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HandWiki. Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Sweden. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33126 (accessed on 15 April 2024).
HandWiki. Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Sweden. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33126. Accessed April 15, 2024.
HandWiki. "Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Sweden" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33126 (accessed April 15, 2024).
HandWiki. (2022, November 05). Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Sweden. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33126
HandWiki. "Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Sweden." Encyclopedia. Web. 05 November, 2022.
Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Sweden
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The adoption of plug-in electric vehicles in Sweden is actively supported by the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden. (As of December 2020), a total of 217,704 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles have been registered since 2011, consisting of 148,889 plug-in hybrids, 62,870 all-electric cars, and 5,945 fully electric commercial vans. Sweden has ranked among the world's top ten best-selling plug-in markets since 2015, listed through 2019 as the ninth largest country market. (As of December 2019), the Swedish stock of plug-in passenger cars listed as the sixth largest in Europe. The Swedish plug-in electric market is dominated by plug-in hybrids, representing 75.1% of the Swedish light-duty plug-in electric vehicle registrations through 2018, but began to slightly decline afterwards, reaching 70.3% in 2020. The market share of plug-in electric vehicles climbed from 0.57% in 2013 to 1.53% of new car sales in the country in 2014. The segment market share reached 2.5% in 2015, rose to 5.2% in 2017, 11.3% in 2019, and achieved a record of 32.2% in 2020.

plug-in electric vehicle electric vehicles electric market

1. Government Incentives

Comparison of Sweden's ownership of plug-in electric cars per 1,000 people with other top selling plug-in car countries and regional markets, (As of December 2020). https://handwiki.org/wiki/index.php?curid=1794243
Cumulative sales of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in Sweden compared to the world's top-selling countries and regional markets (As of December 2020). https://handwiki.org/wiki/index.php?curid=1983635

In September 2011 the Swedish government approved a 200 million kr program, effective starting in January 2012, to provide a subsidy of 40,000 kr per car for the purchase of 5,000 electric cars and other "super green cars" with ultra-low carbon emissions, defined as those with emissions below 50 grams of carbon dioxide (CO
2
) per km.[1] There is also an exemption from the annual circulation tax for the first five years from the date of their first registration that benefits owners of electric vehicles with an energy consumption of 37 kWh per 100 km or less, and hybrid vehicles with CO
2
emissions of 120 g/km or less. In addition, for both electric and hybrid vehicles, the taxable value of the car for the purposes of calculating the benefit in kind of a company car under personal income tax is reduced by 40% compared with the corresponding or comparable gasoline or diesel-powered car. The reduction of the taxable value has a cap of 16,000 kr per year.[2]

By July 2014 the program ran out of funds as a total of 5,028 new "super clean cars" had been registered in the country since January 2012.[3][4] BIL Sweden, the national association for the automobile industry, requested the government an additional 100 million kr to cover the subsidy for another 2,500 registrations of new super clean cars between August and December 2014.[4][5] In December 2014 the Riksdagen, the Swedish parliament, approved an appropriation of 215 million kr to finance the super clean car subsidies in 2015. The appropriation for 2015, according to the parliamentary decision and subsequent government decision, was to also be used for the retroactive payment of the super green cars registered in 2014 that did not receive the subsidy.[6]

The Government raised the appropriation for the super green car rebate by 132 million kr for 2015 and by 94 million kr for 2016. Beginning in 2016, only zero emissions cars are entitled to receive the full 40,000 kr premium, while other super green cars, plug-in hybrids, receive half premium. The exemption for the first five years of ownership from the annual circulation tax is still in place.[7][8] In 2016, in order to promote the introduction of electricity-powered buses in the market, the Government planned to allocate 50 million kr for 2016 and 100 million kr per year between 2017 and 2019 to introduce an electric bus premium.[8]

Two alternative proposals are being considered by the Swedish government regarding the introduction of a bonus-malus system. Both proposals entail changes to vehicle and car benefit taxation and the premium system for purchases of new cars. An official inquiry report was due by 29 April 2016. The goal is for the system to enter into force on 1 January 2017.[8]

2. Registrations

(As of December 2017), a total of 50,304 light-duty plug-in vehicles have been registered since 2011, consisting of 36,405 plug-in hybrids, 12,223 all-electric cars, and 1,676 all-electric vans.[6][9][10][11][12][13][14] The plug-in segment has been dominated by plug-in hybrids, which represent 74.9% of plug-in car registrations through 2017.[9][10][12][13][14] The market share of plug-in electric vehicles climbed from 0.57% in 2013 to 1.53% of new car sales in the country in 2014.[10][11] The segment market share reached 2.5% in 2015,[9] rose to 3.5% in 2016,[15] and achieved a record of 5.2% in 2017.[14]

