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Huang, H. List of Ant Genera. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 11 December 2023).
Huang H. List of Ant Genera. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed December 11, 2023.
Huang, Handwiki. "List of Ant Genera" Encyclopedia, (accessed December 11, 2023).
Huang, H.(2022, November 07). List of Ant Genera. In Encyclopedia.
Huang, Handwiki. "List of Ant Genera." Encyclopedia. Web. 07 November, 2022.
List of Ant Genera

Ants (family Formicidae in the order Hymenoptera) are the most species-rich of all social insects, with more than 12,000 described species and many others awaiting description. Formicidae is divided into 21 subfamilies, of which 17 are extant and four subfamilies are extinct, described from fossils. In total more than 300 genera have been described. Ants have come to occupy virtually all major terrestrial habitats, with the exception of tundra and cold ever-wet forests. They display a wide range of social behaviors, foraging habits and associations with other organisms, which has generated scientific and public interest. The following is a list of worldwide ant genera organised by subfamily.

formicidae subfamilies hymenoptera

1. Key

Genus name The scientific name of the genus. Extinct taxa are indicated by a †.
Binomial authority The binomial authority—the person who first described the species using an available scientific name.
Classified The year the genus was formally described and classified.
No. of species The number of species, both extant and extinct, that are members of the genus.
Type species The type species that was designated by the original author, unless noted otherwise. Extinct taxa are indicated by a †.
Example image An image (if available) of a species who is a member of the genus.
References Most citations provided are the first publications that describe the genus; additional citations are added if the original source does not contain all provided information.

2. Subfamilies

2.1. Agroecomyrmecinae

The subfamily Agroecomyrmecinae represents two extant genera and two fossil genera, once widespread in both hemispheres during the early Tertiary.[1][2] The subfamily was originally classified as Agroecomyrmecini, a Myrmicinae tribe until English myrmecologist Barry Bolton raised the tribe to subfamily status in 2003.[3][4] Most specimens collected are from Central America and Mexico, although one type specimen of an Agroecomyrmecinae species was collected from Ghana.[5]

Subfamily Agroecomyrmecinae Carpenter, 1930 – four genera, five species[1]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Agroecomyrmex †Agroecomyrmex


Wheeler 1910 1 Myrmica duisburgi †Myrmica duisburgi


Agroecomyrmex duisburgi BMNHP18831 01.jpg
Agroecomyrmex duisburgi
Ankylomyrma Bolton 1973 1 Ankylomyrma coronacantha Ankylomyrma coronacantha casent0005904 profile 1.jpg
Ankylomyrma coronacantha
Eulithomyrmex †Eulithomyrmex


Carpenter 1935 2 Lithomyrmex rugosus †Lithomyrmex rugosus


Eulithomyrmex rugosus UCM17019 whole.jpg
Eulithomyrmex rugosus
Tatuidris Brown & Kempf 1968 1 Tatuidris tatusia Tatuidris tatusia psw7891-9 profile 1.jpg
Tatuidris tatusia

2.2. Amblyoponinae

The subfamily Amblyoponinae represents nine extant genera and one fossil genus. Established by Swiss myrmecologist Auguste Forel in 1893, these ants are specialist predators, distributed worldwide in the tropics.[10][11][12]

Subfamily Amblyoponinae Forel, 1893 – 10 genera, 146 species[13]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Adetomyrma Ward 1994 9 Adetomyrma venatrix Adetomyrma venatrix casent0172771 profile 1.jpg
Adetomyrma venatrix
Amblyopone Erichson 1842 10 Amblyopone australis Amblyopone australis casent0104575 profile 1.jpg
Amblyopone australis
Casaleia †Casaleia


Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990 4 Protamblyopone inversa †Protamblyopone inversa


Casaleia eocenica SMFMEI5565.jpg
Casaleia eocenica
Fulakora Mann 1919 25 Stigmatomma celata Amblyopone celata casent0172191 profile 1.jpg
Fulakora celata
Myopopone Roger 1861 2 Myopopone maculata Myopopone castanea casent0104581 profile 1.jpg
Myopopone castanea
Mystrium Roger 1862 14 Mystrium mysticum Mystrium mysticum casent0076622 profile 1.jpg
Mystrium mysticum
Onychomyrmex Emery 1895 4 Onychomyrmex hedleyi Onychomyrmex hedleyi casent0003164 profile 1.jpg
Onychomyrmex hedleyi
Prionopelta Mayr 1866 22 Prionopelta punctulata Prionopelta punctulata casent0102586 profile 1.jpg
Prionopelta punctulata
Stigmatomma Roger 1859 54 Stigmatomma denticulatum Amblyopone denticulata casent0010667 profile 1.jpg
Stigmatomma denticulatum
Xymmer Santschi 1914 1 Stigmatomma muticum Casent0217322 p 1 high.jpg
Xymmer muticus

2.3. Aneuretinae

The subfamily Aneuretinae represents one extant genus and eight fossil genera established by Italian entomologist Carlo Emery in 1913. Only a single species of this subfamily is extant, the Sri Lankan relict ant (Aneuretus simoni), endemic to Sri Lanka.[26]

Subfamily Aneuretinae Emery, 1913 – nine genera, 12 species[27]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Aneuretellus †Aneuretellus


Dlussky 1988 1 Aneuretellus deformis †Aneuretellus deformis


N/A [28]
Aneuretus Emery 1893 1 Aneuretus simoni Aneuretus simoni casent0007014 profile 1.jpg
Aneuretus simoni
Britaneuretus †Britaneuretus


Dlussky & Perfilieva 2014 1 Britaneuretus anglicus †Britaneuretus anglicus


N/A [30]
Burmomyrma †Burmomyrma


Dlussky 1996 1 Burmomyrma rossi †Burmomyrma rossi


Burmomyrma rossi BMNHP19125 01.jpg
Burmomyrma rossi
Cananeuretus †Cananeuretus


Engel & Grimaldi 2005 1 Cananeuretus occidentalis †Cananeuretus occidentalis


N/A [32]
Mianeuretus †Mianeuretus


Carpenter 1930 2 Mianeuretus mirabilis †Mianeuretus mirabilis


Carpenter 1930-75 Mianeuretus mirabilis.jpg
Mianeuretus mirabilis
Paraneuretus †Paraneuretus


Wheeler 1915 3 Paraneuretus tornquisti †Paraneuretus tornquisti


Paraneuretus tornquisti GZG-BST04675 profile.jpg
Paraneuretus tornquisti
Pityomyrmex †Pityomyrmex


Wheeler 1915 1 Pityomyrmex tornquisti †Pityomyrmex tornquisti


Pityomyrmex tornquisti Wheeler 1915.jpg
Pityomyrmex tornquisti
Protaneuretus †Protaneuretus


Wheeler 1915 1 Protaneuretus succineus †Protaneuretus succineus


Protaneuretus succineus Wheeler 1915.jpg
Protaneuretus succineus

2.4. Apomyrminae

The subfamily Apomyrminae contains the single genus Apomyrma which only has one species, the rare subterranean ant Apomyrma stygia from West Africa. Several undescribed species are known to exist, all from the Afrotropics.[33]

Subfamily Apomyrminae Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988 – one genus, one species[34]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Apomyrma Brown, Gotwald & Levieux 1970 1 Apomyrma stygia Apomyrma stygia casent0000077 profile 1.jpg
Apomyrma stygia

2.5. Armaniinae

The subfamily Armaniinae (or family Armaniidae) contains seven extinct genera from a series of Cretaceous fossils found in Asia and Africa.[36] These ants are treated as a group of "ant-like wasps",[32] and they appear to lack a metapleural gland which would exclude them from the family Formicidae. However, the lack of a metapleural gland could be due to poorer preservation.[37]

Subfamily Armaniinae Dlussky, 1983 – seven genera, 14 species
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Archaeopone †Archaeopone


Dlussky 1975 2 Archaeopone kzylzharica †Archaeopone kzylzharica


N/A [38]
Armania †Armania


Dlussky 1983 4 Armania robusta †Armania robusta


N/A [39]
Dolichomyrma †Dolichomyrma


Dlussky 1975 2 Dolichomyrma longiceps †Dolichomyrma longiceps


N/A [38]
Khetania †Khetania


Dlussky 1999 1 Khetania mandibulata †Khetania mandibulata


N/A [40]
Orapia †Orapia


Dlussky, Brothers & Rasnitsyn 2004 2 Orapia rayneri †Orapia rayneri


Orapia rayneri.svg
Orapia rayneri
Poneropterus †Poneropterus


Dlussky 1983 1 Poneropterus sphecoides †Poneropterus sphecoides


N/A [39]
Pseudarmania †Pseudarmania


Dlussky 1983 2 Pseudarmania rasnitsyni †Pseudarmania rasnitsyni


N/A [39]

2.6. Brownimeciinae

The subfamily Brownimeciinae contains the single genus Brownimecia which only has one species, Brownimecia clavata. It was described in 1997 after a fossilised specimen was collected from Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and was initially placed in the subfamily Ponerinae.[36] The species was later classified into its own subfamily in 2003 by Barry Bolton.[4]

Subfamily †Brownimeciinae Bolton, 2003 – one genus, one species[42]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Brownimecia †Brownimecia


Grimaldi, Agosti & Carpenter 1997 1 Brownimecia clavata †Brownimecia clavata


Brownimecia clavata AMNH-NJ667 holotype 01.jpg
Brownimecia clavata

2.7. Dolichoderinae

The subfamily Dolichoderinae was established by Forel in 1878, which represents 28 extant genera and 20 fossil genera. The subfamily presents a great diversity of species throughout the world, mainly in the tropics. Most species are generalised scavengers, but some are predacious.[43][44]

Subfamily Dolichoderinae Forel, 1878 – 48 genera, 843 species[45]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Alloiomma †Alloiomma


Zhang 1989 2 Alloiomma changweiensis †Alloiomma changweiensis


N/A [46]
Anillidris Santschi 1936 1 Anillidris bruchi Anillidris bruchi casent0173341 profile 2.jpg
Anillidris bruchi
Anonychomyrma Donisthorpe 1947 26 Anonychomyrma myrmex Anonychomyrma gilberti casent0069883 profile 1.jpg
Anonychomyrma gilberti
Aptinoma Fisher 2009 2 Aptinoma mangabe Aptinoma mangabe casent0106175 profile 1.jpg
Aptinoma mangabe
Arnoldius Dubovikoff 2005 3 Bothriomyrmex flavus Arnoldius flavus casent0178491 profile 1.jpg
Arnoldius flavus
Asymphylomyrmex †Asymphylomyrmex


Wheeler 1915 1 Asymphylomyrmex balticus †Asymphylomyrmex balticus


Asymphylomyrmex balticus GZG-BST05034 02.jpg
Asymphylomyrmex balticus
Axinidris Weber 1941 21 Axinidris acholli Casent0217121 p 1 high.jpg
Axinidris acholli
Azteca Forel 1878 86 Liometopum xanthochroum Casent0610377 p 1 high.jpg
Azteca xanthochroum
Bothriomyrmex Emery 1869 24 Bothriomyrmex costae Bothriomyrmex paradoxus jtlc000003512 profile 1.jpg
Bothriomyrmex costae
Chronomyrmex †Chronomyrmex


McKellar, Glasier & Engel 2013 1 Chronomyrmex medicinehatensis †Chronomyrmex medicinehatensis


Chronomyrmex medicinehatensis UASM336801 profile right.jpg
Chronomyrmex medicinehatensis
Chronoxenus Santschi 1919 6 Bothriomyrmex myops Casent0903027 p 1 high.jpg
Chronoxenus myops
Ctenobethylus †Ctenobethylus


