.html
  34. Why would a chimpanzee attack a human? , Scientific American, updated: February 19, 2009, Accessed September 21, 2010. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=why-would-a-chimpanzee-at
  35. "The Journal of Mind and Behavior, Winter, 1998". http://www.benzosupport.org/analysisof.pbreggin.1998.pdf. 
  36. Potts, Monica. 3-16-09. Lawyer for chimp attack victim says lawsuit imminent. Stamford, CT: The Stamford Advocate. Retrieved, 3-16-09 https://web.archive.org/web/20090727184430/http://www.stamfordadvocate.com/ci_11925838
  37. "$50M Chimp Attack Lawsuit Heads to Court". Associated Press. NBC Connecticut. 2009-05-07. http://www.nbcconnecticut.com/news/local/Assets-to-be-Frozen-for-Chimp-Attack-Lawsuit.html. 
  38. Staff reporters. 03-17-2009. Family of Stamford chimp attack victim seeks $50M. Stamford, CT: The Stamford Advocate, Southern CT. Newspapers, Inc, Hearst CT Post, LLC. Retrieved, 3-17-09, 1:46PM https://web.archive.org/web/20090727183546/http://www.stamfordadvocate.com/ci_11931871
  39. Christoffersen, John (2009) Associated PressLawyer for Stamford chimp owner: animal wasn't violent. Stamford, CT: The Advocate Posted: 04/10/2009 Retrieved: 6/02/20 https://www.thehour.com/stamford/article/Lawyer-for-Stamford-chimp-owner-animal-wasn-t-8246214.php
  40. "Sandy Herold Dead: Owner Of Chimp Who Attacked Charla Nash Dies". The Huffington Post. https://huffingtonpost.com/2010/05/25/sandy-herold-dead-owner-o_n_588888.html. 
  41. "Charla Nash, chimp attack victim, settles lawsuit for less than sought". latimes. https://articles.latimes.com/2012/nov/30/nation/la-na-nn-chimp-attack-20121130. 
  42. "Charla Nash, Chimp Attack Victim, Denied $150 Million Lawsuit". Huffingtonpost.com. June 14, 2013. https://huffingtonpost.com/2013/06/14/charla-nash-chimp-attack-victim-lawsuit-denied_n_3443456.html. 
  43. "U.S. News | National News - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. https://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory/chimp-victim-sue-conn-150m-19568230#.UdR3QflQGSo. 
  44. "Chimps", episode of Fatal Attractions; screen appears approximately 10 seconds before episode ends.
  45. TV advert chimp attacks woman, police, China Daily, February 18, 2009, Accessed February 18, 2009. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/life/2009-02/18/content_7488668.htm
  46. Dillon, Nancy (February 22, 2009), "Man who lost face in '05 mauling knows hell of new chimpanzee victim", The New York Daily News, http://www.nydailynews.com/news/2009/02/22/2009-02-22_man_who_lost_face_in_05_mauling_knows_he.html 
  47. Bryan Walsh, Why the Stamford Chimp Attacked, Time, February 18, 2009, Accessed February 18, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090219145829/http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1880229,00.html
  48. Jane Goodall, Loving chimps to death, Los Angeles Times, February 25, 2009, Accessed February 26, 2009 https://latimes.com/news/opinion/commentary/la-oe-goodall25-2009feb25,0,3873665.story
  49. Frans de Waal, Another Chimp Bites the Dust, Huffington Post, February 17, 2009, Accessed February 18, 2009. https://huffingtonpost.com/frans-de-waal/another-chimp-bites-the-d_b_167768.html
  50. Roy Edroso, Crazed Chimp 911 Tape Revealed; PETA Peeps Harass Owner, Village Voice, February 18, 2009, Accessed February 18, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090221033520/http://blogs.villagevoice.com/runninscared/archives/2009/02/crazed_chimp_91.php
  51. Tony Aiello, Chimp Owner Hammered With Threatening Calls, WCBStv.com, February 17, 2009, Accessed February 18, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090220121230/http://wcbstv.com/topstories/chimpanzee.attack.stamford.2.937244.html
  52. Wilson, Michael (February 24, 2010). "After Shooting Chimp, a Police Officer’s Descent" New York Times https://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/25/nyregion/25chimp.html
  53. Sandoval, Edgar (February 18, 2009). "911 tape captures chimpanzee owner's horror as 200-pound ape mauls friend". NY Daily News. https://web.archive.org/web/20090219200257/http://www.nydailynews.com/news/2009/02/17/2009-02-17_911_tape_captures_chimpanzee_owners_horr-2.html. 
  54. John Christofferen, Slain chimp's owner now says it wasn't on Xanax, Associated Press, February 18, 2009, Accessed February 18, 2009. http://www.newsday.com/news/local/wire/connecticut/ny-bc-ct--chimpanzeeattack0218feb18,0,224327.story
  55. Ban the possession of wild animals, The Advocate (Stamford), February 18, 2009, Accessed February 20, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090222044714/http://www.stamfordadvocate.com/ci_11733105
  56. Peter Urban, U.S. House to vote on primate ban, The Advocate (Stamford), February 23, 2009, Accessed February 24, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090228165651/http://www.stamfordadvocate.com/ci_11766766
  57. Ben Smith, The Primate Act of '09, Politico.com, February 23, 2009, Accessed February 24, 2009. http://www.politico.com/blogs/bensmith/0209/The_Primate_Act_of_09.html
  58. Peter Urban, House approves primate pet ban, Connecticut Post, February 24, 2009, Accessed February 24, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090728070413/http://www.connpost.com/breakingnews/ci_11774667
  59. House tightens restrictions on chimps as pets, USA Today, February 24, 2009, Accessed February 24, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090227044906/http://blogs.usatoday.com/ondeadline/2009/02/house-tightens.html
  60. Primates Aren’t Pets, The New York Times, February 26, 2009, Accessed February 26, 2009. https://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/25/opinion/25wed4.html
  61. Pass the primate act, Newsday, February 26, 2009, Accessed February 26, 2009. http://www.newsday.com/news/opinion/ny-vppets266049399feb26,0,2483455.story
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