2.1. 2011–2014

A total of 178 all-electric cars were registered in Sweden in 2011, and registrations of plug-in electric vehicles climbed to 928 units in 2012, led by the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid with 499 units, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 129 units, and the third place was shared by the Volvo C30 Electric and the Opel Ampera with 88 units each.[12] Electric-drive cars reached a market share of 0.33% in 2012. In addition, 265 Renault Kangoo Z.E. utility vans were sold in 2012.[12] During 2013 a total of 1,545 plug-in electric cars were registered in the country out of 269,363 new passenger cars sold, representing a market share of 0.57%.[11] With 1,113 units registered in 2013, plug-in hybrids represented 72.0% of total plug-in electric car registrations. This number includes 10 BMW i3s sold with the range extender option, which in Sweden are classified as plug-in hybrids.[11] The top selling plug-in cars during 2013 were the Volvo V60 PHEV with 601 units, the Prius PHV with 376 and the Nissan Leaf with 317.[11]

The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV was the top selling plug-in electric car in 2014 and 2015, and, (As of December 2016), remains as the all-time best-selling plug-in car in Sweden.[9][10][13] https://handwiki.org/wiki/index.php?curid=1892864

Plug-in electric car sales during 2014 grew significantly. Registrations of super clean cars increased five-fold in July 2014 driven by the end of the quota of 5,000 new cars eligible for the super clean car subsidy.[3][4] A total of 4,656 plug-in super clean passenger cars were registered in 2014, representing a 1.53% market share of new passenger cars registered in the country in 2014. Registrations of super clean cars were up 201% from 2013, while registrations of new passenger cars increased 12.7%.[6][10] Super clean cars represented 8.8% of alternative fuel cars sold during 2014.[10] The top selling plug-in electric cars in 2014 were the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with 2,289 units, Volvo V60 PHEV with 745, and the Nissan Leaf with 438 units. The top selling all-electric utility van was the Kangoo Z.E. with 242 units out of a total of 282 electric vans registered.[10]

2.2. 2015–2016

A total of 8,908 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were registered in 2015, up 80% from 2014. The registered stock consisted of 5,625 plug-in hybrids, 2,962 all-electric cars and 321 all-electric utility vans.[9] The plug-in segment had a market share of 2.49% of new car sales in 2015.[9] The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV was the top selling plug-in car for a second year running with 3,302 units registered in 2015, followed by the Tesla Model S with 996 units. The top selling all-electric utility van was the Nissan e-NV200 with 168 units.[9] (As of December 2015), a total of 16,996 plug-in electric vehicles had registered in Sweden since 2011, up from 7,342 at the end of 2014 (131.5%).[9][10][11][12]

Registrations totaled 13,454 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in 2016, consisting 10,257 plug-in hybrids, up 16.7% from 2015, 2,924 all-electric cars, up 4.8% year-on-year, and 273 all-electric vans down 15.9% from 2015. Super clean car registrations totaled 12,995 units, up 51.4% from 2015.[13] The plug-in electric car segment achieved a market share of 3.5% of all new cars registered in 2016, the world's third largest after Norway and the Netherlands.[15] Stockholm county registered the highest proportion of super green car registrations during the first nine months of 2016, with 5.6% of the country's total. The proportion during September 2016 was 8.5%.[16] In 2016 the Volkswagen Passat GTE listed as the top selling plug-in car with 3,804 units, followed by the Outlander P-HEV (1,819), Volvo V60 PHEV (1,239), Volvo XC90 T8 (983), Tesla Model S (838), and Nissan Leaf (836).[13] The top selling all-electric utility van was the Renault Kangoo Z.E. with 171 units registered.[13]

The Volkswagen Passat GTE listed as the top-selling plug-in electric car in Sweden in 2016 and 2017, and ranks as the all-time second best-selling plug-in in the country.[9][13][14] https://handwiki.org/wiki/index.php?curid=1743939

(As of December 2016), the all-time top selling plug-in electric cars are the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with 7,506 units registered, followed by the Volkswagen Passat GTE (4,075), Volvo V60 PHEV (3,239), Nissan Leaf (2,561) and Tesla Model S (2,099). The Renault Kangoo Z.E. continued as the all-time the leader in the plug-in commercial utility segment with 1,024 units.[9][10][12][13] The following table presents registrations of highway-capable plug-in electric passenger cars by model between January 2011 and September 2016.