Brues 1939 1 Ctenobethylus succinalis †Ctenobethylus succinalis


Hjf009 p 1 high.jpg
Ctenobethylus goepperti
Doleromyrma Forel 1907 2 Tapinoma darwinianum Doleromyrma darwiniana casent0009949 profile 1.jpg
Doleromyrma darwiniana
Dolichoderus Lund 1831 181 Formica attelaboides Dolichoderus attelaboides casent0106108 profile 1.jpg
Dolichoderus attelaboides
Dorymyrmex Mayr 1866 60 Dorymyrmex flavescens Casent0905111 p 1 high.jpg
Dorymyrmex flavescens
Ecphorella Forel 1909 1 Tapinoma wellmani Ecphorella wellmani casent0102456 profile 1.jpg
Ecphorella wellmani
Elaeomyrmex †Elaeomyrmex


Carpenter 1930 2 Elaeomyrmex gracilis †Elaeomyrmex gracilis


Carpenter 1930-75 Elaeomyrmex-gracilisF.jpg
Elaeomyrmex gracilis
Elaphrodites †Elaphrodites


Zhang 1989 2 Elaphrodites scutulatus †Elaphrodites scutulatus


N/A [46]
Eldermyrmex †Eldermyrmex


Heterick & Shattuck 2011 1 Eldermyrmex oblongiceps †Iridomyrmex oblongiceps


Eldermyrmex oblongiceps GZG-BST05036 profile.jpg
Eldermyrmex oblongiceps
Emplastus †Emplastus


Donisthorpe 1920 12 Emplastus emeryi †Emplastus emeryi


Emplastus britannicus BMNHP20546 whole.jpg
Emplastus britannicus
Eotapinoma †Eotapinoma


Dlussky 1988 3 Eotapinoma gracilis †Eotapinoma gracilis


N/A [28]
Eurymyrmex †Eurymyrmex


Zhang, Sun & Zhang 1994 1 Eurymyrmex geologicus †Eurymyrmex geologicus


N/A [61]
Forelius Emery 1888 18 Iridomyrmex mccooki Forelius mccooki casent0005322 profile 1.jpg
Forelius mccooki
Froggattella Forel 1902 2 Acantholepis kirbii Acantholepis kirbii


Froggattella kirbii casent0009944 profile 1.jpg
Froggattella kirbii
Gracilidris Wild & Cuezzo 2006 2 Gracilidris pombero Gracilidris pombero casent0010797 profile 1.jpg
Gracilidris pombero
Iridomyrmex Mayr 1862 84 Formica detecta Iridomyrmex purpureus casent0006108 profile 1.jpg
Iridomyrmex purpureus
Kotshkorkia †Kotshkorkia


Dlussky 1981 1 Kotshkorkia laticeps †Kotshkorkia laticeps


N/A [66]
Ktunaxia †Ktunaxia


Lapolla & Greenwalt 2015 1 Ktunaxia jucunda †Ktunaxia jucunda


Ktunaxia jucunda specimen.png
Ktunaxia jucunda
Leptomyrmex Mayr 1862 29 Formica erythrocephala Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus casent0011746 profile 1.jpg
Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus
Leptomyrmula †Leptomyrmula


Emery 1913 1 Leptomyrmula maravignae †Leptomyrmula maravignae


Leptomyrmula maravignae holotype male.jpg
Leptomyrmula maravignae
Linepithema Mayr 1866 20 Linepithema fuscum Linepithema fuscum casent0106976 profile 1.jpg
Linepithema fuscum
Liometopum Mayr 1861 28 Liometopum microcephalum Casent0249747 p 1 high.jpg
Liometopum microcephalum
Loweriella Shattuck 1992 1 Loweriella boltoni Loweriella boltoni casent0178492 profile 1.jpg
Loweriella boltoni
Miomyrmex †Miomyrmex


Carpenter 1930 2 Miomyrmex impactus †Miomyrmex impactus


Bmnhp26831 d 1 high.jpg
Miomyrmex impactus
Nebothriomyrmex Dubovikov 2004 1 Nebothriomyrmex majeri Nebothriomyrmex majeri casent0009951 profile 1.jpg
Nebothriomyrmex majeri
Ochetellus Shattuck 1992 7 Ochetellus glaber Ochetellus glaber casent0172342 profile 1.jpg
Ochetellus glaber
Papyrius Shattuck 1992 2 Papyrius nitidus Papyrius nitidus casent0070200 profile 1.jpg
Papyrius nitidus
Petraeomyrmex †Petraeomyrmex


Carpenter 1930 1 Petraeomyrmex minimus †Petraeomyrmex minimus


Carpenter 1930-75 Petraeomyrmex minimus.jpg
Petraeomyrmex minimus
Philidris Shattuck 1992 9 Philidris cordata Casent0106011 p 1 high.jpg
Philidris cordata
Proiridomyrmex †Proiridomyrmex


Dlussky & Rasnitsyn 2003 2 Proiridomyrmex vetulus †Proiridomyrmex vetulus


Proiridomyrmex rotundatus specimen.png
Proiridomyrmex rotundatus
Protazteca †Protazteca


Carpenter 1930 5 Protazteca elongata †Protazteca elongata


Protazteca elongata specimen Bmnhp27347 ventral.jpg
Protazteca elongata
Ravavy Fisher 2009 1 Ravavy miafina Ravavy miafina casent0115570 profile 1.jpg
Ravavy miafina
Tapinoma Förster 1850 74 Tapinoma erraticum Tapinoma erraticum casent0173199 profile 1.jpg
Tapinoma erraticum
Technomyrmex Mayr 1872 97 Technomyrmex strenuus Casent0905788 p 1 high.jpg
Technomyrmex strenuus
Turneria Forel 1895 8 Turneria bidentata Turneria bidentata casent0069974 profile 1.jpg
Turneria bidentata
Usomyrma †Usomyrma


Dlussky et al. 2014 1 Usomyrma mirabilis †Usomyrma mirabilis


Usomyrma mirabilis.svg
Usomyrma mirabilis
Yantaromyrmex †Yantaromyrmex


Dlussky & Dubovikoff 2013 5 Yantaromyrmex geinitzi †Yantaromyrmex geinitzi


Yantaromyrmex geinitzi MBI2290 02.jpg
Yantaromyrmex geinitzi
Zherichinius †Zherichinius


Dlussky 1988 2 Zherichinius horribilis †Zherichinius horribilis


PIN3387-37 Zherichinius horribilis.jpg
Zherichinius horribilis

2.8. Dorylinae

The subfamily Dorylinae was established by Leach in 1815, which represents 27 extant genera and one fossil genus. Many species of ant in this subfamily are known as army ants that are distributed in the Old World and New World.[79][80]

Subfamily Dorylinae Leach, 1815 – 28 genera, 693 species[80][81]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Acanthostichus Mayr 1887 24 Acanthostichus serratulus Casent0903667 p 1 high.jpg
Acanthostichus serratulus
Aenictogiton Emery 1901 7 Aenictogiton fossiceps Casent0100738 p 1 high.jpg
Aenictogiton fossiceps
Aenictus Shuckard 1840 184 Aenictus ambiguus Casent0901981 p 1 high.jpg
Aenictus ambiguus
Cerapachys Smith 1857 5 Cerapachys antennatus Casent0901347 p 1 high.jpg
Cerapachys antennatus
Cheliomyrmex Mayr 1870 4 Cheliomyrmex morosus Cheliomyrmex morosus casent0003202 profile 1.jpg
Cheliomyrmex morosus
Chrysapace Crawley 1924 3[87] Chrysapace jacobsonii Chrysapace jacobsoni casent0907052.jpg
Chrysapace jacobsonii
Cylindromyrmex Mayr 1870 13 Cylindromyrmex striatus Cylindromyrmex striatus casent0106074 profile 1.jpg
Cylindromyrmex striatus
Dorylus Fabricius 1793 60 Dorylus helvolus Dorylus helvolus casent0106079 profile 1.jpg
Dorylus helvolus
Eburopone Borowiec 2016 1 Cerapachys wroughtoni Eburopone wroughtoni casent0235434.jpg
Eburopone wroughtoni
Eciton Latreille 1804 12 Eciton hamatum Casent0612205 p 1 high.jpg
Eciton hamatum
Eusphinctus Emery 1893 2 Eusphinctus furcatus Sphinctomyrmex furcatus casent0173056 profile 1.jpg
Eusphinctus furcatus
Labidus Jurine 1807 7 Labidus coecus Labidus coecus casent0104069 profile 1.jpg
Labidus coecus
Leptanilloides Mann 1923 19 Leptanilloides biconstricta Leptanilloides biconstricta casent0104676 profile 2.jpg
Leptanilloides biconstricta
Lioponera Mayr 1879 73 Lioponera longitarsus Lioponera longitarsus casent0217388.jpg
Lioponera longitarsus
Lividopone Bolton & Fisher 2016 1 Cerapachys lividus Lividopone livida (CASENT0731209).png
Lividopone livida
Neivamyrmex Borgmeier 1940 128 Neivamyrmex nigrescens Neivamyrmex nigrescens casent0005332 profile 1.jpg
Neivamyrmex nigrescens
Neocerapachys Borowiec 2016 2 Cerapachys neotropicus ACMENT142669 Neocerapachys neotropicus.jpg
Neocerapachys neotropicus
Nomamyrmex Borgmeier 1936 2 Nomamyrmex esenbeckii Nomamyrmex esenbeckii casent0010791 profile 1.jpg
Nomamyrmex esenbeckii
Ooceraea Roger 1862 11 Ooceraea fragosa Cerapachys fragosus casent0106215 profile 1.jpg
Ooceraea fragosa
Parasyscia Emery, in André 1882 50 Parasyscia piochardi Parasyscia piochardi casent0281973.jpg
Parasyscia piochardi
Procerapachys †Procerapachys


Wheeler 1915 3 Procerapachys annosus †Procerapachys annosus


Smfbe805 p 1 high.jpg
Procerapachys annosus
Simopone Forel 1891 39 Simopone grandidieri Simopone grandidieri casent0101842 profile 1.jpg
Simopone grandidieri
Sphinctomyrmex Mayr 1866 3 Sphinctomyrmex stali Sphinctomyrmex stali casent0173063 profile 1.jpg
Sphinctomyrmex stali
Syscia Roger 1861 5 Syscia typhla Cerapachys typhlus casent0106214 profile 1.jpg
Syscia typhla
Tanipone Bolton & Fisher 2012 10 Tanipone hirsuta Casent0000842 p 1 high.jpg
Tanipone hirsuta
Vicinopone Bolton & Fisher 2012 1 Vicinopone conciliatrix Simopone conciliatrix casent0172320 profile 1.jpg
Vicinopone conciliatrix
Yunodorylus Xu 2000 4 Yunodorylus sexspinus Cerapachys sexspinus casent0104984 profile 1.jpg
Yunodorylus sexspinus
Zasphinctus Wheeler 1918 20 Sphinctomyrmex turneri Zasphinctus turneri casent0902768.jpg
Zasphinctus turneri

2.9. Ectatomminae

The subfamily Ectatomminae represents four extant genera and three fossil genera, established in 1895 by Carlo Emery. They are distributed in tropical and warm climates in the New World and Old World, as well as the Indo-Australian regions.[44]

Subfamily Ectatomminae Emery, 1895 – seven genera, 278 species[104]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Canapone †Canapone


Dlussky 1999 1 Canapone dentata †Canapone dentata


N/A [105]
Ectatomma Smith 1858 16 Ectatomma tuberculatum Ectatomma tuberculatum casent0173380 profile 1.jpg
Ectatomma tuberculatum
Electroponera †Electroponera


Wheeler 1915 1 Electroponera dubia †Electroponera dubia


Electroponera dubia Wheeler 1915.jpg
Electroponera dubia
Gnamptogenys Roger 1863 143 Gnamptogenys sulcata Gnamptogenys sulcata casent0173387 profile 1.jpg
Gnamptogenys sulcata
Pseudectatomma †Pseudectatomma