2.3. 2017

A total of 19,981 light-duty plug-in vehicles were registered in 2017, consisting of 15,447 plug-in hybrids, 4,217 all-electric cars, and 317 all-electric vans. Passenger car registrations totaled 379,393 units in 2017, of which, the plug-in segment captured a market share of 5.2%. Registrations of super green cars totaled 19,211 units, up from 12,995 in 2016.[14] The market continues to be dominated by plug-in hybrids, representing 74.9% of plug-in car registrations between 2011 and 2017.[9][10][12][13][14]

The top selling model in 2017 was the Volkswagen Passat GTE plug-in hybrid with 4,624 units registered, followed by the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV with 2,452 units, Kia Optima PHEV with 1,534, the Volvo V60 N PHEV with 1,239, and the Nissan Leaf with 836 units.[14] (As of December 2017), the Outlander PHEV continues to rank as the all-time top selling plug-in electric car with 9,957 units registered.[17]

2.4. Registrations by Model

Registration of highway-capable plug-in electric passenger cars by model in Sweden between 2011 and September 2016[9][10][11][12][18]
Model Total
Registered
Market
share(1)
CYTD 3Q
2016
2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV 6,781 26.9% 1,094 3,302 2,289 96    
Volkswagen Passat GTE 3,156 12.5% 2,885 271        
Volvo V60 PHEV 2,907 11.5% 907 612 745 601 42  
Nissan Leaf 2,349 9.3% 624 841 438 317 129  
Tesla Model S 1,882 7.5% 620 996 266      
Toyota Prius PHV 1,262 5.0% 45 132 210 376 499  
BMW i3 Total 951 3.8% 351 379 210 11    
REx 678 2.7% 261 275 132 10    
BEV 273 1.1% 90 104 78 1    
Renault Zoe 874 3.5% 292 378 204      
Volvo XC90 T8 857 3.4% 692 165        
Volkswagen Golf GTE 725 2.9% 324 401        
Volkswagen e-Up! 491 1.9% 95 157 199 40    
Audi A3 e-tron 478 1.9% 115 349 14      
BMW 330e iPerformance 440 1.7% 440          
Volkswagen e-Golf 395 1.6% 100 278 17      
Volvo C30 Electric 198 0.8% 0 0 16 46 88 48
BMW X5 xDrive40e 169 0.7% 169          
Nissan e-NV200 (passenger van) 167 0.7% 36 131        
Mercedes-Benz C 350 e 157 0.6% 86 71        
BMW 225xe Active Tourer 152 0.6% 152          
Tesla Model X 139 0.6% 139          
Opel Ampera 147 0.6% 0 16 22 21 88  
Mitsubishi i MiEV 101 0.4% 3 0 6 12 9 71
Kia Soul EV 78 0.3% 26 50 2      
Citroën C-Zero 71 0.3% 0 0 4 7 29 31
BMW i8 51 0.2% 20 25 6      
Chevrolet Volt 40 0.2% 0 0 0 7 33  
Peugeot iOn 39 0.2% 0 0 2 0 9 28
Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive 38 0.15% 14 24        
Audi Q7 e-tron 32 0.13% 32          
Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid 22 0.09% 4 6 10 2    
Fisker Karma 21 0.08% 0 0 0 2 19  
Ford Focus Electric 9 0.04% 0 3 2 4    
Porsche 918 Spyder 6 0.02% 1 1 4      
Saab 9-3 ePower 6 0.02% 2 0 4      
BMW 740e iPerformance 6 0.02% 6          
Volkswagen XL1 2 0.01% 2          
Smart electric drive 2 0.01% 0 0 0 0 2  
                   
Total plug-in passenger car registrations 25,207(2) 100% 9,276(2) 8,588(2) 4,671(2) 1,547(2) 947 178
Notes: (1) Market share as percentage of the 25,207 plug-in electric passenger cars registered in Sweden between 2011 and September 2016.
The number of super clean cars during the same period is 24,983 units, excluding fuel cell vehicle registrations.
(2) According to the official Swedish definition of super clean cars (CO
2
emissions of up to 50 g/km), the Fisker Karma, the two Porsche plug-in models,
the Panamera S E-Hybrid and the 918 Spyder, and two BMW models, the X5 xDrive40e and 740e iPerformance, are not classified as super clean cars,
instead they are accounted for as conventional hybrids.

References

  1. Desk, Lifestyle (2011-09-08). "Sweden Follows Suit with Electric Car Subsidy". The Global Herald. Archived from the original on 17 October 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20111017103803/http://theglobalherald.com/sweden-follows-suit-with-electric-car-subsidy/24444/. Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  2. "Overview of Purchase and Tax Incentives for Electric Vehicles in the EU". European Automobile Manufacturers Association. 2011-03-14. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. https://web.archive.org/web/20110927060852/http://www.acea.be/images/uploads/files/20110330_EV_tax_overview.pdf. Retrieved 2011-07-31. 
  3. Bil Sweden (2014-08-01). "Fjärde högsta julisiffran någonsin för nya bilar" (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. http://www.bilsweden.se/statistik/nyregistreringar_per_manad_1/nyregistreringar-2014/nyregistreringar-juli-2014. Retrieved 2014-09-01.  A total of 5,209 super clean cars have been registered in Sweden since 2011. Super clean cars are those with carbon dioxide emissions of up to 50 g/km (two Porsche plug-in models, the Panamera S E-Hybrid and the 918 Spyder are not accounted as super clean cars, instead they are accounted with conventional hybrids). In 2011 there were 181 super clean vehicles registered, 928 in 2012, 1,546 in 2013 and 2,554 were registered during the first seven months of 2014.
  4. Lasse Swärd (2014-08-01). "Supermiljöbilspremien är slut" (in Swedish). Dagens Nyheter. http://www.dn.se/ekonomi/supermiljobilspremien-ar-slut/. Retrieved 2014-09-01. 
  5. "Fjärde högsta julisiffran någonsin för nya bilar" (in Swedish). Joomla. August 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-09-03. https://web.archive.org/web/20140903070211/http://avenytv.se.hemsida.eu/bilsweden/index.php/statistik/157-fjarde-hogsta-julisiffran-nagonsin-for-nya-bilar. Retrieved 2014-09-01. 
  6. Bil Sweden (2015-10-02). "Urstark bilmarknad under 2014" (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. http://www.bilsweden.se/publikationer/pressmeddelanden/urstark-bilmarknad-under-2014. Retrieved 2015-02-22.  A total of 4,656 super clean cars and 282 all-electric vans were registered in Sweden in 2014. Super clean cars are those with carbon dioxide emissions of up to 50 g/km (two Porsche plug-in models, the Panamera S E-Hybrid and the 918 Spyder are not accounted as super clean cars, instead they are accounted with conventional hybrids). In 2011 there were 181 plug-in electric vehicles registered, 928 in 2012, 1,546 in 2013 and 4,656 super clean cars were registered during 2014. Since the introduction of the super clean car rebate in January 2012 until December 2014, a total of 7,130 super clean cars have been registered.
  7. Bil Sweden (2016). "Stimulanser för miljöbilar" (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. http://www.bilsweden.se/fordon-i-samhallet/miljo/e10/stimulanser-for-miljobilar. Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  8. "Fossil-free transport and travel: The Government’s work to reduce the impact of transport on the climate". Government Offices of Sweden. 2016-05-25. http://www.government.se/government-policy/environment/fossil-free-transport-and-travel-the-governments-work-to-reduce-the-impact-of-transport-on-the-climate/. Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  9. Bil Sweden (2016-01-04). "Nyregistreringar december 2015 def" (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. http://www.bilsweden.se/statistik/arkiv-nyregistrering-per-manad-2015/nyregistreringar-december-2015-def. Retrieved 2016-04-15.  Download the pdf file "Nyregistreringar december 2015 def" (PressRel1512_def.pdf) See table: Nyregistrerade miljöpersonbilar december 2015. A total of 5,625 plug-in hybrids, 2,962 all-electric cars and 321 all-electric vans were registered in 2015, for a total of 8,908 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles. Passenger car registrations totaled 345,108 units in 2015. Figures for 2014 were revised.