Dlussky & Wedman 2012 2 Pseudectatomma eocenica †Pseudectatomma eocenica


Pseudectatomma eocenica SMFMEI400.jpg
Pseudectatomma eocenica
Rhytidoponera Mayr 1862 108 Rhytidoponera araneoides Rhytidoponera metallica casent0172345 profile 1.jpg
Rhytidoponera araneoides
Typhlomyrmex Mayr 1862 7 Scyphodon anomalum Typhlomyrmex rogenhoferi casent0004700 profile 1.jpg
Scyphodon anomalum

2.10. Formiciinae

The subfamily Formiciinae represents one extinct genus of ants dating back to the Eocene.[109] Ants of the genus Titanomyrma are the largest ants ever known, with queen specimens the size of small hummingbirds. Fossils have been collected from the state of Wyoming and in Germany .[110][111]

Subfamily †Formiciinae Lutz, 1986 – one, six species[112]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Formicium †Formicium


Westwood 1854 3 None[113] N/A [114]
Titanomyrma †Titanomyrma


Archibald, Johnson, Mathewes & Greenwood 2011 3 Titanomyrma gigantea †Titanomyrma gigantea


Titanomyrma gigantea 01.jpg
Titanomyrma gigantea

2.11. Formicinae

The subfamily Formicinae represents 51 extant genera and 30 fossil genera that are globally distributed. Established by French zoologist Pierre André Latreille in 1809, the subfamily has more than 3,000 described species, placing it as the second largest ant subfamily. Despite this, the hyperdiverse genus Camponotus is the most diverse group of ants in the world, with more than 1,100 species described.[44][115]

Subfamily Formicinae Latreille, 1809 – 82 genera, 3,243 species[116]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Acropyga Roger 1862 41 Acropyga acutiventris Acropyga acutiventris.jpg
Acropyga acutiventris
Agraulomyrmex Prins 1983 2 Agraulomyrmex meridionalis Agraulomyrmex meridionalis casent0178494 profile 1.jpg
Agraulomyrmex meridionalis
Alloformica Dlussky 1969 4 Alloformica aberrans Alloformica aberrans casent0172238 profile 1.jpg
Alloformica aberrans
Anoplolepis Santschi 1914 9 Anoplolepis gracilipes Anoplolepis gracilipes casent0064816 profile 1.jpg
Anoplolepis gracilipes
Aphomomyrmex Emery 1899 1 Aphomomyrmex afer Aphomomyrmex afer casent0101882 profile 1.jpg
Aphomomyrmex afer
Attopsis †Attopsis


Heer 1850 1 Attopsis longipennis †Attopsis longipennis


Attopsis longipennis UMJ210962 queen.jpg
Attopsis longipennis
Bajcaridris Agosti 1994 3 Bajcaridris theryi Bajcaridris theryi casent0101950 profile 1.jpg
Bajcaridris theryi
Brachymyrmex Mayr 1868 44 Brachymyrmex patagonicus Brachymyrmex patagonicus casent0173480 profile 1.jpg
Brachymyrmex patagonicus
Bregmatomyrma Wheeler 1929 1 Bregmatomyrma carnosa Bregmatomyrma carnosa casent0102383 profile 1.jpg
Bregmatomyrma carnosa
Calomyrmex Emery 1895 9 Calomyrmex laevissimus Casent0249961 p 1 high.jpg
Calomyrmex laevissimus
Camponotites †Camponotites


Steinbach 1967 5 Camponotites silvestris †Camponotites silvestris


Camponotites silvestris GZG-W14552B queen.jpg
Camponotites silvestris
Camponotus Mayr 1861 1131 Camponotus ligniperda Camponotus ligniperda casent0173649 profile 1.jpg
Camponotus ligniperda
Cataglyphis Förster 1850 91 Cataglyphis bicolor Cataglyphis bicolor casent0104612 profile 1.jpg
Cataglyphis bicolor
Cataglyphoides †Cataglyphoides


Dlussky 2008 2 Cataglyphoides constrictus †Cataglyphoides constrictus


Cataglyphoides intermedius GPIH-BE451 entire.jpg
Cataglyphoides constrictus
Chimaeromyrma †Chimaeromyrma


Dlussky 1988 1 Chimaeromyrma brachycephala †Chimaeromyrma brachycephala


N/A [28]
Cladomyrma Wheeler 1920 13 Cladomyrma hewitti Cladomyrma hewitti casent0173906 profile 1.jpg
Cladomyrma hewitti
Conoformica †Conoformica


Dlussky 2008 1 Conoformica bitterfeldiana †Conoformica bitterfeldiana


N/A [128]
Curtipalpulus †Curtipalpulus


Hong 2002 1 Curtipalpulus eocenicus †Curtipalpulus eocenicus


N/A [130]
Dinomyrmex Ashmead 1905 1 Formica gigas N/A [131]
Drymomyrmex †Drymomyrmex


Wheeler 1915 2 Drymomyrmex fuscipennis †Drymomyrmex fuscipennis


Drymomyrmex fuscipennis GZG-BST04158 profile.jpg
Drymomyrmex fuscipennis
Echinopla Smith 1857 33 Echinopla melanarctos Echinopla melanarctos casent0178497 profile 1.jpg
Echinopla melanarctos
Eoleptocerites †Eoleptocerites


Hong 2002 2 Eoleptocerites chinensis †Eoleptocerites chinensis


N/A [130]
Euprenolepis Emery 1906 8 Euprenolepis procera Casent0106328 p 1 high.jpg
Euprenolepis procera
Eurytarsites †Eurytarsites


Hong 2002 1 Eurytarsites fushunensisa †Eurytarsites fushunensisa


N/A [130]
Formica Linnaeus 1758 234 Formica rufa Formica rufa casent0173862 profile 1.jpg
Formica rufa
Fushuniformica †Fushuniformica


Hong 2002 1 Fushuniformica spinata †Fushuniformica spinata


N/A [130]
Gesomyrmex Mayr 1868 17 Gesomyrmex hoernesi †Gesomyrmex hoernesi


MBISAX001 Gesomyrmex hoernesi.jpg
Gesomyrmex hoernesi
Gigantiops Roger 1863 1 Gigantiops destructor Gigantiops destructor casent0103316 profile 1.jpg
Gigantiops destructor
Glaphyromyrmex †Glaphyromyrmex


Wheeler 1915 1 Glaphyromyrmex oligocenicus †Glaphyromyrmex oligocenicus


GZG-BST04458 Glaphyromyrmex oligocenicus.jpg
Glaphyromyrmex oligocenicus
Heeridris †Heeridris


Dlussky & Putyatina 2014 1 Heeridris croaticus †Heeridris croaticus


N/A [137]
Huaxiaformica †Huaxiaformica


Hong 2002 1 Huaxiaformica mallepetiolata †Huaxiaformica mallepetiolata


N/A [130]
Iberoformica Tinaut 1990 2 Iberoformica subrufa Iberoformica subrufa casent0270631 p 1 high.jpg
Iberoformica subrufa
Imhoffia †Imhoffia


Heer 1850 2 Imhoffia nigra †Imhoffia nigra


N/A [121]
Kyromyrma †Kyromyrma


Grimaldi & Agosti 2000 1 Kyromyrma neffi †Kyromyrma neffi


AMNH-NJ1029 Kyromyrma neffi amnh-nj1029 p 1 high.jpg
Kyromyrma neffi
Lasiophanes Emery 1895 6 Lasiophanes atriventris Lasiophanes atriventris casent0106235 p 1 high.jpg
Lasiophanes atriventris
Lasius Fabricius 1804 134 Formica nigra †Formica nigra


Lasius niger casent0005404 profile 1.jpg
Formica nigra
Lepisiota Santschi 1926 81 Lepisiota rothneyi Lepisiota rothneyi casent0906254 p 1 high.jpg
Lepisiota rothneyi
Leptogasteritus †Leptogasteritus


Hong 2002 1 Leptogasteritus capricornutes †Leptogasteritus capricornutes


N/A [130]
Leucotaphus †Leucotaphus


Donisthorpe 1920 2 Leucotaphus gurnetensis †Leucotaphus gurnetensiss


NHMUK9163 Leucotaphus gurnetensis.jpg
†Leucotaphus gurnetensiss
Liaoformica †Liaoformica


Hong 2002 1 Liaoformica longipetiolata †Liaoformica longipetiolata


N/A [130]
Longiformica †Longiformica


Hong 2002 2 Longiformica dongzhouheensis †Longiformica dongzhouheensis


N/A [130]
Magnogasterites †Magnogasterites


Hong 2002 1 Magnogasterites curticornutus †Magnogasterites curticornutus


N/A [130]
Melophorus Lubbock 1883 23 Melophorus bagoti Melophorus bagoti casent0280499 p 1 high.jpg
Melophorus bagoti
Myrmecocystus Wesmael 1838 29 Myrmecocystus mexicanus Myrmecocystus mexicanus casent0005421 profile 1.jpg
Myrmecocystus mexicanus
Myrmecorhynchus André 1896 3 Myrmecorhynchus emeryi Myrmecorhynchus emeryi casent0010931 profile 1.jpg
Myrmecorhynchus emeryi
Myrmelachista Roger 1863 56 Myrmelachista kraatzii Myrmelachista nodigera casent0173488 profile 1.jpg
Myrmelachista kraatzii
Myrmoteras Forel 1893 41 Myrmoteras binghamii Myrmoteras binghamii casent0909937 p 1 high (1).jpg
Myrmoteras binghamii
Notoncus Emery 1895 6 Notoncus ectatommoide Notoncus ectatommoides casent0010856 profile 1.jpg
Notoncus ectatommoide
Notostigma Emery 1920 2 Notostigma carazzii Notostigma carazzii casent0102089 profile 1.jpg
Notostigma carazzii
Nylanderia Emery 1906 110 Nylanderia vividula Paratrechina vividula casent0058913 profile 1.jpg
Nylanderia vividula
Oecophylla Smith 1860 15 Oecophylla smaragdina Oecophylla smaragdina casent0070232 profile 1.jpg
Oecophylla smaragdina
Opisthopsis Dalla Torre 1893 13 Myrmecopsis respiciens Opisthopsis respiciens casent0106020 profile 1.jpg
Opisthopsis respiciens
Orbicapitia †Orbicapitia


Hong 2002 1 Orbicapitia reticulata †Orbicapitia reticulata


N/A [130]
Ovalicapito †Ovalicapito


Hong 2002 1 Ovalicapito fushunensis †Ovalicapito fushunensis


N/A [130]
Ovaligastrula †Ovaligastrula


Hong 2002 1 Ovaligastrula xilutianensis †Ovaligastrula xilutianensis


N/A [130]
Overbeckia Viehmeyer 1916 1 Overbeckia subclavata Overbeckia subclavata casent0101191 profile 1.jpg
Overbeckia subclavata
Paraparatrechina Donisthorpe 1947 36 Paratrechina pallida Paraparatrechina pallida casent0281129 p 1 high.jpg
Paraparatrechina pallida
Paratrechina Motschoulsky 1863 5 Paratrechina currens Paratrechina longicornis casent0134863 profile 1.jpg
Paratrechina longicornis
Petalomyrmex Snelling 1979 1 Petalomyrmex phylax Petalomyrmex phylax casent0178507 profile 1.jpg
Petalomyrmex phylax
Plagiolepis Mayr 1861 72 Formica pygmaea Plagiolepis pygmaea casent0173129 profile 1.jpg
Plagiolepis pygmaea
Polyergus Latreille 1804 14 Formica rufescens Polyergus rufescens casent0173859 profile 1.jpg
Polyergus rufescens
Polyrhachis Smith 1857 698 Formica bihamata Polyrhachis bihamata casent0010659 profile 1.jpg
Polyrhachis bihamata
Prenolepis Mayr 1861 17 Tapinoma nitens Prenolepis nitens casent0179603 p 1 high.jpg
Prenolepis nitens
Prodimorphomyrmex †Prodimorphomyrmex


Wheeler 1915 1 Prodimorphomyrmex †Prodimorphomyrmex primigenius


Prodimorphomyrmex primigenuis Wheeler 1915.jpg
Prodimorphomyrmex primigenius
Proformica Ruzsky 1902 25 Formica nasuta Proformica nasuta casent0101912 profile 1.jpg
Proformica nasuta
Prolasius Forel 1892 19 Formica advena Prolasius advenus casent0172948 profile 1.jpg
Prolasius advena
Protoformica Dlussky 1967 1 Protoformica †Formica proformicoides


N/A [156]
Protrechina †Protrechina


Wilson 1985 1 Protrechina carpenteri †Protrechina carpenteri


Protrechina carpenteri Wilson 1985.png
Protrechina carpenteri
Pseudocamponotus †Pseudocamponotus


Carpenter 1930 1 Pseudocamponotus elkoanus †Pseudocamponotus elkoanus


Pseudocamponotus-elkoanus fossil specimen.jpg
Pseudocamponotus elkoanus
Pseudolasius Emery 1887 50 Formica familiaris Pseudolasius familiaris casent0901892 p 1 high.jpg
Pseudolasius familiaris
Pseudonotoncus Clark 1934 2 Pseudonotoncus hirsutus Pseudonotoncus hirsutus casent0178517 profile 1.jpg
Pseudonotoncus hirsutus
Rossomyrmex Arnol'di 1928 4 Rossomyrmex proformicarum Rossomyrmex proformicarum casent0178514 profile 1.jpg
Rossomyrmex proformicarum
Santschiella Forel 1916 1 Santschiella kohli Santschiella kohli casent0004701 profile 1.jpg
Santschiella kohli
Sicilomyrmex †Sicilomyrmex


Wheeler 1915 1 Pseudocamponotus elkoanus †Gesomyrmex corniger


Brown & Carpenter 1978 Sicilomyrmex corniger.jpg
Sicilomyrmex corniger
Sinoformica †Sinoformica


Hong 2002 1 Sinoformica longicapitata †Sinoformica longicapitata


N/A [130]
Sinotenuicapito †Sinotenuicapito


Hong 2002 1 Sinotenuicapito badis †Sinotenuicapito badis


N/A [130]
Stigmacros Forel 1905 49 Acantholepis froggatti Stigmacros froggatti casent0281492 p 1 high.jpg
Stigmacros froggatti
Tapinolepis Emery 1925 14 Plagiolepis tumidula Tapinolepis tumidula casent0102094 profile 1.jpg
Tapinolepis tumidula
Teratomyrmex McAreavey 1957 3 Teratomyrmex greavesi Teratomyrmex greavesi casent0102382 profile 1.jpg
Teratomyrmex greavesi
Wilsonia †Wilsonia


Hong 2002 2 Wilsonia megagastrosa †Wilsonia megagastrosa


N/A [130]
Zatania LaPolla, Kallal & Brady 2012 6 Paratrechina cisipa Zatania albimaculata casent0106052 profile 1.jpg
Zatania albimaculata

2.12. Heteroponerinae

The subfamily Heteroponerinae represents three extant genera of ants, established in 2003 when Barry Bolton divided the subfamily Ponerinae into six subfamilies.[44] These ants are known from the Neotropics of Central America and South America while Aulacopone relicta is from Azerbaijan.[166]

Subfamily Heteroponerinae Bolton, 2003 – three genera, 33 species[167]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Acanthoponera Mayr 1862 4 Acanthoponera mucronata Acanthoponera mucronata casent0173540 profile 1.jpg
Acanthoponera mucronata
Aulacopone Arnol'di 1930 1 Aulacopone relicta Aulacopone relicta casent0172182 profile 1.jpg
Aulacopone relicta
Heteroponera Mayr 1887 28 Heteroponera carinifrons Casent0281851 p 1 high.jpg
Heteroponera carinifrons

2.13. Leptanillinae

The subfamily Leptanillinae represents nine extant genera of ants, established in 1910 by Carlo Emery. They are subterranean ants from Africa, Europe and a single species known from Australia. Studies about their biology is minimal.[169][170]

Subfamily Leptanillinae Emery, 1910 – nine genera, 64 species[171]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Anomalomyrma Bolton 1990 3 Anomalomyrma taylori Anomalomyrma taylori casent0101976 profile 1.jpg
Anomalomyrma taylori
Furcotanilla Xu 2012 1 Furcotanilla furcomandibula N/A [172]
Leptanilla Emery 1870 45 Leptanilla revelierii Leptanilla revelierii casent0006788 profile 1.jpg
Leptanilla revelierii
Noonilla Petersen 1968 1 Noonilla copiosa Specimen CASENT0102373 Noonilla cf bmnh01.jpg
Noonilla copiosa
Opamyrma Yamane, Bui & Eguchi 2008 1 Opamyrma hungvuong Opamyrma hungvuong casent0178347 profile 1.jpg
Opamyrma hungvuong
Phaulomyrma Wheeler & Wheeler 1930 1 Phaulomyrma javana Ucrcent150358 p 1 high.jpg
Phaulomyrma javana
Protanilla Taylor 1990 9 Protanilla rafflesi Protanilla rafflesi casent0102375 profile 1.jpg
Protanilla rafflesi
Scyphodon Brues 1925 1 Scyphodon anomalum Specimen mcz151121 Scyphodon.jpg
Scyphodon anomalum
Yavnella Kugler 1987 2 Yavnella argamani Yavnella argamani casent0101728 profile 1.jpg
Yavnella argamani

2.14. Martialinae

The subfamily Martialinae contains the single genus Martialis which only has one species, Martialis heureka. The ant was discovered in 2000 Amazon rainforest near Manaus, Brazil. Described in 2008, the ant belongs to the oldest known distinct lineage to have diverged from the ancestors of all other ants.[180]

Subfamily Martialinae Rabeling & Verhaagh, 2008 – one genus, one species[181]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Martialis Rabeling & Verhaagh 2008 1 Martialis heureka Martialis heureka CASENT0106181 1.jpg
Martialis heureka

2.15. Myrmeciinae

The subfamily Myrmeciinae represents two extant genera and five fossil genera that were once found worldwide.[182] Established by Carlo Emery in 1877, the extant genera are restricted to Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand.[183] The notorious ant genus Myrmecia is known for their venomous stings and aggression, which has caused several human deaths in sensitive people.

Subfamily Myrmeciinae Emery, 1877 – seven genera, 111 species[184]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Archimyrmex †Archimyrmex


Cockerell 1923 4 Archimyrmex rostratus †Archimyrmex rostratus


Archimyrmex wedmannae Smfmei2016 01.jpg
Archimyrmex rostratus
Avitomyrmex †Avitomyrmex


Archibald, Cover & Moreau 2006 3 Avitomyrmex mastax †Avitomyrmex mastax


N/A [186]
Macabeemyrma †Macabeemyrma


Archibald, Cover & Moreau 2006 1 Macabeemyrma ovata †Macabeemyrma ovata


Macabeemyrma ovata head.svg
Macabeemyrma ovata
Myrmecia Fabricius 1804 95 Myrmecia gulosa Myrmecia gulosa casent0103310 profile 1.jpg
Myrmecia gulosa
Myrmeciites †Myrmeciites


Archibald, Cover & Moreau 2006 0 None[113] Myrmeciites SR 05-03-01 01.jpg
Myrmeciites "incertae sedis"
Nothomyrmecia Clark 1934 1 Nothomyrmecia macrops Nothomyrmecia macrops casent0172002 profile 1.jpg
Nothomyrmecia macrops
Prionomyrmex †Prionomyrmex


Mayr 1868 3 Prionomyrmex longiceps †Prionomyrmex longiceps


Prionomyrmex longiceps dorsal view Mbi5827d1.jpg
Prionomyrmex longiceps
Ypresiomyrma †Ypresiomyrma


Archibald, Cover & Moreau 2006 4 Ypresiomyrma orbiculata †Ypresiomyrma orbiculata


Ypresiomyrma rebekkae holotype.jpg
Ypresiomyrma orbiculata

2.16. Myrmicinae

The subfamily Myrmicinae was established by Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau in 1835. It represents 142 extant genera and 36 fossil genera that are distributed globally. It is the largest subfamily of the Formicidae, with more than 6,758 species described. The seed-harvesting ants and fungus-growing ants are well known among the Myrmicines.[44][188]

Subfamily Myrmicinae Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 – 178 genera, 6,758 species[188]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Acanthognathus Mayr 1887 8 Acanthognathus ocellatus Acanthognathus ocellatus casent0178718 profile 1.jpg
Acanthognathus ocellatus
Acanthomyrmex Emery 1893 17 Acanthomyrmex luciolae Acanthomyrmex concavus casent0101061 profile 1.jpg
Acanthomyrmex concavus
Acromyrmex Mayr 1865 32 Formica hystrix Acromyrmex balzani casent0173790 profile 1.jpg
Acromyrmex balzani
Adelomyrmex Emery 1897 30 Adelomyrmex biroi Adelomyrmex biroi casent0178445 profile 1.jpg
Adelomyrmex biroi
Adlerzia Forel 1902 1 Monomorium froggatti Adlerzia froggatti casent0104323 profile 1.jpg
Adlerzia froggatti
Afromyrma †Afromyrma


Dlussky, Brothers & Rasnitsyn 2004 1 Afromyrma petrosa †Afromyrma petrosa


N/A [41]
Agastomyrma †Agastomyrma


Dlussky, Rasnitsyn & Perfilieva 2015 1 Agastomyrma laticeps †Agastomyrma laticeps


N/A [191]
Allomerus Mayr 1878 8 Allomerus decemarticulatus Allomerus decemarticulatus casent0178477 profile 1.jpg
Allomerus decemarticulatus
Ancyridris Wheeler 1935 2 Ancyridris polyrhachioides Ancyridris polyrhachioides casent0102469 profile 1.jpg
Ancyridris polyrhachioides
Anillomyrma Emery 1913 2 Monomorium decamerum Anillomyrma decamera casent0179568 profile 1.jpg
Anillomyrma decamera
Aphaenogaster Mayr 1853 204 Aphaenogaster sardoa Aphaenogaster swammerdami casent0489647 profile 1.jpg
Aphaenogaster swammerdami
Apterostigma Mayr 1865 47 Apterostigma pilosum Apterostigma pilosum casent0603533 profile 1.jpg
Apterostigma pilosum
Aretidris General 2015 2 Aretidris buenaventei Aretidris buenaventei casent0919619 p 1 high.jpg
Aretidris buenaventei
Atopomyrmex André 1889 3 Atopomyrmex mocquerysi Atopomyrmex mocquerysi casent0178286 profile 1.jpg
Atopomyrmex mocquerysi
Atta Fabricius 1804 17 Formica cephalotes Atta cephalotes casent0173617 profile 1.jpg
Atta cephalotes
Attaichnus †Attaichnus


Laza 1982 1 None N/A [198]
Austromorium Shattuck 2009 2 Xiphomyrmex flavigaster CASENT0106211 Austromorium flavigaster.jpg
Austromorium flavigaster
Baracidris Bolton 1981 3 Baracidris meketra Baracidris sitra casent0006829 profile 1.jpg
Baracidris sitra
Bariamyrma Lattke 1990 1 Bariamyrma hispidula Bariamyrma hispidula casent0102363 profile 1.jpg
Bariamyrma hispidula
Basiceros Schulz 1906 8 Meranoplus singularis Basiceros manni casent0052769 profile 1.jpg
Basiceros manni
Biamomyrma †Biamomyrma


Dlussky, Rasnitsyn & Perfilieva 2015 3 Biamomyrma zherikhini †Biamomyrma zherikhini


N/A [191]
Bilobomyrma †Bilobomyrma


Radchenko & Dlussky 2013 2 Bilobomyrma ukrainica †Bilobomyrma ukrainica


N/A [203]
Blepharidatta Wheeler 1915 4 Blepharidatta brasiliensis Blepharidatta brasiliensis casent0178487 profile 1.jpg
Blepharidatta brasiliensis
Boltonidris †Boltonidris