  10. Bil Sweden (2015-01-02). "Nyregistreringar december 2014 (prel)" (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. http://www.bilsweden.se/statistik/arkiv-nyregistrering_per_manad_2014/nyregistreringar-december-2014-(prel). Retrieved 2015-01-03.  Download file "Nyregistreringar december 2014 (prel)" see tables: "Nyregistrerade supermiljöbilar december 2014" with summary of plug-in passenger car registrations by model for 2013 (revised) and 2014; table "Nyregistrerade eldrivna lätta lastbilar (högst 3,5 ton) per modell:" for plug-in utility vans registrations for the same two years; and table "Nyregistrerade miljöbilar per typ jan-dec 2014" for the distribution of registrations by alternative fuels. A total of 303,866 new passenger vehicles were registered in 2014, and a total of 4,656 super clean cars, resulting in a PEV market share of 1.53% of new car sales.
  11. Bil Sweden (2014-01-02). "Nyregistreringar december 2013 prel" (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. http://www.bilsweden.se/statistik/arkiv-nyregistrering_per_manad_2013/nyregistreringar-december-2013-prel. Retrieved 2014-01-03.  Download file "Nyregistreringar december 2013 prel.pdf" see table "NYREGISTRERADE SUPERMILJÖBILAR DECEMBER 2013" with summary of PEV sales by model for 2013 and 2012.
  12. "2012 (Full Year) Sweden: Best-Selling Electric Cars & Plug-In Hybrid Models". BestSellingCars.com. 2013-01-02. http://www.best-selling-cars.com/hybrid/2012-full-year-sweden-best-selling-electric-cars-plug-in-hybrid-models/. Retrieved 2014-01-03. 
  13. Bil Sweden (2016-01-04). "Nyregistreringar december 2016 def" (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. http://www.bilsweden.se/statistik/arkiv-nyregistrering-per-manad-2016/nyregistreringar-december-2016-(def). Retrieved 2016-04-15.  Download the pdf file "Nyregistreringar december 2016 def" (PressRel1612_DEF.pdf) See table: Nyregistrerade miljöpersonbilar december 2016 (def). A total of 10,257 plug-in hybrids, 2,924 all-electric cars and 273 all-electric vans were registered in 2016, for a total of 13,454 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles. Passenger car registrations totaled 372,318 units in 2016. Registrations of super green cars totaled 12,995 units, up from 8,582 in 2015. Figures for 2015 were revised.
  14. Bil Sweden (2018-01-08). "Definitiva nyregistreringar under 2017" (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. http://www.bilsweden.se/statistik/nyregistreringar_per_manad_1/nyregistreringar-2017/definitiva-nyregistreringar-under-2017. Retrieved 2018-01-31.  Download the pdf file "PressRel1712_DEF.pdf" See tables: "Nyregistrerade supermiljöbilar december 2017", "Nyregistrerade miljöbilar per typ december 2017" and "Nyregistrerade eldrivna lätta lastbilar (högst 3,5 ton) per modell" - A total of 19,981 light-duty plug-in vehicles were registered in 2017, consisting of 15,447 plug-in hybrids, 4,217 all-electric cars, and 317 all-electric vans. Passenger car registrations totaled 379,393 units in 2017, of which, the plug-in segment captured a market share of 5.2%. Registrations of super green cars totaled 19,211 units, up from 12,995 in 2016. Table "Nyregistrerade miljöbilar per typ december 2017" reports 2017 figures that do not add up with detailed count in table "Nyregistrerade miljöpersonbilar december 2017" so, plug-in cars figures were taken from the latter."
  15. Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-17). "Top 10 Plug-in Vehicle Adopting Countries of 2016". HybridCars.com. http://www.hybridcars.com/top-10-plug-in-vehicle-adopting-countries-of-2016/. 
  16. Bil Sweden (2016-10-21). "Supermiljöbilar ökat 79 procent hittills i år" (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. http://www.bilsweden.se/publikationer/pressmeddelanden/supermiljobilar-okat-79-procent-hittills-i-ar. Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  17. "Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV clears 100,000 sales milestone in Europe". JATO Dynamics (Press release). Tokyo: Mitsubishi Motors. 2018-01-29. Retrieved 2018-02-01. http://www.mitsubishi-motors.com/en/newsrelease/2018/detail1099.html
  18. Bil Sweden (2016-10-03). "Nyregistreringar september 2016" (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. http://www.bilsweden.se/statistik/arkiv-nyregistrering-per-manad-2016/nyregistreringar-september-2016. Retrieved 2016-10-16.  Download the pdf file "Nyregistreringar september 2016" (PressRel1609.pdf) See table: Nyregistrerade miljöpersonbilar per typ september 2016. A total of 9,467 units were registered during the first three quarters of 2016, consisting of 7,228 plug-in hybrids, 2,041 all-electric cars, and 198 all-electric vans. Super clean car registrations totaled 9,106 units.
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