Radchenko & Dlussky 2012 1 Boltonidris mirabilis †Boltonidris mirabilis


N/A [205]
Bondroitia Forel 1911 2 Monomorium coecum Bondroitia lujae casent0101201 profile 1.jpg
Bondroitia lujae
Brachytarsites †Brachytarsites


Hong 2002 1 Brachytarsites dongzhouheensis †Brachytarsites dongzhouheensis


N/A [130]
Calyptomyrmex Emery 1887 37 Calyptomyrmex beccarii Calyptomyrmex beccarii casent0010655 profile 1.jpg
Calyptomyrmex beccarii
Cardiocondyla Emery 1869 70 Cardiocondyla elegans Cardiocondyla wroughtonii casent0000503 profile 1.jpg
Cardiocondyla wroughtonii
Carebara Westwood 1840 212 Carebara lignata Carebara longii casent0003192 profile 1.jpg
Carebara longii
Cataulacus Smith 1853 68 Cataulacus taprobanae Cataulacus oberthueri casent0435894 profile 1.jpg
Cataulacus oberthueri
Cephalomyrmex †Cephalomyrmex


Carpenter 1930 1 Cephalomyrmex rotundatus †Cephalomyrmex rotundatus


Cephalomyrmex rotundatus female fossil.jpg
Cephalomyrmex rotundatus
Cephalotes Latreille 1802 135 Formica atrata Cephalotes atratus casent0010675 profile 1.jpg
Cephalotes atratus
Chimaeridris Wilson 1989 2 Chimaeridris boltoni Chimaeridris boltoni casent0172824 profile 1.jpg
Chimaeridris boltoni
Clavipetiola †Clavipetiola


Hong 2002 1 Clavipetiola asiatica †Clavipetiola asiatica


N/A [130]
Colobostruma Wheeler 1927 16 Epopostruma leae Colobostruma foliacea psw10121-13 profile 1.jpg
Colobostruma foliacea
Crematogaster Lund 1831 496 Formica scutellaris Crematogaster scutellaris casent0173120 profile 1.jpg
Crematogaster scutellaris
Cryptomyrmex Fernández 2004 2 Adelomyrmex longinodus Cryptomyrmex longinodus casent0103517 profile 1.jpg
Cryptomyrmex longinodus
Cyatta Sosa-Calvo et al. 2013 1 Cyatta abscondita USNMENT00758173 Cyatta abscondita.jpg
Cyatta abscondita
Cyphoidris Weber 1952 4 Cyphoidris spinosa Cyphoidris spinosa casent0178293 profile 1.jpg
Cyphoidris spinosa
Cyphomyrmex Mayr 1862 41 Cyphomyrmex minutus Cyphomyrmex minutus casent0173957 profile 1.jpg
Cyphomyrmex minutus
Dacatria Rigato 1994 1 Dacatria templaris Dacatria templaris casent0103119 profile 1.jpg
Dacatria templaris
Dacetinops Brown & Wilson 1957 7 Dacetinops cibdelus Dacetinops cibdelus casent0172448 profile 1.jpg
Dacetinops cibdelus
Daceton Perty 1833 2 Formica armigera Daceton armigerum casent0178489 profile 1.jpg
Daceton armigerum
Diaphoromyrma Fernández, Delabie & Nascimento 2009 1 Diaphoromyrma sofiae CASENT0178237 Diaphoromyrma sofiae.jpg
Diaphoromyrma sofiae
Dicroaspis Emery 1908 2 Dicroaspis cryptocera Dicroaspis cryptocera casent0172774 profile 1.jpg
Dicroaspis cryptocera
Dilobocondyla Santschi 1910 19 Atopomyrmex selebensis Dilobocondyla fouqueti casent0178565 profile 1.jpg
Dilobocondyla fouqueti
Diplomorium Mayr 1901 1 Diplomorium longipenne Diplomorium longipenne casent0102360 profile 1.jpg
Diplomorium longipenne
Dolopomyrmex Cover & Deyrup 2007 1 Dolopomyrmex pilatus Dolopomyrmex pilatus casent0003193 profile 1.jpg
Dolopomyrmex pilatus
Electromyrmex †Electromyrmex


Wheeler 1910 1 Electromyrmex klebsi †Electromyrmex klebsi


IGRBA012 Electromyrmex klebsi.jpg
Electromyrmex klebsi
Enneamerus †Enneamerus


Mayr 1868 1 Enneamerus reticulatus †Enneamerus reticulatus


Enneamerus reticulatus illustration Wheeler 1915.png
Enneamerus reticulatus
Eocenidris †Eocenidris


Wilson 1985 1 Eocenidris crassa †Eocenidris crassa


Eocenidris crassa Wilson 1985.png
Eocenidris crassa
Eocenomyrma †Eocenomyrma


Dlussky & Radchenko 2006 4 Eocenomyrma orthospina †Eocenomyrma orthospina


GPIH-BE4505 Eocenomyrma elegantula.jpg
Eocenomyrma orthospina
Eomyrmex †Eomyrmex


Hong 1974 1 Eomyrmex guchengziensis †Eomyrmex guchengziensis


N/A [226]
Epelysidris Bolton 1987 1 Epelysidris brocha Monomorium brocha casent0102361 profile 1.jpg
Epelysidris brocha
Epopostruma Forel 1895 19 Strumigenys quadrispinosa Epopostruma natalae casent0010815 profile 1.jpg
Epopostruma natalae
Eurhopalothrix Brown & Kempf 1961 53 Rhopalothrix bolaui Eurhopalothrix bolaui casent0107554 profile 1.jpg
Eurhopalothrix bolaui
Eutetramorium Emery 1899 3 Eutetramorium mocquerysi Eutetramorium mocquerysi casent0077435 profile 1.jpg
Eutetramorium mocquerysi
Fallomyrma †Fallomyrma


Dlussky & Radchenko 2006 1 Fallomyrma transversa †Fallomyrma transversa


N/A [230]
Formicoxenus Mayr 1855 7 Myrmica nitidula Formicoxenus nitidulus casent0173159 profile 1.jpg
Formicoxenus nitidulus
Formosimyrma Terayama 2009 1 Formosimyrma lanuyensis ANTWEB1008361 Formosimyrma lanyuensis.jpg
Formosimyrma lanuyensis
Fushunomyrmex †Fushunomyrmex


Hong 2002 1 Fushunomyrmex liaoningensis †Fushunomyrmex liaoningensis


N/A [130]
Gaoligongidris Xu 2012 1 Gaoligongidris planodorsa N/A [233]
Gauromyrmex Menozzi 1933 2 Gauromyrmex bengakalisi Gauromyrmex bengakalisi casent0172783 profile 1.jpg
Gauromyrmex bengakalisi
Goniomma Emery 1895 8 Aphaenogaster blanci Goniomma collingwoodi casent0101190 profile 1.jpg
Goniomma collingwoodi
Harpagoxenus Forel 1893 3 Myrmica sublaevis Harpagoxenus sublaevis casent0178588 profile 1.jpg
Harpagoxenus sublaevis
Huberia Forel 1890 2 Tetramorium striatum Huberia striata casent0006149 profile 1.jpg
Huberia striata
Hylomyrma Forel 1912 13 Pogonomyrmex columbicus Hylomyrma balzani casent0173968 profile 1.jpg
Hylomyrma balzani
Hypopomyrmex †Hypopomyrmex


Emery 1891 1 Hypopomyrmex bombiccii †Hypopomyrmex bombiccii


Hypopomyrmex Emery, 1891.png
Hypopomyrmex bombiccii
Ilemomyrmex †Ilemomyrmex


Wilson 1985 1 Ilemomyrmex caecus †Ilemomyrmex caecus


Ilemomyrmex caecus Wilson 1985a.png
Ilemomyrmex caecus
Indomyrma Brown 1986 2 Indomyrma dasypyx Indomyrma dasypyx casent0172283 profile 1.jpg
Indomyrma dasypyx
Ishakidris Bolton 1984 1 Ishakidris ascitaspis CASENT0249428 Ishakidris ascitaspis.jpg
Ishakidris ascitaspis
Kalathomyrmex Klingenberg & Brandão 2009 1 Myrmicocrypta emeryi Kalathomyrmex emeryi casent0010816 profile 1.jpg
Kalathomyrmex emeryi
Kartidris Bolton 1991 6 Kartidris nyos Kartidris nyos casent0178538 profile 1.jpg
Kartidris nyos
Kempfidris Fernández, Feitosa & Lattke 2014 1 Monomorium inusuale CASENT0217050 Kempfidris inusualis.jpg
Kempfidris inusualis
Lachnomyrmex Wheeler 1910 16 Lachnomyrmex scrobiculatus Lachnomyrmex scrobiculatus casent0103243 profile 1.jpg
Lachnomyrmex scrobiculatus
Lasiomyrma Terayama & Yamane 2000 4 Lasiomyrma gedensis Lasiomyrma gedensis casent0102364 profile 1.jpg
Lasiomyrma gedensis
Lenomyrmex Fernández & Palacio 1999 6 Lenomyrmex mandibularis Lenomyrmex colwelli inb0003214454 profile 1.jpg
Lenomyrmex colwelli
Leptothorax Mayr 1855 19 Formica acervorum Leptothorax acervorum casent0173138 profile 1.jpg
Leptothorax acervorum
Liomyrmex Mayr 1865 1 Myrmica caeca Liomyrmex gestroi casent0178545 profile 1.jpg
Liomyrmex gestroi
Lonchomyrmex †Lonchomyrmex


Mayr 1867 2 Formica freyeri †Lonchomyrmex freyeri


N/A [248]
Lophomyrmex Emery 1892 13 Oecodoma quadrispinosa Lophomyrmex longicornis casent0179019 profile 1.jpg
Lophomyrmex longicornis
Lordomyrma Emery 1897 34 Lordomyrma furcifera Lordomyrma furcifera casent0172482 profile 1.jpg
Lordomyrma furcifera
Malagidris Bolton & Fisher 2014 6 Aphaenogaster belti Aphaenogaster belti casent0101063 profile 1.jpg
Malagidris belti
Manica Jurine 1807 6 Formica rubida Manica rubida casent0173135 profile 1.jpg
Manica rubida
Mayriella Forel 1902 9 Mayriella abstinens Mayriella abstinens casent0172348 profile 1.jpg
Mayriella abstinens
Megalomyrmex Forel 1885 44 Megalomyrmex leoninus Megalomyrmex leoninus casent0178669 profile 1.jpg
Megalomyrmex leoninus
Melissotarsus Emery 1877 4 Melissotarsus beccarii Melissotarsus beccarii casent0101464 profile 1.jpg
Melissotarsus beccarii
Meranoplus Smith 1853 90 Cryptocerus bicolor Meranoplus bicolor.jpg
Meranoplus bicolor
Mesostruma Brown 1948 9 Strumigenys turneri Mesostruma turneri casent0172478 profile 1.jpg
Mesostruma turneri
Messor Forel 1890 110 Formica barbara Messor barbarus03.jpg
Messor barbarus
Metapone Forel 1911 18 Metapone greeni Metapone emersoni casent0003116 profile 1.jpg
Metapone emersoni
Microdaceton Santschi 1913 4 Microdaceton exornatum Microdaceton exornatum casent0102250 profile 1.jpg
Microdaceton exornatum
Miosolenopsis †Miosolenopsis


Zhang 1989 1 Miosolenopsis fossilis †Miosolenopsis fossilis


N/A [46]
Monomorium Mayr 1855 372 Monomorium monomorium Monomorium pharaonis casent0173986 profile 1.jpg
Monomorium pharaonis
Mycetagroicus Brandão & Mayhé-Nunes 2001 4 Mycetagroicus cerradensis Mycetagroicus cerradensis casent0103121 profile 1.jpg
Mycetagroicus cerradensis
Mycetarotes Emery 1913 4 Cyphomyrmex parallelus Mycetarotes parallelus casent0010817 profile 1.jpg
Mycetarotes parallelus
Mycetophylax Emery 1913 3 Myrmicocrypta brittoni CASENT0919617 Mycetophylax conformis.jpg
Mycetophylax conformis
Mycetosoritis Wheeler 1907 5 Atta hartmanni Mycetosoritis hartmanni casent0104060 profile 1.jpg
Mycetosoritis hartmanni
Mycocepurus Forel 1893 6 Atta smithii Mycocepurus smithii CASENT0173989 1.jpg
Mycocepurus smithii
Myrmecina Curtis 1829 51 Myrmecina latreillii Myrmecina graminicola casent0106054 profile 1.jpg
Myrmecina graminicola
Myrmecites †Myrmecites


Dlussky & Rasnitsyn 2003 6 Myrmecites rotundiceps †Myrmecites rotundiceps


N/A [261]
Myrmica Latreille 1804 211 Formica rubra Myrmica rubra casent0010684 profile 1.jpg
Myrmica rubra
Myrmicaria Saunders 1842 32 Myrmicaria brunnea Myrmicaria brunnea4.jpg
Myrmicaria brunnea
Myrmicocrypta Smith 1860 27 Myrmicocrypta squamosa Myrmicocrypta squamosa casent0173990 profile 1.jpg
Myrmicocrypta squamosa
Myrmisaraka Bolton & Fisher 2014 2 Myrmisaraka producta CASENT0161774 Myrmisaraka producta.jpg
Myrmisaraka producta
Nesomyrmex Wheeler 1910 57 Nesomyrmex clavipilis Nesomyrmex angulatus casent0137608 profile 1.jpg
Nesomyrmex angulatus
Novomessor Emery 1915 3 Aphaenogaster cockerelli Aphaenogaster cockerelli casent0005723 profile 1.jpg
Novomessor cockerelli
Ochetomyrmex Mayr 1878 2 Ochetomyrmex semipolitus Ochetomyrmex semipolitus casent0178481 profile 1.jpg
Ochetomyrmex semipolitus
Octostruma Forel 1912 34 Rhopalothrix simoni Octostruma iheringi casent0178002 profile 1.jpg
Octostruma iheringi
Ocymyrmex Emery 1886 37 Ocymyrmex barbiger Ocymyrmex dekerus casent0173608 profile 1.jpg
Ocymyrmex dekerus
Orbigastrula †Orbigastrula


Hong 2002 1 Orbigastrula guchengziensis †Orbigastrula guchengziensis


N/A [130]
Orectognathus Smith 1853 29 Orectognathus antennatus Orectognathus antennatus casent0172360 profile 1.jpg
Orectognathus antennatus
Oxyepoecus Santschi 1926 21 Oxyepoecus bruchi Oxyepoecus bruchi casent0178098 profile 1.jpg
Oxyepoecus bruchi
Oxyidris †Oxyidris


Wilson 1985 1 Oxyidris antillana †Oxyidris antillana


Oxyidris antillana Wilson 1985.png
Oxyidris antillana
Oxyopomyrmex André 1881 12 Oxyopomyrmex oculatus Oxyopomyrmex oculatus casent0101775 profile 1.jpg
Oxyopomyrmex oculatus
Parameranoplus †Parameranoplus


Wheeler 1915 1 Parameranoplus primaevus †Parameranoplus primaevus


Parameranoplus primaevus Wheeler 1915.jpg
Parameranoplus primaevus
Paramycetophylax Kusnezov 1956 1 Sericomyrmex bruchi CASENT0912502 Paramycetophylax bruchi.jpg
Paramycetophylax bruchi
Paraphaenogaster †Paraphaenogaster


Dlussky 1981 4 Paraphaenogaster microphthalma †Paraphaenogaster microphthalmus


BMNHP24963 Paraphaenogaster hooleyana.jpg
Paraphaenogaster hooleyana
Paratopula Wheeler 1919 11 Atopomyrmex ceylonicus Paratopula macta casent0178561 profile 1.jpg
Paratopula macta
Patagonomyrmex Johnson & Moreau 2016 3 Pogonomyrmex angustus Pogonomyrmex angustus casent0173374 profile 1.jpg
Patagonomyrmex angustus
Perissomyrmex Smith 1947 6 Perissomyrmex snyderi Perissomyrmex snyderi casent0172276 profile 1.jpg
Perissomyrmex snyderi
Peronomyrmex Viehmeyer 1922 3 Peronomyrmex overbecki Peronomyrmex greavesi casent0172264 profile 1.jpg
Peronomyrmex greavesi
Phalacromyrmex Kempf 1960 1 Phalacromyrmex fugax Phalacromyrmex fugax casent0103116 profile 1.jpg
Phalacromyrmex fugax
Pheidole Westwood 1839 1007 Atta providens Pheidole rhea casent0000227 profile 1.jpg
Pheidole rhea
Pilotrochus Brown 1978 1 Pilotrochus besmerus Pilotrochus besmerus casent0003287 profile 1.jpg
Pilotrochus besmerus
Plesiomyrmex †Plesiomyrmex


Dlussky & Radchenko 2009 1 Plesiomyrmex tubulatus †Plesiomyrmex tubulatus


N/A [277]
Podomyrma Smith 1859 52 Podomyrma femorata Podomyrma minor castype06970 profile 1.jpg
Podomyrma minor
Poecilomyrma Mann 1921 2 Poecilomyrma senirewae Poecilomyrma senirewae casent0101901 profile 1.jpg
Poecilomyrma senirewae
Pogonomyrmex Mayr 1868 69 Formica badia Pogonomyrmex badius casent0103057 profile 1.jpg
Camponotus badius
Pristomyrmex Mayr 1866 60 Pristomyrmex pungens Pristomyrmex punctatus casent0178863 profile 1.jpg
Pristomyrmex punctatus
Proatta Forel 1912 1 Proatta butteli Proatta butteli casent0010836 profile 1.jpg
Proatta butteli
Procryptocerus Emery 1887 45 Meranoplus striatus Procryptocerus hylaeus casent0178095 profile 1.jpg
Procryptocerus hylaeus
Propodilobus Branstetter 2009 1 Stenamma orientale CASENT0171177 Propodilobus pingorum.jpg
Propodilobus orientale
Protalaridris Brown 1980 1 Protalaridris armata Protalaridris armata casent0178630 profile 1.jpg
Protalaridris armata
Protomyrmica †Protomyrmica


Dlussky & Radchenko 2009 1 Protomyrmica atavia †Protomyrmica atavia


Protomyrmica atavia BMNHP65422 head.jpg
Protomyrmica atavia
Pseudoatta Gallardo 1916 1 Pseudoatta argentina Pseudoatta argentina casent0104658 profile 1.jpg
Pseudoatta argentina
Quadrulicapito †Quadrulicapito


Hong 2002 1 Quadrulicapito longa †Quadrulicapito longa


N/A [130]
Quineangulicapito †Quineangulicapito


Hong 2002 1 Quineangulicapito fushunensis †Quineangulicapito fushunensis


N/A [130]
Recurvidris Bolton 1992 11 None Recurvidris recurvispinosa casent0010681 profile 1.jpg
Recurvidris recurvispinosa
Rhopalomastix Forel 1900 6 Rhopalomastix rothneyi Rhopalomastix rothneyi casent0010846 profile 1.jpg
Rhopalomastix rothneyi
Rhopalothrix Mayr 1870 16 Rhopalothrix ciliata Rhopalothrix ciliata casent0423544 profile 1.jpg
Rhopalothrix ciliata
Rogeria Emery 1894 40 Rogeria curvipubens Rogeria curvipubens casent0173282 profile 1.jpg
Rogeria curvipubens
Romblonella Wheeler 1935 9 Romblonella grandinodis Romblonella opaca casent0178525 profile 1.jpg
Romblonella opaca
Rostromyrmex Rosciszewski 1994 1 Rostromyrmex pasohensis CASENT0106221 Rostromyrmex pasohensis.jpg
Rostromyrmex pasohensis
Rotastruma Bolton 1991 2 Rotastruma recava Rotastruma recava casent0010807 profile 1.jpg
Rotastruma recava
Royidris Bolton & Fisher 2014 15 Monomorium robertsoni Monomorium robertsoni casent0077935 profile 1.jpg
Royidris robertsoni
Secostruma Bolton 1988 1 Secostruma lethifera Secostruma lethifera casent0102362 profile 1.jpg
Secostruma lethifera
Sericomyrmex Mayr 1865 19 Sericomyrmex opacus Sericomyrmex amabilis casent0039728 profile 1.jpg
Sericomyrmex amabilis
Sinomyrmex †Sinomyrmex


Hong 2002 2 Sinomyrmex brunneus †Sinomyrmex brunneus


N/A [130]
Solenopsis Westwood 1840 205 Solenopsis mandibularis Solenopsis geminata casent0063125 profile 1.jpg
Solenopsis geminata
Solenopsites †Solenopsites


Dlussky & Rasnitsyn 2003 3 Solenopsites minutus †Solenopsites minutus


BMNHP9968 Solenopsites rossi.jpg
Solenopsites rossi
Sphaerogasterites †Sphaerogasterites


Hong 2002 1 Sphaerogasterites longipetiolatus †Sphaerogasterites longipetiolatus


N/A [130]
Stegomyrmex Emery 1912 5 Stegomyrmex connectens Stegomyrmex vizottoi casent0006164 profile 1.jpg
Stegomyrmex vizottoi
Stenamma Westwood 1839 85 Stenamma westwoodii Stenamma westwoodii casent0173134 profile 1.jpg
Stenamma westwoodii
Stereomyrmex Emery 1901 3 Stereomyrmex horni Stereomyrmex horni casent0178593 profile 1.jpg
Stereomyrmex horni
Stigmomyrmex †Stigmomyrmex


Mayr 1868 1 Stigmomyrmex venustus †Stigmomyrmex venustus


Stigmomyrmex Wheeler 1915.jpg
Stigmomyrmex venustus
Stiphromyrmex †Stiphromyrmex


Wheeler 1915 1 Stiphromyrmex robustus †Stiphromyrmex robustus


Wheeler 1915i-84 Stiphromyrmex robustus.jpg
Stiphromyrmex robustus
Strongylognathus Mayr 1853 24 Eciton testaceum Strongylognathus testaceus casent0173185 profile 1.jpg
Strongylognathus testaceus
Strumigenys Smith 1860 842 Strumigenys mandibularis Strumigenys abdera casent0005465 profile 1.jpg
Strumigenys abdera
Syllophopsis Santschi 1915 20 Monomorium modestum Monomorium modestum casent0026710 profile 1.jpg
Syllophopsis modesta
Talaridris Weber 1941 1 Talaridris mandibularis Talaridris mandibularis casent0178733 profile 1.jpg
Talaridris mandibularis
Temnothorax Mayr 1861 395 Myrmica recedens Temnothorax unifasciatus casent0173188 profile 1.jpg
Temnothorax unifasciatus
Terataner Emery 1912 12 Atopomyrmex foreli Terataner foreli casent0109508 profile 1.jpg
Terataner foreli
Tetheamyrma Bolton 1991 1 Tetheamyrma subspongia Tetheamyrma subspongia casent0101593 profile 1.jpg
Tetheamyrma subspongia
Tetramorium Mayr 1855 569 Formica caespitum Tetramorium caespitum casent0173203 profile 1.jpg
Tetramorium caespitum
Trachymyrmex Forel 1893 48 Atta septentrionalis Trachymyrmex septentrionalis casent0003337 profile 1.jpg
Trachymyrmex septentrionalis
Tranopelta Mayr 1866 2 Tranopelta gilva Tranopelta gilva casent0010793 profile 1.jpg
Tranopelta gilva
Trichomyrmex Mayr 1865 18 Trichomyrmex rogeri Monomorium destructor casent0008623 profile 1.jpg
Trichomyrmex destructor
Tropidomyrmex Silva, Feitosa, Brandão & Diniz 2009 1 Tropidomyrmex elianae Tropidomyrmex elianae casent0173620 profile 1.jpg
Tropidomyrmex elianae
Tyrannomyrmex Fernández 2003 3 Tyrannomyrmex rex Tyrannomyrmex dux casent0178233 profile 1.jpg
Tyrannomyrmex dux
Veromessor Forel 1917 9 Aphaenogaster andrei Messor andrei casent0005728 profile 1.jpg
Veromessor andrei
Vitsika Bolton & Fisher 2014 14 Vitsika crebra CASENT0000692 Vitsika crebra.jpg
Vitsika crebra
Vollenhovia Mayr 1865 62 Vollenhovia punctatostriata Vollenhovia emeryi casent0003196 profile 1.jpg
Vollenhovia emeryi
Vombisidris Bolton 1991 17 Vombisidris philax Vombisidris philax casent0178736 profile 1.jpg
Vombisidris philax
Wasmannia Forel 1893 11 Tetramorium auropunctatum Wasmannia auropunctata casent0039797 profile 1.jpg
Wasmannia auropunctata
Wumyrmex †Wumyrmex


Hong 2002 1 Wumyrmex furvis †Wumyrmex furvis


N/A [130]
Xenomyrmex Forel 1885 4 Xenomyrmex stollii Xenomyrmex stollii casent0179463 profile 1.jpg
Xenomyrmex stollii
Zhangidris †Zhangidris


Bolton 2003 1 Zhangidris atopogaster †Heteromyrmex atopogaster


N/A [4]

2.17. Paraponerinae

The subfamily Paraponerinae contains a single genus Paraponera. This genus has two species, one of which was found in Dominican amber from the Miocene.[299] The extant species, Paraponera clavata, is found in Central America and South America, and the pain from its sting is said to be greater than any other insect sting on earth.[300]

Subfamily Paraponerinae Emery, 1901 – one genus, two species[301]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Paraponera Smith 1858 2 Paraponera clavata Paraponera clavata casent0003165 profile 1.jpg
Paraponera clavata

2.18. Ponerinae

The subfamily Ponerinae was established by Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau in 1835, which represents 47 extant genera and 12 fossil genera. The subfamily is among the most diverse in the family Formicidae, with more than 1,000 species described. They are mostly distributed in the tropics and subtropics.[4][44]

Subfamily Ponerinae Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 – 59 genera, 1,287 species[302]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Afropone †Afropone


Dlussky et al. 2004 2 Afropone oculata N/A [41]
Anochetus Mayr 1861 122 Anochetus ghilianii Casent0270572 p 1 high.jpg
Anochetus ghilianii
Archiponera †Archiponera


Carpenter 1930 1 Archiponera wheeleri †Archiponera wheeleri


Archiponera wheeleri holotype 2876a Carpenter 1930 01.jpg
Archiponera wheeleri
Asphinctopone Santschi 1914 3 Asphinctopone silvestrii Asphinctopone silvestrii casent0006811 profile 1.jpg
Asphinctopone silvestrii
Austroponera Schmidt & Shattuck 2014 3 Austroponera rufonigra Casent0249178 p 1 high.jpg
Austroponera rufonigra
Belonopelta Mayr 1870 2 Belonopelta attenuata Casent0003157 p 1 high.jpg
Belonopelta attenuata
Boloponera Fisher 2006 1 Boloponera vicans Boloponera vicans casent0401737 profile 1.jpg
Boloponera vicans
Bothroponera Mayr 1862 37 Bothroponera pumicosa Bothroponera pumicosa sam-hym-c000154a profile 1.jpg
Bothroponera pumicosa
Brachyponera Emery 1900 19 Brachyponera croceicornis Brachyponera croceicornis castype06966 profile 1.jpg
Brachyponera croceicornis
Buniapone Schmidt & Shattuck, 2014 2014 1 Buniapone amblyops Pachycondyla amblyops casent0172431 profile 1.jpg
Buniapone amblyops
Centromyrmex Mayr 1866 15 Centromyrmex bohemanni Centromyrmex alfaroi casent0010795 profile 1.jpg
Centromyrmex bohemanni
Cephalopone †Cephalopone


Dlussky & Wedmann 2012 2 Cephalopone potens †Cephalopone potens


Cephalopone grandis holotype SMFMEI5361.jpg
Cephalopone potens
Cryptopone Emery 1893 24 Cryptopone testacea Cryptopone testacea castype06939-01 profile 1.jpg
Cryptopone testacea
Cyrtopone †Cyrtopone


Dlussky & Wedmann 2012 4 Cyrtopone microcephala Cyrtopone microcephala holotype SMFMEI2407.jpg
Cyrtopone microcephala
Diacamma Mayr 1862 24 Diacamma rugosum Diacamma rugosum casent0217516.jpg
Diacamma rugosum
Dinoponera Roger 1861 8 Dinoponera gigantea Dinoponera australis casent0173381 profile 1.jpg
Dinoponera gigantea
Dolioponera Brown 1974 1 Dolioponera fustigera Dolioponera fustigera casent0000078 profile 1.jpg
Dolioponera fustigera
Ectomomyrmex Mayr 1867 28 Ectomomyrmex javanus Casent0915665 p 1 high.jpg
Ectomomyrmex javanus
Emeryopone Forel 1912 5 Emeryopone buttelreepeni Emeryopone buttelreepeni casent0101953 profile 1.jpg
Emeryopone buttelreepeni
Eogorgites †Eogorgites


Hong 2002 1 Eogorgites cingulatus †Eogorgites cingulatus


N/A [130]
Eoponerites †Eoponerites


Hong 2002 1 Eoponerites longipetiolatus †Eoponerites longipetiolatus


N/A [130]
Euponera Forel 1891 27 Euponera sikorae Pachycondyla sikorae casent0063893 profile 1.jpg
Euponera sikorae
Feroponera Bolton & Fisher 2008 1 Feroponera ferox Feroponera ferox casent0102994 profile 1.jpg
Feroponera ferox
Fisheropone Schmidt & Shattuck 2014 1 Fisheropone ambigua Casent0235606 p 1 high.jpg
Fisheropone ambigua
Furcisutura †Furcisutura


Hong 2002 1 Furcisutura wanghuacunensis †Furcisutura wanghuacunensis


N/A [130]
Hagensia Forel 1901 2 Hagensia havilandi Pachycondyla havilandi sam-hym-c005378a profile 1.jpg
Hagensia havilandi
Harpegnathos Jerdon 1851 7 Harpegnathos saltator Harpegnathos saltator casent0101783 profile 1.jpg
Harpegnathos saltator
Hypoponera Santschi 1938 154 Hypoponera abeillei Casent0915488 p 1 high.jpg
Hypoponera abeillei
Iroponera Schmidt & Shattuck 2014 1 Iroponera odax Casent0102331 p 1 high.jpg
Iroponera odax
Leptogenys Roger 1861 308 Leptogenys falcigera Leptogenys falcigera casent0003814 profile 1.jpg
Leptogenys falcigera
Loboponera Bolton & Brown 2002 9 Loboponera vigilans Loboponera vigilans casent0003107 profile 1.jpg
Loboponera vigilans
Longicapitia †Longicapitia


Hong 2002 1 Longicapitia reticulata †Longicapitia reticulata


N/A [130]
Mayaponera Schmidt & Shattuck 2014 1 Mayaponera constricta Casent0217555 p 1 high.jpg
Mayaponera constricta
Megaponera Mayr 1862 1 Megaponera analis Pachycondyla analis sam-hym-c008323b profile 1.jpg
Megaponera analis
Mesoponera Emery 1900 20 Mesoponera melanaria Mesoponera melanaria casent0189297 profile 1.jpg
Mesoponera melanaria
Messelepone †Messelepone


Dlussky & Wedmann 2012 1 Messelepone leptogenoides Messelepone leptogenoides holotype SMFMEI4808.jpg
Messelepone leptogenoides
Myopias Roger 1861 40 Myopias amblyops Myopias amblyops casent0104584 profile 1.jpg
Myopias amblyops
Neoponera Emery 1901 57 Neoponera villosa Pachycondyla villosa casent0178688 profile 1.jpg
Neoponera villosa
Odontomachus Latreille 1804 70 Odontomachus haematodus Odontomachus haematodus casent0103104 profile 1.jpg
Odontomachus haematodus
Odontoponera Mayr 1862 2 Odontoponera denticulata Casent0900664 p 1 high.jpg
Odontoponera denticulata
Ophthalmopone Forel 1890 5 Ophthalmopone berthoudi Casent0249198 p 1 high.jpg
Ophthalmopone berthoudi
Pachycondyla Smith 1858 36 Pachycondyla crassinoda Casent0217556 p 1 high.jpg
Pachycondyla crassinoda
Paltothyreus Mayr 1862 1 Paltothyreus tarsatus Pachycondyla tarsata casent0172430 profile 1.jpg
Paltothyreus tarsatus
Parvaponera Schmidt & Shattuck 2014 4 Parvaponera darwinii Pachycondyla darwinii casent0172437 profile 1.jpg
Parvaponera darwinii
Phrynoponera Wheeler 1920 5 Phrynoponera gabonensis Phrynoponera gabonensis casent0107649 label 1.jpg
Phrynoponera gabonensis
Platythyrea Roger 1863 44 Platythyrea punctata Platythyrea punctata casent0003323 profile 1.jpg
Platythyrea punctata
Plectroctena Smith 1858 17 Plectroctena mandibularis Plectroctena mandibularis sam-hym-c007208a profile 1.jpg
Plectroctena mandibularis
Ponera Latreille 1804 62 Ponera coarctata Ponera coarctata casent0008634 profile 1.jpg
Ponera coarctata
Ponerites †Ponerites


Dlussky & Rasnitsyn 2003 14 Ponerites eocenicus †Ponerites eocenicus


Ponerites fossil.png
Ponerites eocenicus
Promyopias Santschi 1914 1 Promyopias silvestrii Promyopias silvestrii casent0102926 profile 1.jpg
Promyopias silvestrii
Protopone †Protopone


Dlussky 1988 7 Protopone primigena †Protopone primigena


Protopone dubia holotype SMFMEI10142.jpg
Protopone primigena
Psalidomyrmex André 1890 6 Psalidomyrmex foveolatus Psalidomyrmex foveolatus casent0101471 profile 1.jpg
Psalidomyrmex foveolatus
Pseudoneoponera Donisthorpe 1943 18 Pseudoneoponera verecundae Casent0902484 p 1 high.jpg
Pseudoneoponera verecundae
Pseudoponera Emery 1900 6 Pseudoponera stigma Pachycondyla stigma casent0104187 profile 1.jpg
Pseudoponera stigma
Rasopone Schmidt & Shattuck 2014 11 Rasopone ferruginea Casent0249143 p 1 high.jpg
Rasopone ferruginea
Simopelta Mann 1922 22 Simopelta jeckylli Casent0907295 p 1 high.jpg
Simopelta jeckylli
Streblognathus Mayr 1862 2 Streblognathus aethiopicus Streblognathus aethiopicus casent0005444 profile 1.jpg
Streblognathus aethiopicus
Taphopone †Taphopone


Dlussky & Perfilieva 2014 6 Taphopone karaganensis †Taphopone karaganensis


Taphopone macroptera
Thaumatomyrmex Mayr 1887 12 Thaumatomyrmex mutilatus Thaumatomyrmex mutilatus casent0102934 profile 1.jpg
Thaumatomyrmex mutilatus

2.19. Proceratiinae

The subfamily Proceratiinae was established by Italian entomologist Carlo Emery in 1895, which represents three extant genera and one extinct genus. Found worldwide, these ants are mainly encountered in tropical and subtropical areas. Little is known about their biology.[44][318]

Subfamily Proceratiinae Emery, 1895 – four genera, 155 species[319]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Bradoponera †Bradoponera


Mayr 1868 4 Bradoponera meieri †Bradoponera meieri


Bradoponera meieri BMNHP18809 whole.jpg
Bradoponera meieri
Discothyrea Roger 1863 37 Discothyrea testacea Discothyrea testacea casent0006058 profile 1.jpg
Discothyrea testacea
Probolomyrmex Mayr 1901 26 Probolomyrmex filiformis Probolomyrmex filiformis casent0102141 profile 1.jpg
Probolomyrmex filiformis
Proceratium Roger 1863 88 Proceratium silaceum Proceratium silaceum casent0104234 profile 1.jpg
Proceratium silaceum

2.20. Pseudomyrmecinae

The subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae was established by M.R. Smith in 1952,[320] which represents three genera of ants that are primarily arboreal nesting ants in the tropical and subtropical regions.[321] They are found in Africa, Asia, Australia, North America and South America.[322]

Subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae Smith, 1952 – three genera, 251 species[323]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Myrcidris Ward 1990 1 Myrcidris epicharis Myrcidris epicharis casent0010810 profile 1.jpg
Myrcidris epicharis
Pseudomyrmex Lund 1831 147 Pseudomyrmex gracilis Pseudomyrmex gracilis casent0103874 profile 1.jpg
Pseudomyrmex gracilis
Tetraponera Smith 1852 103 Tetraponera nigra Tetraponera nigra casent0103313 profile 1.jpg
Tetraponera nigra

2.21. Sphecomyrminae

The subfamily Sphecomyrminae contains nine fossil genera of stem ants. Most fossilised ants from Cretaceous amber are placed in this subfamily.[37][326]

Subfamily Sphecomyrminae Wilson & Brown, 1967 – nine genera, 18 species[327]
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Baikuris †Baikuris


Dlussky 1987 4 Baikuris mandibularis †Baikuris mandibularis


Baikuris mandibularis PIN3730-5 whole.jpg
Baikuris mandibularis
Ceratomyrmex †Ceratomyrmex


Perrichot, Wang & Engel 2016 1 Ceratomyrmex ellenbergeri †Ceratomyrmex ellenbergeri


Ceratomyrmex ellenbergeri FANTWEB00005 profile.jpg
Ceratomyrmex ellenbergeri
Cretomyrma †Cretomyrma


Dlussky 1975 2 Cretomyrma arnoldii †Cretomyrma arnoldii


N/A [38]
Dlusskyidris †Dlusskyidris


Bolton 1994 1 Dlusskyidris zherichini †Dlusskyidris zherichini


Dlusskyidris zherichini illustration 1978.png
Dlusskyidris zherichini
Haidomyrmex Dlussky 1996 3 Haidomyrmex cerberus †Haidomyrmex cerberus


Haidomyrmex zigrasi JZ01 01.jpg
Haidomyrmex cerberus
Haidomyrmodes †Haidomyrmodes


Perrichot et al. 2008 1 Haidomyrmodes mammuthus †Haidomyrmodes mammuthus


MNHNA30162 Haidomyrmodes mammuthus 02.jpg
Haidomyrmodes mammuthus
Haidoterminus †Haidoterminus


McKellar, Glasier & Engel 2013 1 Haidoterminus cippus †Haidoterminus cippus


UASM332546 Haidoterminus cippus 01.jpg
Haidoterminus cippus
Sphecomyrma †Sphecomyrma


Wilson & Brown 1967 3 Sphecomyrma freyi †Sphecomyrma freyi


Sphecomyrma freyi worker no 1 holotype (Wilson, Carpenter and Brown 1967).jpg
Sphecomyrma freyi
Zigrasimecia †Zigrasimecia


Barden & Grimaldi 2013 2 Zigrasimecia tonsora †Zigrasimecia tonsora


Zigrasimecia tonsora JZC Bu-159 holotype 01.jpg
Zigrasimecia tonsora

3. Incertae Sedis

There are several ant genera where their taxonomic placement is uncertain (incertae sedis). These genera have not yet been assigned to any subfamily within Formicidae; 14 genera are currently listed as incertae sedis.[334]

Incertae sedis taxa
Genus name Binomial authority Described No. of species Type species Example image Ref(s)
Calyptites †Calyptites


Scudder 1877 1 Calyptites antediluvianum †Calyptites antediluvianum


N/A [3][335]
Camelomecia †Camelomecia


Barden & Grimaldi 2016 1 Camelomecia janovitzi †Camelomecia janovitzi


Camelomecia janovitzi AMNH-BUTJ003 right profile.jpg
Camelomecia janovitzi
Condylodon Lund 1831 1 Condylodon audouini N/A [4][57]
Cretopone †Cretopone


Dlussky 1975 1 Cretopone magna †Cretopone magna


Cretopone magna PIN2284-14 holotype worker.jpg
Cretopone magna
Curticorna †Curticorna


Hong 2002 1 Curticorna leptogastrosa †Curticorna leptogastrosa


N/A [4][130]
Eoaenictites †Eoaenictites


Hong 2002 1 Eoaenictites castanifurvus †Eoaenictites castanifurvus


N/A [130]
Eoformica †Eoformica


Cockerell 1921 6 Eoformica pinguis †Eoformica eocenica


Eoformica pinguis Carpenter 1930.jpg
Eoformica pinguis
Fonsecahymen †Fonsecahymen


Martins-Neto & Mendes 2002 1 Fonsecahymen stigmata †Fonsecahymen stigmata


N/A [341]
Gerontoformica †Gerontoformica


Nel & Perrault 2004 13 Gerontoformica cretacica †Gerontoformica cretacica


Gerontoformica cretacica MNHNA30088 ventral profile whole.jpg
Gerontoformica cretacica
Hypochira[343] Buckley 1866 1 Formica subspinosa N/A [344][345]
Klondikia †Klondikia


Dlussky & Rasnitsyn 2003 1 Klondikia whiteae †Klondikia whiteae


N/A [261]
Kohlsimyrma †Kohlsimyrma


Dlussky & Rasnitsyn 2003 3 Kohlsimyrma laticeps †Kohlsimyrma laticeps


N/A [261]
Myanmyrma †Myanmyrma


Engel & Grimaldi 2005 1 Myanmyrma gracilis †Myanmyrma gracilis


Myanmyrma gracilis AMNH-BU014 holotype 01.jpg
Myanmyrma gracilis
Petropone †Petropone


Dlussky 1975 1 Petropone petiolata †Petropone petiolata


PIN2783-158 Petropone petiolata.jpg
Petropone petiolata

4. Excluded from Formicidae

Listed taxa were once believed to be ants and were placed within Formicidae, but at present they are no longer considered ants.

Taxa excluded from Formicidae
Genus name Binomial authority Classified No. of species Type species Notes Ref(s)
Cariridris †Cariridris


Brandão & Martins-Neto 1990 1 Cariridris bipetiolata The fossil was thought to be a member of Myrmeciinae from the Cretaceous, but it is now incertae sedis in the subclade Aculeata. [36][346]
Cretacoformica †Cretacoformica


Jell & Duncan 1986 1 Cretacoformica explicata The fossil is an insect from the Lower Cretaceous in Australia that was incertae sedis in Formicidae, but it is now incertae sedis in the suborder Apocrita. [36][347]
Formila †Formila


Romand 1846 1 Formila chevrolatii Transferred to the wasp family Embolemidae, now incertae sedis in the suborder Symphyta. [4][348]
Myrmicium Westwood 1854 1 Myrmicium heerii Transferred to Myrmicinae in 1893, but it is now placed in the sawfly family Embolemidae. [114][149]
Promyrmicium †Promyrmicium


Baroni Urbani 1971 1 None Originally placed in Myrmicinae, now assigned to the family Ichneumonidae. [4][350]
Syntaphus †Syntaphus


Donisthorpe 1920 1 Syntaphus wheeleri The fossil is an insect from the Oligocene, originally placed in Ponerinae and later assigned to incertae sedis in Formicidae. It was recently excluded from the family in 2014, now believed to be a Braconidae wasp. [4][30][60]


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  332. McKellar, R.C.; Glasier, J.R.N.; Engel, M.S. (2013). "A new trap-jawed ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Haidomyrmecini) from Canadian Late Cretaceous amber". The Canadian Entomologist 145 (04): 454–465. doi:10.4039/tce.2013.23. 
  333. Wilson, E.O.; Carpenter, F.M.; Brown, W.L. Jr. (1967). "The first Mesozoic ants". Science 157 (3792): 1038–1040. doi:10.1126/science.157.3792.1038. PMID 17770424. Bibcode: 1967Sci...157.1038W.
  334. Bolton, B. (2014). "Formicidae". AntCat. 
  335. Scudder, S.H. (1877). "Appendix to Mr. George M. Dawson's report. The insects of the Tertiary beds at Quesnel". Report of Progress, Geological Survey of Canada 1875–76: 266–280. 
  336. Barden, P.; Grimaldi, D.A. (2016). "Adaptive radiation in socially advanced stem-group ants from the Cretaceous". Current Biology 26 (4): 515–521. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.12.060. PMID 26877084.
  337. Rasnitsyn, A. (1975). "[Hymenoptera Apocrita of Mesozoic.]". Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta 147: 1–134. doi:10.5281/zenodo.24283.
  338. †Curticorna was placed in Dorylinae by Hong (2002), but this genus is "definitely not Dorylinae" according to Barry Bolton.[336] Dlussky & Wedmann (2012) suggest that Curticorna may belong to Ectatomminae.[13]
  339. †Eoaenictites was placed in Aenictinae (now Dorylinae) by Hong (2002), but this genus is "definitely not Aenictinae" according to Barry Bolton.[337]
  340. Cockerell, T.D.A. (1921). "Some Eocene insects from Colorado and Wyoming". Proceedings of the United States National Museum 59: 29–39. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26637. 
  341. Martins-Neto, R.G.; Mendes, M. (2002). "The Fonseca formation paleoentomofauna (Fonseca Basin, Oligocene of Minas Gerais state, Brazil) with description of new taxa". Acta Geologica Leopoldensia 25 (55): 27–33. 
  342. Nel, A.; Perrault, G.; Perrichot, V.; Néraudeau, D. (2004). "The oldest ant in the Lower Cretaceous amber of Charente-Maritime (SW France) (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Geologica Acta 2 (1): 23–29. doi:10.1344/105.000001630.
  343. Genus is unidentifiable, previously placed in Formicinae and Dolichoderinae.
  344. Buckley, S.B. (1866). "Descriptions of new species of North American Formicidae". Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia 6: 152–172. doi:10.5281/zenodo.27046. 
  345. Bolton, B. (1995). A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-674-61514-4. 
  346. Brandão, C.R.F.; Martins-Neto, R.G.; Vulcano, M. A. (1989). "The Earliest Known Fossil Ant (First Southern Hemisphere Mesozoic Record) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmeciinae)". Psyche: A Journal of Entomology 96 (3–4): 195–208. doi:10.1155/1989/86043.
  347. Jell, P.A.; Duncan, P.M. (1986). Plants and invertebrates from the Lower Cretaceous Koonwarra Fossil Bed, South Gippsland, Victoria. Sydney, Australia: Association of Australasian Palaeontologists. pp. 190–191. ISBN 978-0-949466-02-0. 
  348. Romand, D. (1846). "Notice sur un insecte nouveau". Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 4 (2): 32–33. doi:10.5281/zenodo.25624. 
  349. Replacement name for Heer's †Myrmicium (not Westwood's).
  350. Baroni Urbani, C. (1971). "Einige Homonymien in der Familie Formicidae (Hymenoptera)". Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 44 (3): 360–362. doi:10.5281/zenodo.26780. 
Subjects: Entomology
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